The Amman Message (Arabic: ?) is a statement calling for tolerance and unity in the Muslim world that was issued on 9 November 2004 (27th of Ramadan 1425 AH) by King Abdullah II bin Al-Hussein of Jordan. Subsequently, a three-point ruling was issued by 200 Islamic scholars from over 50 countries, focusing on issues of defining who is a Muslim, excommunication from Islam (takfir), and principles related to delivering religious opinions (fat?wa).
The Amman Message was delivered in Amman, Jordan, as a Ramadan sermon by Chief Justice Sheikh Iz-al-Din al-Tamimi in the presence of King Abdullah II and a number of Muslim scholars. According to a report issued by the International Crisis Group, "The sermon stressed the need to re-emphasise Islam's core values of compassion, mutual respect, tolerance, acceptance and freedom of religion." The next year, in July 2005, an Islamic convention brought together 200 Muslim scholars from over 50 countries who issued a three-point declaration (later known as 'Three Points of the Amman Message'). This declaration focused on:
Explaining why the message was issued, King Abdullah stated: "[W]e felt that the Islamic message of tolerance was being subjected to a fierce and unjust attack from some in the West who do not understand Islam's essence, and others who claim to be associated with Islam and hide behind Islam to commit irresponsible deeds."
Following are conferences and declarations:
This section lacks proper citation[not specific enough to verify]and has an unclear citation style. (June 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
Following is the list of some of the many individuals and organizations who have issued fatwas and endorsements in relation to the Amman Message[clarification needed] (as per official website listing):
|Sr No||Name||Title||Country||Sect||Fiqh||Endorsing Fatwa||Website||Image|
|1||Muhammad Sayyid Tantawy||Grand Imam of Al-Azhar University||Egypt||Sunni||Shafi?i||Fatwa||Official Website|
|2||Ali Gomaa||Grand Mufti of Egypt||Egypt||Sunni||Shafi?i||Fatwa|||
|3||Ali Bardako?lu||President of The Grand Council for Religious Affairs, Turkey||Turkey||Sunni||Hanafi||Fatwa||Official Website|
|4||Ahmed Kuftaro||Grand Mufti of Syria||Syria||Sunni||Shafi?i||Fatwa||Official Website|
|5||Said Abd Al-Hafiz Al-Hijjawi||Grand Mufti of Jordan||Jordan||Sunni||Shafi?i||Fatwa||-|
|6||Nuh Ha Mim Keller||Islamic Scholar of Jordan||Jordan||Sunni||Shafi?i||Fatwa||-|
|7||Yusuf al-Qaradawi||Director of the Sunna and Sira Council|| Egypt
|8||Abdullah bin Bayyah||Vice President of the International Union of Muslim Scholars||Mauritania||Sunni||Maliki||Fatwa||Official Website|
|9||Muhammad Taqi Usmani||Vice President of the Islamic Fiqh Academy||Pakistan||Sunni||Hanafi||Fatwa||-|
|10||Sayyid Shaykh Nazim Al-Haqqani||Deceased leader of the Naqshbandi Haqqani Sufi Order||Northern Cyprus||Sunni||Hanafi||-||Official Website|
|11||Abdullah al-Harari||Founder of the Al-Ahbash||Ethiopia||Sunni||Shafi?i||Fatwa||Official Website|
|12||Muhammad Tahir ul-Qadri||Founding Leader of Minhaj-ul-Quran International, Chief Executive of Minhaj International University||Pakistan||Sunni||Hanafi||-||Official Website|
|13||Habib Ali al-Jifri||Founding Leader of Tabah Foundation in Abu Dhabi, Member of Royal Aal al-Bayt Institute for Islamic Thought in Amman||Yemen||Sunni||Shafi?i||-||Official Website|
|14||Habib Umar bin Hafiz||Founding Leader and the dean of Dar al-Mustafa in Tarim, Yemen||Yemen||Sunni||Shafi?i||-||Official Website|
|15||Ali Hosseini Khamenei||Grand Ayatollah, Supreme Leader of Iran||Iran||Shia||Jafari||Fatwa||Official Website|
|16||Muhammad Saeed al-Hakim||Grand Ayatollah||Iraq||Shia||Jafari||Fatwa||Official Website|
|17||Mohammad Ishaq Al-Fayyad||Grand Ayatollah||Iraq||Shia||Jafari||Fatwa||Official Website|
|18||Basheer Hussain Najafi||Grand Ayatollah||Iraq||Shia||Jafari||Fatwa||Official Website|
|19||Hussein Esmaeel al-Sadr||Grand Ayatollah||Iraq||Shia||Jafari||Fatwa||Official Website|
|20||Fazel Lankarani||Grand Ayatollah||Iran||Shia||Jafari||Fatwa||Official Website|
|21||Muhammad Ali Al-Taskhiri||Grand Ayatollah
General Secretary of Forum for Proximity of the Islamic Schools of Jurisprudence
|22||Mohammad Hussein Fadlallah||Grand Ayatollah||Lebanon||Shia||Jafari||Fatwa||Official Website|
|23||Muhammad bin Muhammad Ismail Al-Mansur
Humud bin Abbas Al-Mu'ayyad
|24||Ibrahim bin Muhammad Al-Wazir||General Secretary, The Islamic Unification and Works Movement, Yemen||Yemen||Shia||Zaidiyyah||Fatwa||Official Website|
|25||Ahmad bin Hamad Al-Khalili||Mufti of the Sultanate of Oman||Oman||Ibadi||-||Fatwa||Official website|
|26||Ali Hosseini Sistani||Grand Ayatollah||Iraq||Shia||Jafari||Fatwa||Official Website|
|27||Kar?m al-Hussayn?||The ?g? Kh?n IV, Imam of the Shia Imami Nizari Ismailis||Portugal||Shia||Ismaili (Nizari Ismaili branch)||Fatwa||Official Website|
Tony Blair, while Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, gave a speech in which he praised the Amman message and the gathering of numerous scholars, commenting, "This was a clear message that Islam is not a monolithic faith, but one made up of a rich pattern of diversity, albeit all flowing from the same fount."
Despite the ecumenical nature of the Amman Message, since it was issued there has been a marked decline in Shia-Sunni relations as a result of increased sectarian conflict in such countries as Iraq, Syria, Lebanon, Bahrain and Yemen.
Suhail Nakhouda, writing in the Amman-based Islamica, stated that the Amman message did little to effectively address ongoing problems: "There is no water, no pavements; the economy is bad, and many young people are out of work. Peoples' lives, as well as the images they see, stay the same." Nakhouda stated that King Abdullah's message was likely to be dampened by his lifestyle, which he claims is the subject of criticism.