Aghul Language
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Aghul Language
Aghul
? / A?ul al
Native toRussia, also spoken in Azerbaijan
RegionSoutheastern Dagestan
EthnicityAguls
Native speakers
29,300 (2010 census)[1]
Northeast Caucasian
Cyrillic
Official status
Official language in
 Russia
Language codes
agx
Glottologaghu1253

Aghul is a Northeast Caucasian language spoken by the Aghuls in southern Dagestan, Russia and in Azerbaijan. It is spoken by about 29,300[2] people (2010 census).

Classification

Aghul belongs to the Eastern Samur group of the Lezgic branch of the Northeast Caucasian language family.

Geographic distribution

In 2002, Aghul was spoken by 28,300 people in Russia, mainly in Southern Dagestan, as well as 32 people in Azerbaijan.[3]

Related languages

There are nine languages in the Lezgian language family, namely: Aghul, Tabasaran, Rutul, Lezgian, Tsakhur, Budukh, Kryts, Udi and Archi.

Phonology

Aghul has contrastive epiglottal consonants.[4] Aghul makes, like many Northeast Caucasian languages, a distinction between tense consonants with concomitant length and weak consonants. The tense consonants are characterized by the intensiveness (tension) of articulation, which naturally leads to a lengthening of the consonant so they are traditionally transcribed with the length diacritic. The gemination of the consonant itself does not create its tension, but morphologically tense consonants often derive from adjoining two single weak consonants. Some[which?] Aghul dialects have an especially large number[vague] of permitted initial tense consonants.[4]

Vowels

Vowels of Aghul[5]
Front Central Back
Close i ? u
Mid e
Open a

Consonants

Consonant phonemes of Aghul[6]
Labial Dental Alveolar Palatal Velar Uvular Pharyn-
geal
Glottal
plain lab.
Nasal m n
Plosive voiced b d ?
voiceless fortis p: t: k: q:
lenis p t k q ? ?
ejective p' t' k' q'
Affricate voiced d d
voiceless fortis t?s: t: t:?
lenis t?s t t
ejective t?s' t' t'
Fricative voiceless fortis f: s: ?: ?:? x: ?:
lenis f s ? x ? ?
voiced v z ? ? ? ?
Trill r ?
Approximant l j
  • The glottal stop transcribed here is named rather ambiguously a "glottalic laryngeal" by the source.
  • The epiglottal stop is included by Omniglot in the phoneme list, but not by Titus Didactica.
  • Omniglot says that the lenis voiceless stops are aspirated. It also says that the epiglottals are in fact pharyngeals.[7]

Alphabet

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?I ?I
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ?I ?I ? ? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ?I ?I ? ? ? ? ? ?
?I ?I ? ? ? ? ? ? ?I ?I
? ? ?I ?I ? ? ?I ?I ? ? ? ? ?
I ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

Grammar

Case

There are four core cases: absolutive, ergative, genitive, and dative, as well as a large series of location cases. All cases other than the absolutive (which is unmarked) and ergative take the ergative suffix before their own suffix.

Adjectives

Independent and predicative adjectives take number marker and class marker; also case if used as nominal. As attribute they are invariable. Thus id?ed "good", ergative, id?edi, etc. -n, -s; pl. id?edar; but Id?e insandi hhu? qini "The good man killed the wolf" (subject in ergative case).

Pronouns

Personal pronouns

  Singular (Aghul) Plural (Aghul) Singular (Tokip) Plural (Tokip)
1 zun ?in (ex), xin (in) ?i (ex), xi (in) ?i, xi
2 wun ?un ?un ?u

Vocabulary

Writing system

Examples

Cyrillic writing

?: - ? : «, ? ; ? . ? ?. ? , ? ?. ? ».[8]

Transliteration

?isaji punaja geburis: - Du'g?e ak'e mi?tti: "Dad, Ve ttur girami x'uraj; Ve Paag'vel adiraj. T?alab ark'aja ?in Vakes g'er jag'as guni. G?il g'u?en ?e gunag'arilas, ?inna g'il g'ur?andu k?ildi ?as ?ajvelar ark'attarilas. X?a temex?era x'as amarta ?as." [7]

Translation

And he said unto them, When ye pray, say, Our Father which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done, as in heaven, so in earth. Give us day by day our daily bread. And forgive us our sins; for we also forgive every one that is indebted to us. And lead us not into temptation; but deliver us from evil.[9]

References

  1. ^ Aghul at Ethnologue (18th ed., 2015)
  2. ^ "Aghul".
  3. ^ "Aghul".
  4. ^ a b Ladefoged & Maddieson (1996:167-168)
  5. ^ Magometov, Aleksandr Amarovic. 1970. Agul'skij jazyk: (issledovanie i teksty). Tbilisi: Izdatel'stvo "Mecniereba".
  6. ^ Gippert, Jost. "Titus Didactica: North-East Caucasian Consonant Systems". titus.fkidg1.uni-frankfurt.de.
  7. ^ a b "Photo" (GIF). www.omniglot.com.
  8. ^ "Aghul lp". Archived from the original on 2011-07-04. Retrieved .
  9. ^ "Bible Gateway passage: Luke 11 - King James Version". Bible Gateway.

Bibliography

  • Haspelmath, Martin. 1993. A grammar of Lezgian. (Mouton grammar library; 9). Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter. - ISBN 3-11-013735-6
  • Ladefoged, Peter; Maddieson, Ian (1996), The Sounds of the World's Languages, Oxford: Blackwell, ISBN 0-631-19815-6
  • Talibov, Bukar B. and Magomed M. Gad?iev. 1966. Lezginsko-russkij slovar'. Moskva: Izd. Sovetskaja ?nciklopedija.

External links



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