Ali Pasha Rizvanbegovi?
|Vizier of Herzegovina Eyalet|
|Monarch||Mahmud IIAbdulmejid I|
Ustulçe (today Stolac), Ottoman Empire
|Died||20 March 1851 (aged 68)|
Banaluka (today Banja Luka), Ottoman Empire
|Cause of death||Execution|
|Resting place||Ferhat Pasha Mosque, Banja Luka, Bosnia and Herzegovina|
|Battles/wars||Bosnian uprising (1831-32)|
Ali Pasha Rizvanbegovi? (1783 - 20 March 1851;Turkish: Ali R?dvano?lu Pa?a) was a Herzegovinian Ottoman captain (administrator) of Stolac from 1813 to 1833 and the semi-independent ruler (vizier) of the Herzegovina Eyalet from 1833 to 1851. The eyalet had been created specifically for him as a reward for helping to suppress the local Gradaevi? Rebellion against the Ottoman Empire. However, he was deposed and summarily executed when the authorities in Constantinople discovered that he was hatching plans to rule Herzegovina independently of the Porte.
Ali-pa?a Rizvanbegovi? was born in the Begovina neighbourhood of Stolac in 1783. In 1813, being thirty years old, he was appointed as the captain of his native city, a position he would hold until 1833 and which would turn out to have a crucial importance.
Ali Pasha was a heterodox Muslim, belonging to a sect led by certain Shekih Sikirica from Visoko, who found a skull with a few strands of hair, and proclaimed it a saint. Ali Pasha and his sons, as well as some other beys from Bosnia and Herzegovina visited Sikirica once a year for worship, which looked like a "small Kaaba". The local mufti of Mostar considered Sikirica a heretic. Ali Pasha later became a Sufi dervish.
Ali-pa?a Rizvanbegovi? was strongly opposed to the 1831 Bosnian uprising, led by Husein Gradaevi?. He made Stolac a rallying point for the forces loyal to the Ottoman government - in conjunction with fellow loyalist Smail-aga ?engi?, Captain of Gacko, who acted similarly in his own place.
In the early phase of the uprising, Ali-pa?a gave refuge in Stolac to the Ottoman governor Namik-pa?a, who had fled after the rebels' capture of Travnik. A rebel army set out from Sarajevo to attack Stolac, but this was put on hold when the rebels found that Namik-pa?a had left the city.
In the final months of 1831, however, the rebels launched an overall offensive against the loyalist captains, aimed at ending domestic opposition to the uprising and bringing the whole of Herzegovina under rebel rule. Rebel forces led by the captain of Livno, Ibrahim-beg Fidrus, attacked and defeated Sulejman-beg, captain of Ljubu?ki.
That victory placed most of Herzegovina in rebel hands, leaving Stolac isolated and under a rebel siege. Ali-pa?a Rizvanbegovi? conducted well the city's defense. In early March 1832 he received information that the Bosnian rebels' ranks were depleted due to the winter and broke the siege, counterattacking the rebels and dispersing their forces. At the time, a rebel force under the command of Mujaga Zlatar had been sent from Sarajevo with the intention of reinforcing the force besieging Stolac - but was recalled by the rebel leadership on 16 March 1832, after news arrived of an impending major Ottoman offensive.
With the Ottoman armies closing in on Sarajevo in a following months, Ali-pa?a Rizvanbegovi? advanced with his own forces, as did his fellow loyalist Smail-aga ?engi? of Gacko. Their armies arrived on 4 June at Stup, a small locality on the road between Sarajevo and Ilid?a, where a long, intense battle had already been going on between the main Ottoman armies and the rebel army led by Gradaevi? himself.
The Herzegovinian loyalist troops broke through defenses Gradaevi? had set up on his flank and joined the fighting. Overwhelmed by the unexpected attack from behind, the rebel army was forced to retreat into the city of Sarajevo itself, where their leaders decided that further military resistance would be futile. The imperial army entered Sarajevo on 5 June and Gradaevi? went into exile in Austria.
His loyalty to the Ottoman government in the moment of crisis, and his considerable military success in that cause, clearly entitled Ali-pa?a Rizvanbegovi? to a suitable reward. In 1833 Sultan Mahmud II conferred on Ali-pa?a the title of vizier, as well as giving him the choice of which territory he wanted to rule. Ali-pa?a then asked the sultan to separate Herzegovina from Pashaluk of Bosnia, creating the new Pashaluk of Herzegovina and make him its vizier, a wish duly fulfilled by the sultan. Given that Bosnia had just broken out in a mass uprising while a considerable part of Herzegovina remained loyal, the separation - and the rewarding of Herzegovina with a greater amount of autonomy - were an obvious imperial policy. However, though at the time Ali-pa?a hoped to make this position as vizier of Herzegovina hereditary in his family, it would in fact only last for his own lifetime, being abolished at his death.
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In 1833, the new vizier of Herzegovina came to Mostar, announcing to the people:
"Our honest emperor loves me and therefore made me a third near himself. He offered me to become a vizier of wherever I wanted, but I did not want to be a vizier of anything but of Herzegovina, separated from the Pashaluk of Bosnia. These are the counties of Herzegovina: Prijepolje, Pljevlja with Kola?in and ?aranci with Drobnjak, ?ajni?e, Nevesinje, Nik?i?, Ljubinje-Trebinje, Stolac, Po?itelj, Blagaj, Mostar, Duvno and half of the county of Konjic which is on this side of Neretva. This was given to me, my children and my kin, and I have done this to prevent that some bad pasha rule over Herzegovina. I thought that it is better that I, as a native, should rule over Herzegovina, instead of some alien - nobody could be fiend to his own house. I will judge everybody by justice..."
Ali-pa?a further stated:
"From today on, nobody need any longer go to the emperor in Istanbul. Here in Mostar is your Istanbul, and here in Mostar is your emperor."
As the new vizier of Herzegovina from 1832 to 1851, Ali-pa?a Rizvanbegovi? made special efforts to promote agriculture and attempted to recuperate the strong economy of the once famed Bosnia Eyalet. During the administration of Ali-pa?a Rizvanbegovi? olives, almonds, coffee, rice, citrus fruits and new vegetables became staple food sources.
He was in good terms with the Herzegovinian Franciscans. Friar Petar Bakula was his personal physician and Friar Andrija ?aravanja his economic adviser. He also supported the establishment of the Apostolic Vicariate of Herzegovina, an initiative of the Herzegovinian Franciscans. He helped Bishop Rafael Bar?i? to build an episcopal residence in Mostar, buying a private land from a Muslim and granting it to the Vicariate, despite the fierce opposition from the local Muslims. He also provided the protection during the construction of the residence. During his rule, the Catholics of Mostar returned to the city and became involved in the public, cultural and political life of the city.
While Ali-pa?a Rizvanbegovi? hoped to establish a long lasting hereditary viziership, whereby he would eventually transfer power to his descendants, this was at odds with the Ottoman government's plans for the region. Despite Ali-pa?a's earlier support against the Gradaevi? rebellion, Sultan Abdülmecit I felt that Ali-pa?a was beginning to act too independently and feared that Herzegovina would secede from the Empire (the sultan who had empowered Ali-pa?a, Mahmut II, had already died in 1839). Furthermore, Omar Pasha, who had then been put in command of the military in Bosnia, got wind that Ali-pa?a was conspiring against him at a secret meeting in Sarajevo. On orders from the Porte, Ali-pa?a was preemptively arrested and subsequently executed on 20 March 1851 by Omar Pasha in a humiliating and cruel manner,[clarification needed] and the Pashaluk of Herzegovina was abolished and its territory was merged with the Pashaluk of Bosnia, forming a new entity known as Bosnia Vilayet.