Official language in
|Regulated by||Language Academy|
The Aiton language or Tai Aiton language is spoken in Assam, India (in the Dhonsiri Valley and the south bank of the Brahmaputra). It is currently classified as a threatened language, with less than two thousand speakers worldwide. Its other names include Antonia and Sham Doaniya.
The Aiton language is a part of the Southwestern branch of the Tai family of languages. There are three other actively spoken languages in this branch: Khamti, Phake, and Khamyang.
According to the oral and written records of the Aiton people, they originated from a place named Khao-Khao Mao-Lung, a Burmese state near the Chinese border. It is generally believed that they came to India about two or three hundred years ago, seeking refuge from oppression. Despite how long they have been in Assam, many members of the older generations are not fluent in Assamese, the official language of the state.
Aiton is spoken predominantly in India, in the northeastern state of Assam.
According to Morey (2005), Aiton is spoken in the following villages:
|Tai name||Translation of Tai name||Assamese/English name||District|
|baan3 nam3 thum3||Flood village ()||Duburoni||Golaghat|
|baan3 sum3||Sour village (?)||Tengani||Golaghat|
|baan3 hui1 lu?1||Big fruit village||Borhola||Golaghat|
|baan3 hin1||Stone village (?)||Ahomani||Karbi Anglong|
|baan3 lu?1||Big village ()||Bargaon||Karbi Anglong|
|baan3 n?i2/d?i2||Hill village (?)||Sukhihola||Karbi Anglong|
|baan3 saai2||Sand village ()||Kalyoni||Karbi Anglong|
|baan3 saai2||Sand village ()||Balipathar||Karbi Anglong|
|baan3 saai2||Sand village ()||Jonapathar||Lohit|
Buragohain (1998) reports a total of 260 Aiton households, comprising a total population of 2,155.
|Village||District||Year founded||No. of houses||Population|
|Kaliyani||Karbi Anglong||Man era 1239||15||154|
Tai languages, including Aiton, is almost entirely monosyllabic, which means that each symbol has a tone. Aiton only has three tones. It has a vowel system of only seven vowels, /i, ?, u, ?, ?, a, aa/, which is the smallest out of the all the Tai languages spoken in Assam. From these seven vowels, Aiton allows only nine possible sequences.
Aiton, like some other Tai languages, have a "minimal three-way contrast in voicing". It also only allows vowels to be voiced stops when they are in bilabial and dental/alveolar places of articulation. According to Morey, "[m] and [n] are variants for /b/ and /d/, respectively".