Alveolar Approximant
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Alveolar Approximant
Voiced alveolar approximant
IPA Number151
Entity (decimal)ɹ
Unicode (hex)U+0279
X-SAMPAr\ or D_r_o
Braille? (braille pattern dots-3456)
Audio sample
Voiced postalveolar approximant
Audio sample

The voiced alveolar approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents the alveolar and postalveolar approximants is ⟨?⟩, a lowercase letter r rotated 180 degrees. The equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is r\.

The most common sound represented by the letter r in English is the voiced postalveolar approximant, pronounced a little more back and transcribed more precisely in IPA as ⟨⟩, but ⟨?⟩ is often used for convenience in its place. For further ease of typesetting, English phonemic transcriptions might use the symbol ⟨r⟩ even though this symbol represents the alveolar trill in phonetic transcription.


Features of the voiced alveolar approximant:



Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian gjelbër ['lb] 'green'
Armenian Classical ?? [su?t?] 'coffee'
Assamese Standard ? (rônga) [a] 'red'
Assyrian Neo-Aramaic Alqosh dialect [b?] 'many' Corresponds to in most other Assyrian dialects.
Tyari dialect
Burmese[1][2] ? [tes?à?] 'animal' Occurs only in loanwords, mostly from Pali or English
Chukchi[] ? [?i?ek] 'two'
Dahalo[3] [káði] 'work' Apical. It is a common intervocalic allophone of /d?/, and may be a weak fricative or simply a plosive instead.[4]
Danish Standard[5][6][7] ved [ve?ð] 'at' Velarized and laminal; allophone of /d/ in the syllable coda.[5][6][7] For a minority of speakers, it may be a non-sibilant fricative instead.[7] See Danish phonology.
Dutch Central Netherlandic door [do:?] 'through' Allophone of /r/ in the syllable coda for some speakers. See Dutch phonology.
Western Netherlandic
Leiden rat [?at] 'rat' Corresponds to /r/ in other dialects.
Faroese róður [uw] 'rudder' See Faroese phonology.
German Standard Austrian[8] Rebe ['?e:b?] 'vine' The most common alveolar realization of /r/, with a trill being the alternative realization. The more common uvular realizations are a fricative (either voiced or voiceless ) and, more rarely, a trill .[8] See Standard German phonology.
Siegerland[9] ['?e:b?] Most other dialects use a voiced uvular fricative or a uvular trill . See Standard German phonology.
Upper Lusatian
Greek[11] ?? ra ['m] 'day' Allophone of in rapid or casual speech and between vowels. See Modern Greek phonology.
Icelandic bróðir ['prou?ðir] 'brother' Usually apical. See Icelandic phonology.
Korean ?? / balsa [p.s] 'shoot' Allophone of /?/ before /s/
Limburgish Montfortian dialect[12] maintenant ['mæ?:n?ðn:?] 'now'
Persian [f?:?'si:] 'Persian' Allophone of /?/ before /d/, /l/, /s/, /?/, /t/, /z/, and /?/. See Persian phonology.
Portuguese Multiple Brazilian dialects, mostly inland Centro-Sul[13] amor [a'mo] 'love' Allophone of /? ~ ?/ in the syllable coda. Velarized, may also be retroflex, post-alveolar and/or rhotic vowel. See Portuguese phonology.
General Brazilian[14] marketing ['make?t?] 'marketing' Appears in loanwords, even by speakers who do not use it as an allophone of /? ~ ?/. Generally not as onset or final e.g. trailer ['t?ejle].
Some prestigious variants[15] permitir [pemi't?i] 'to allow' Usually deleted in verb infinitives in more colloquial registers. Might be substituted for or guttural R instead.
Spanish Andalusian[16] doscientos [do'?je?n?t?o?s] 'two hundred' Allophone of /s/ before [?]. See Spanish phonology.
Belizean invierno [im'bje?no] 'winter' Possible realization of /r/ in the syllable coda.
Puerto Rican
Costa Rican hierro ['je?o] 'iron' Corresponding to in other dialects.
Swedish Central Standard[17] starkast ['s?t?ä?:käs?t?] 'strongest' Allophone of /r/. Some speakers have ( when geminated) in all positions. See Swedish phonology.
Tagalog parang [pa?a?] 'like-' Allophone of the more traditional [? ~ r] used by the more English-literate younger speakers.
Vietnamese Saigon[18] ra [?a] 'go out' In free variation with , and . See Vietnamese phonology.
Zapotec Tilquiapan[19] rd? [?d] 'pass' Allophone of /?/ before consonants.


Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
English Australian red [ed] 'red' Often labialized. May also be a labialized retroflex approximant. For convenience it is often transcribed ⟨r⟩. See Australian English phonology, English phonology and Rhoticity in English.
Most American dialects[20]
Received Pronunciation
Igbo[21] rí [í] 'eat'
Maltese Some dialects[22] malajr [m?'l?j] 'quickly' Corresponds to [? ~ r] in other dialects.[22]
Shipibo[23] roro ['doo?] 'to break into pieces' Pre-stopped. Possible word-initial realization of /r/.[23]
Thai Bangkok ? / Krungthep Bangkok Allophone with the alveolar approximant . Contrast with standard form which pronounce alveolar trill .

As an allophone of other rhotic sounds, [?] occurs in Edo, Fula, Murinh-patha, and Palauan.[24]

See also



  • Arvaniti, Amalia (2007), "Greek Phonetics: The State of the Art" (PDF), Journal of Greek Linguistics, 8: 97-208, doi:10.1075/jgl.8.08arv, archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-11
  • Bakkes, Pierre (2007), Mofers Waordebook (in Dutch), ISBN 978-90-9022294-3
  • Basbøll, Hans (2005), The Phonology of Danish, ISBN 0-19-824268-9
  • Boyce, S.; Espy-Wilson, C. (1997), "Coarticulatory stability in American English /r/", Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 101 (6): 3741-3753, Bibcode:1997ASAJ..101.3741B, doi:10.1121/1.418333, PMID 9193061
  • Browman, C.P.; Goldstein, L. (1995), "Gestural syllable position in American English", in Bell-Berti, F.; Raphael, L.J. (eds.), Producing Speech: Contemporary Issues: for Katherine Safford Harris, New York: AIP, pp. 9-33
  • Cornyn, William (1944), Outline of Burmese Grammar, Supplement to Language, vol. 20 no. 4, Baltimore: Linguistic Society of America
  • Delattre, P.; Freeman, D.C. (1968), "A dialect study of American R's by x-ray motion picture", Linguistics, 44: 29-68
  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 140-142, ISBN 9780521637510
  • Fougeron, C (1999), "Prosodically conditioned articulatory variation: A Review", UCLA Working Papers in Phonetics, 97, pp. 1-73
  • Grønnum, Nina (2003), "Why are the Danes so hard to understand?", in Jacobsen, Henrik Galberg; Bleses, Dorthe; Madsen, Thomas O.; Thomsen, Pia (eds.), Take Danish - for instance: linguistic studies in honour of Hans Basbøll, presented on the occasion of his 60th birthday, Odense: Syddansk Universitetsforlag, pp. 119-130
  • Hallé, Pierre A.; Best, Catherine T.; Levitt, Andrea (1999), "Phonetic vs. phonological influences on French listeners' perception of American English approximants", Journal of Phonetics, 27 (3): 281-306, doi:10.1006/jpho.1999.0097
  • Ikekeonwu, Clara I. (1999), "Igbo", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 108-110, ISBN 9780521637510
  • Kohler, Klaus (1995), Einführung in die Phonetik des Deutschen, Berlin: Erich Schmidt Verlag
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996). The Sounds of the World's Languages. Oxford: Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-19815-4.
  • Maddieson, Ian; Spaji?, Sini?a; Sands, Bonny; Ladefoged, Peter (1993), "Phonetic structures of Dahalo", in Maddieson, Ian (ed.), UCLA working papers in phonetics: Fieldwork studies of targeted languages, 84, Los Angeles: The UCLA Phonetics Laboratory Group, pp. 25-65
  • Merrill, Elizabeth (2008), "Tilquiapan Zapotec" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 38 (1): 107-114, doi:10.1017/S0025100308003344
  • Moosmüller, Sylvia; Schmid, Carolin; Brandstätter, Julia (2015), "Standard Austrian German", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 45 (3): 339-348, doi:10.1017/S0025100315000055
  • Puech, Gilbert (2013), "Prime constituents of Maltese sounds", in Borg, Albert; Caruana, Sandro; Vella, Alexandra (eds.), Perspectives on Maltese Linguistics, Berlin: Akademie Verlag GmbH, pp. 61-88, ISBN 978-3-05-006275-4
  • Recasens, Daniel (2004), "The effect of syllable position on consonant reduction (evidence from Catalan consonant clusters)", Journal of Phonetics, 32 (3): 435-453, doi:10.1016/j.wocn.2004.02.001
  • Valenzuela, Pilar M.; Márquez Pinedo, Luis; Maddieson, Ian (2001), "Shipibo", Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 281-285, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002109
  • Thompson, Laurence C. (1959), "Saigon Phonemics", Language, Linguistic Society of America, 35 (3): 454-476, doi:10.2307/411232, JSTOR 411232
  • Watkins, Justin (2001), "Illustrations of the IPA: Burmese" (PDF), Journal of the International Phonetic Association, 31 (2): 291-95, doi:10.1017/S0025100301002122
  • Zawadzki, P.A.; Kuehn, D.P. (1980), "A cineradiographic study of static and dynamic aspects of American English /r/", Phonetica, 37 (4): 253-266, doi:10.1159/000259995, PMID 7443796

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