Alveolar Nasal
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Alveolar Nasal
Alveolar nasal
n
IPA Number116
Encoding
Entity (decimal)n
Unicode (hex)U+006E
X-SAMPAn
Braille? (braille pattern dots-1345)
Audio sample

The alveolar nasal is a type of consonantal sound used in numerous spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar nasals is ⟨n⟩, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is n.

The vast majority of languages have either an alveolar or dental nasal. There are a few languages that lack either sound but have [m] (e.g. colloquial Samoan). There are some languages (e.g. Rotokas) that lack both [m] and [n].

True dental consonants are relatively uncommon. In the Romance, Dravidian, and Australian languages, n is often called "dental" in the literature. However, the rearmost contact (which is what gives a consonant its distinctive sound) is actually alveolar or denti-alveolar. The difference between the Romance languages and English is not so much where the tongue contacts the roof of the mouth, as which part of the tongue makes the contact. In English it is the tip of the tongue (such sounds are termed apical), whereas in the Romance languages it is the flat of the tongue just above the tip (such sounds are called laminal).

However, there are languages with true apical (or less commonly laminal) dental n. It is found in the Mapuche language of South America, where it is actually interdental. A true dental generally occurs allophonically before /?/ in languages which have it, as in English tenth. Similarly, a denti-alveolar allophone will occur in languages which have denti-alveolar stops, as in Spanish cinta.

Some languages contrast laminal denti-alveolar and apical alveolar nasals. For example, in the Malayalam pronunciation of N?r?yanan, the first n is dental, the second is retroflex, and the third alveolar.

A postalveolar nasal occurs in a number of Australian Aboriginal languages, including Djeebbana and Jingulu.[1]

Features

Features of the alveolar nasal:

  • Its manner of articulation is occlusive, which means it is produced by obstructing airflow in the vocal tract. Because the consonant is also nasal, the blocked airflow is redirected through the nose.
  • There are four specific variants of [n]:
    • Dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the upper teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Denti-alveolar, which means it is articulated with the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, and the tip of the tongue behind upper teeth.
    • Alveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
    • Postalveolar, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation.
  • It is a nasal consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the nose, either exclusively (nasal stops) or in addition to through the mouth.
  • It is a central consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream along the center of the tongue, rather than to the sides.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence

Dental or denti-alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Belarusian[2] ? ['n?ov?] 'new' Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Bulgarian[3] ?? ['n?a] 'woman' Laminal denti-alveolar.
Catalan[4] cantar [k?n?'t?ä] 'to sing' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /n/ before /t, d/.[4] See Catalan phonology
Dutch Belgian nicht [nxt?] 'niece' Laminal denti-alveolar, sometimes simply alveolar. See Dutch phonology
English month [m?n] 'month' Interdental. Allophone of /n/ before /?, ð/.
Esperanto Esperanto [espe'ranto] 'Who hopes' See Esperanto phonology
French[5] connexion [k?nksj] 'connection' Laminal denti-alveolar, sometimes simply alveolar. See French phonology
Greek[6] ??/ánthos ['?no?s] 'flower' Interdental. Allophone of /n/. See Modern Greek phonology
Hindustani ? / [nja:] 'new' See Hindi-Urdu phonology
Hungarian[7] nagyi ['ni] 'grandma' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Hungarian phonology
Italian[8][9] cantare [kän?'t?ä:re] 'to sing' Laminal denti-alveolar.[9] Allophone of /n/ before /t, d, s, z, t?s, d?z/.[8][9] See Italian phonology
Kashubian[10] [example needed] Laminal denti-alveolar.
Kazakh ??/ko'rindi [koen?d] 'it seemed' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /n/ before /t, d/.
Kyrgyz ? [be?d?e?lin?d?e?] 'in the authority' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /n/ before /t, d/.
Latvian[11] nakts [n?äkt?s?] 'night' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Latvian phonology
Macedonian[12] ? [n?o?s?] 'nose' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Macedonian phonology
Malayalam[13] [p?n?n?i] 'pig' Interdental for some speakers.
Mapudungun[14] ?a [m'n] 'male cousin on father's side' Interdental.[14]
Marathi ?? [nk] 'fingernail' See Marathi phonology
Polish[15] nos [ns?] 'nose' Laminal denti-alveolar. Alveolar before /t, d/. See Polish phonology
Portuguese General[16][17] narina [n'?in] 'nostril' Laminal denti-alveolar. May nasalize preceding vowel (especially if stressed). Has as allophone, forming from clusters with , and before /i/.
Vernacular Paulista[18][19] percebendo [pese?'b?n?u] 'perceiving' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of after a stressed nasal vowel in more stigmatized varieties. See Portuguese phonology
Romanian[20] alun? [ä'lun] 'hazelnut' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Romanian phonology
Russian ? [n?a?] 'our' Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with palatalized form. See Russian phonology
Serbo-Croatian ?? / student [s?td?e?n?t?] 'student' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /n/ before /t, d, s, z, t?s/. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Slovene amarant [ama'?a:n?t?] 'amaranth' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /n/ before /t, d, s, z, t?s/. See Slovene phonology
Spanish Most dialects cantar [kän?'t?är] 'to sing' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /n/ before /t, d/. See Spanish phonology
Ukrainian[21] ? [n] 'our' Laminal denti-alveolar, contrasts with palatalized form. See Ukrainian phonology
Uzbek[22] [example needed] Laminal denti-alveolar.

Alveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Adyghe ??? [nafna] 'light'
Arabic Standard [na:r] 'fire' See Arabic phonology
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic nora [no?a:] 'mirror'
Basque ni [ni] 'I'
Bengali [na:k] 'nose' See Bengali phonology
Catalan[23] nou ['n?w] 'new' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Mandarin ?/nán [nan] 'difficult' See Mandarin phonology
Czech na [na] 'on' See Czech phonology
Dutch[24] nacht [n?xt] 'night' See Dutch phonology
English nice 'nice' See English phonology
Filipino nipis [nipis] 'thin' Filipino phonology
Finnish annan ['?n:?n] 'I give' See Finnish phonology
Georgian[25] ?? ['k'?ni] 'skin'
Greek ?/náma ['nama] 'communion wine' See Modern Greek phonology
Gujarati ? [n?hi] 'no' See Gujarati phonology
Hawaiian[26] naka [naka] 'to shake' See Hawaiian phonology
Hebrew ?? [navon] 'wise' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Italian[27] nano ['nä:no] 'dwarf' See Italian phonology
Japanese[28] /hantai [hantai] 'opposite' See Japanese phonology
Korean ?/na [na] 'I' See Korean phonology
Kyrgyz[29] ??? [ba'nan] 'banana'
Malay nasi [näsi] 'cooked rice'
Malayalam[13] [k?nni] 'virgin'
Maltese lenbuba [lenbu'ba] 'truncheon'
Mapudungun[14] na [m'n] 'enough'
Ngwe Mmockngie dialect [nø] 'sun'
Persian [nun] 'bread'
Pirahã gíxai [ní'?àì?] 'you'
Polish[15] poncz ['p?n?t] 'punch' Allophone of /n/ (which is normally laminal denti-alveolar ) before /t, d/. See Polish phonology
Punjabi [n?k:] 'nose'
Slovak na [nä] 'on'
Slovene[30] novice [n?'?ì:ts] 'news'
Spanish[31] nada ['näð?ä] 'nothing' See Spanish phonology
Swahili ndizi [n?dizi] 'banana'
Turkish neden [ne?d?æn] 'reason' See Turkish phonology
Vietnamese[32] b?n ?i [?an? ?i] 'you're going' Occurs only before alveolar consonants. See Vietnamese phonology
Welsh nain [nain] 'grandmother' See Welsh phonology
Western Apache non 'cache'
West Frisian nekke ['n?k?] 'neck'
Yi ?/na [na? ] 'hurt'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[33] nan [nan] 'lady' contrasts with a fortis alveolar nasal that is not represented in the orthography.

Postalveolar

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Catalan[4] panxa ['pän][34] 'belly' Allophone of /n/ before /?, ?, t, d/, may be alveolo-palatal instead.[4] See Catalan phonology
Djeebbana[35] barnmarramarlón?a [ban?maramaln?a] 'they two swam' Result of rhotic plus alveolar [n].[35]
English Australian[36] enrol ['o] 'enrol' Allophone of /n/ before /r/.[36] See Australian English phonology
Italian[37] angelo ['än:delo] 'angel' Palatalized laminal; allophone of /n/ before /?, t, d/.[37] See Italian phonology

Variable

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Scottish[38] nice [n?is] 'nice'

Laminal denti-alveolar for some speakers, alveolar for other speakers.[38][39]

Welsh[39]
German Standard[40] Lanze ['lant?s?] 'lance' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar, laminal alveolar and apical alveolar.[40] See Standard German phonology
Norwegian Urban East[41] mann [m?n?:] 'man' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and laminal alveolar.[41] See Norwegian phonology
Swedish Central Standard[42] nu [n:] 'now' Varies between laminal denti-alveolar and alveolar, with the former being predominant.[42] See Swedish phonology

See also

Notes

  1. ^ Chadwick, Neil J. (1975). A descriptive study of the Djingili language. Australian Institute of Aboriginal Studies.
  2. ^ Padluzhny (1989), pp. 49-50.
  3. ^ Klagstad Jr. (1958), p. 46.
  4. ^ a b c d Rafel (1999), p. 14.
  5. ^ Fougeron & Smith (1993), p. 73.
  6. ^ Arvaniti (2007), p. 15.
  7. ^ Siptár & Törkenczy (2000), pp. 75-76.
  8. ^ a b Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005), p. 133.
  9. ^ a b c Canepari (1992), p. 58.
  10. ^ Jerzy Treder. "Fonetyka i fonologia". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04.
  11. ^ Nau (1998), p. 6.
  12. ^ Lunt (1952), p. 1.
  13. ^ a b Ladefoged (2005), p. 165.
  14. ^ a b c Sadowsky et al. (2013), pp. 88-89.
  15. ^ a b Roc?awski (1976), p. 136.
  16. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995), p. 91.
  17. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004), p. 230.
  18. ^ (in Portuguese) Unesp's digital collection - The deleting of /d/ in the morpheme of the gerund in São José do Rio Preto's accent Archived 2012-12-31 at Archive.today
  19. ^ (in Portuguese) The deletting of /d/ in the morpheme of the gerund in São José do Rio Preto's accent - PDF
  20. ^ Chi?oran (2001), p. 10.
  21. ^ Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995), p. 10.
  22. ^ Sjoberg (1963), p. 12.
  23. ^ Carbonell & Llisterri (1992), p. 53.
  24. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 45.
  25. ^ Shosted & Chikovani (2006), p. 255.
  26. ^ Ladefoged (2005), p. 139.
  27. ^ Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004), p. 117.
  28. ^ Okada (1999), p. 117.
  29. ^ Kara (2003), p. 11.
  30. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980), p. 21.
  31. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003), p. 255.
  32. ^ Thompson (1959), pp. 458-461.
  33. ^ Merrill (2008), p. 108.
  34. ^ Valencian pronunciation: ['pän?tä]. What are transcribed /?, ?, t, d/ in Catalan are actually alveolo-palatal sibilants [?, ?, t, d].
  35. ^ a b Dixon (2002), p. 585.
  36. ^ a b Mannell, Cox & Harrington (2009).
  37. ^ a b Canepari (1992), pp. 58-59.
  38. ^ a b Scobbie, Gordeeva & Matthews (2006), p. 4.
  39. ^ a b Wells (1982), p. 388.
  40. ^ a b Mangold (2005), p. 49.
  41. ^ a b Kristoffersen (2000), p. 22.
  42. ^ a b Riad (2014), p. 46.

References

External links


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