American Men and Women of Science (38th edition, published 2020) is a biographical reference work on leading scientists in the United States and Canada, published as a series of books and online by Gale. The first edition was published began in 1906, originally named American Men of Science, and broadened its scope and title to include women in 1971.
American Men and Women of Science profiles living persons in the physical and biological fields, as well as public health scientists, engineers, mathematicians, statisticians, and computer scientists. According to the publisher, those included met the following criteria: (1) Distinguished achievement, by reason of experience, training or accomplishment, including contributions to literature, coupled with continuing activity in scientific work; or (2) Research activity of high quality in science as evidenced by publication in reputable scientific journals; or, (3) for those whose work cannot be published due to governmental or industrial security, research activity of high quality in science as evidenced by the judgment of the individual's peers; or (4) Attainment of a position of substantial responsibility requiring scientific training and experience.
Booklist described American Men and Women of Science as the "Cadillac of scientific biography".WorldTrade wrote that American Men and Women of Science "... remains without peer as a chronicle of scientific endeavor and achievement in the United States and Canada." 
Scientists who are not citizens of the United States or Canada are included if a significant portion of their work was performed in North America.
It was first compiled as American Men of Science by James McKeen Cattell in 1906. As of 2020, the book has published 38 editions in its 114-year history. In 1971, its name was changed from American Men of Science to American Men and Women of Science.
The most recent project editor for the 38th edition published in 2020 was Katherine H. Nemeh. Recent Advisory Board members include James E. Bobick, Former Department Head, Science and Technology Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh K. Lee Lerner, Science Correspondent and Senior Commissioning Editor, LMG (London, Paris, Cambridge); and David A. Tyckoson, Associate Dean, Henry Madden Library, California State University, Fresno. Lerner, also a member of the National Press Club of Washington, D.C.. has served on the AMWS Advisory Board since 2003.
Recent editions have made strides toward greater inclusion and diversity. The 18 volumes of the 38th edition of AMWS feature concise biographical profiles with information on the education, professional experience, research activities, honors and awards, as well as contact information for the foremost minds in a vast array of scientific specialties. All listees in American Men & Women of Science are indexed using the National Science Foundation 192 Taxonomy of Degrees and Employment Specialties categories.