Albert Hardenberg
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Albert Hardenberg
Albertus Risaeus (Albrecht Hardenberg)

Albert Hardenberg or Albertus Risaeus (c. 1510 in Rheeze near Hardenberg – 18 May 1574 in Emden) was a Reformed theologian and Protestant reformer, who was also active as a reformer in Cologne, Bremen and Emden.


From the age of seven, he was put in the school of the "Fratres vitae communis" in Groninghe. He decided at the age of 17 to become a priest and became a monk in the abbey of Aduard. In 1540, he was sent by his community as a student at the University of Louvain to take theology courses so that he could one day be able to become abbot of a monastery. There he obtained his degree of license, but he was quickly drawn into the movement of active reformers in the University of Louvain.


  • Realenzyklopädie für protestantische Theologie und Kirche, Vol 7, p 404
  • Spiegel: Albert Rizäus Hardenberg, (Bremer Jahrbuch 4) Bremen, 1869.
  • Jürgen Moltmann: Christoph Pezel und der Calvinismus in Bremen, Bremen 1958, 16ff.
  • H. Engelhardt: Der Irrlehreprozeß gegen Albert Hardenberg 1547--1561, (Diss.) Frankfurt, 1961.
  • H. Engelhardt: Das Irrlehreverfahren des Niedersächsischen Reichs-Kreises gegen A. H. 1560/61, (JGNKG 61, 1963, 32ff.)
  • H. Engelhardt: Der Irrlehrestreit zwischen Albert Hardenberg und dem Bremer Rat 1547--1561, (Hospitium Ecclesiae 4, 1964, 32ff.)
  • W. Neuser: Hardenberg u. Melanchthon. Der Hardenbergische Streit 1554--60, (JGNKG 65, 1967, 142ff.)
  • Rottländer: Der Bürgermeister von Büren und die Hardenbergschen Religionshändel in Bremen, Göttingen, 1982
  • Wim Janse, Albert Hardenberg als Theologe. Profil eines Bucer-Schülers, Leiden, New York u. Köln 1994
  • Wim Janse, Albert Rizäus Hardenberg und sein Wirken als Domprediger, 1547-1561, In: Hospitum Ecclaesiae. Forschungen zur bremischen Kirchengeschichte 22, 2003, S. 43-53
  • Heinz Scheible: Melanchthons Briefwechsel Personen 12 Stuttgart-Bad Cannstatt, 2005 ISBN 3-7728-2258-4
  • Herbert Schwarzwälder: Das Große Bremen-Lexikon, Edition Temmen, Bremen, 2003, ISBN 3-86108-693-X
  • Werner Kloos: Bremer Lexikon, Hauschild Verlag, Bremen, 1980, ISBN 3-920699-31-9
  • Friedrich Wilhelm Bautz (1990). "Hardenberg, Albert". In Bautz, Friedrich Wilhelm (ed.). Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL) (in German). 2. Hamm: Bautz. cols. 523-526. ISBN 3-88309-032-8.
  • Jürgen Moltmann (1966), "Hardenberg, Albert", Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB) (in German), 7, Berlin: Duncker & Humblot, pp. 663-663

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