Afghan Tribal Revolts of 1944-1947
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Afghan Tribal Revolts of 1944%E2%80%931947

Afghan tribal revolts of 1944-1947
Detailed map of the Afghan tribal revolts of 1944-1947.png
Detailed map of the Afghan tribal revolts of 1944-1947.
DateFebruary 1944 - 11 January 1947
Location
Result Afghan government victory
Belligerents
 Afghanistan
 • Allied Nuristani and Shinwari tribesmen
 British Empire
 •  India

Rebel tribes:

Commanders and leaders
Units involved
Kingdom of Afghanistan 2-3 brigades[1]
(Deployed against Mazrak)
Kingdom of Afghanistan 6 Hawker Hind aircraft
Royal Air Force
Unknown
Strength
Kingdom of Afghanistan
110,000[2]
(Full size of Afghan army, 1945)
British Raj
Unknown number of aircraft
No infantry deployed
Zadran:
55,000[3]
(Full size of the Zadran tribe, 6000 armed)
Safi:
12,000[4]
Casualties and losses
Kingdom of Afghanistan More than 4,000[5]
British Raj None
Hundreds of Safi killed
~500 Safi families displaced

The Afghan tribal revolts of 1944-1947 or the Khost disturbances[6] were a series of tribal revolts in the Kingdom of Afghanistan by Zadran, Safi and Mangal tribesmen which lasted from February 1944 to January 1947. The causes of the revolts laid in the worsening conditions of farmers, changes in conscription laws, the elimination of the power of Safi tribal leaders, Amanullah loyalism, trading monopolies, government surveillance, taxation, and poverty. The conflict began when government forces clashed with the forces of a tribal leader named Mazrak, who led the Zadran tribe in revolt. The Zadran uprising was followed by additional uprisings by the Safi and Mangal, the former of which elected their own king, Salemai. Faqir Ipi, a tribal leader from Waziristan (then part of British India), also fought for the restoration of former king Amanullah Khan alongside other rebels.

The Afghan government deployed Hawker Hind aircraft against the rebels, using aircraft to drop leaflets, gun down tribesmen and drop incendiary bombs. Mazrak invaded the British Raj in late 1944, though he was ultimately forced back into Afghanistan due to British aerial bombardment. Over the course of his uprising, Mazrak was joined by other rebel leaders, such as Sultan Ahmad and Abdurrahman (nicknamed "Pak"). Concurrently, Mohammed Daoud Khan fought against the Safi in the Eastern Province. The Mangal tribe rose up in June 1945. A 14-day long Safi siege of Kunar Khas was unsuccessful due to the Afghan air force supplying the settlement with food and ammunition. The Safi were defeated in late 1946, and Mazrak surrendered on 11 January 1947, ending the revolts.

Background

Mohammed Zahir Shah was king during the tribal revolts of 1944-1947.

According to Alexander Davydov, causes of the revolts laid in the worsening conditions of farmers.[7] Farmers and landlords were required to forfeit one-third of their harvest to the government, a practice referred to as sekoti.[8] They would then have to transport the harvests to government warehouses in Bar Kunar (Asmar) and Kuz Kanar (Khewa) districts.[8] At the time, this could only be achieved with animal-powered transport. It was very commonplace for officials to delay acceptance of the deposit and question the quality of their produce. In order to be relieved from dues, farmers and landlords would often have to pay bribes.[8] Despite this, the government of the Republic of Afghanistan (1973-1978) would, decades after the revolts, claim that the peasantry supported the Afghan government and that Safi tribes looted the peasant's homes and businesses in retaliation.[9]

According to David B. Edwards, the causes behind the Safi revolt laid in the change in Safi conscription laws.[10] For many years prior to the uprising, the accepted procedure for enlisting military recruits - known as the quami, or "tribal" method - had been for individual tribes to supply a certain number of men of their own choosing; these men would always serve together and generally in locations that were not far removed from their homes. Several years prior to the uprising, however, the government had insisted on employing a system referred to as nufus, or "population", in which the army conscripted its recruits directly from the population without consultation with any tribal body. The previous system was beneficial to the tribe, especially the tribal elders, who decided who would serve. The new procedure eliminated the power of Safi tribal leaders, and was thus fiercely resisted.[10]

One of the rebel leaders, Mazrak, supported the restoration of Amanullah Khan,[11] a king of Afghanistan who was deposed in the Afghan Civil War (1928-1929).[12]

According to British records, the Safi uprising was caused by the Afghan government's attempts to institute conscription among the Safi, trading monopolies granted to Afghan merchant companies, and government surveillance.[13] Whit Mason attributes the Safi uprising to "extremely brutal taxation, oppression and poverty".[8]

Conflict

Operations in the Southern Province against Mazrak

The initial uprising against the government in February 1944 was led by Mazrak Zadran.

The operations which would be officially dubbed the Operations in the Southern Province against Mazrak[14] began in February 1944.[15] There are multiple accounts as to how this conflict began. According to British records, it began shortly after the Afghan government moved troops into the southern province to reassert their authority in the area, which by then was a safe haven for smugglers.[16] En route, the government force was attacked by a Zadian tribal leader named Mazrak.[16] According to a later Pakistani inquiry, the conflict began after the Afghan government raided Mazrak's summer homes at the Taragharai hills and his winter home at Almara, since Mazrak was suspected of housing Amanullah loyalist elements.[3] For the following 3 months, Mazrak would carry out small raids from his new headquarters in Surkot.[3] Government troops attempted to take Mount Almar in March 1944, but failed.[17]

Mazrak was forced to retreat into the hills following an attack by the Afghan government on 22 April 1944.[18] On 25 April, the Afghan government dispatched 6 Hawker Hind aircraft[19] to Gardez[14] to deal with the uprising, which returned on 21 June.[19] During that operation, the Hind aircraft were focused on dropping leaflets and incendiary bombs.[19] No large explosives were dropped, but there were several instances of hostile tribesmen being gunned down by the aircraft. 2-3 villages were said to have been destroyed by incendiary bombs during this time.[19] On request of the Afghan government, the British Raj took precautions to prevent Waziri tribesmen from aiding Mazrak.[18]

During the period of 1 August to 31 October 1944, no major Afghan aerial operations against Mazrak were undertaken, other than reconnaissance flights.[20] Around this time, Mazrak was subject to heavy bombardment in British territory, where he was sheltered by local tribesmen, after which he retreated back to Afghan territory.[21] During his brief stay in the British Raj, Mazrak was joined by Sultan Ahmed, a rebel chieftain from Balochistan.[22] They were later joined by another rebel leader nicknamed Pak.[23]

In November 1944, the appearance of a mysterious Malang who posed as the brother of Amanullah temporarily helped boost Mazrak's fortunes,[21] but lack of money with which to bribe the tribes caused the failure of the movement, and Malang had disappeared into obscurity by March 1945.[21] By this time, the situation of the Afghan government was the most critical since the Ghilzai rebellion of 1938 - their aerial capacity was limited by a shortage in bombs, their resources were stretched between the southern and eastern provinces, and the general population was discontented by high prices and a shortage of commodities.[24] Further aerial operations against Mazrak, which included reconnaissance and bombing runs, took place in the Kunar valley from 24 June to 31 October 1945.[25] Sultan Ahmad surrendered in November that same year, and was returned to Balochistan in custody.[22] Despite Ahmad's surrender, Mazrak continued to fight.[22] Ultimately, after 2 and a half years of resistance, Mazrak and his brother Sher Muhd Khan surrendered to the Afghan government,[1] on 11 January 1947.[26]

Safi uprising

The Safi were defeated by Afghan forces led by Mohammed Daoud Khan.[27]

The Safi rose up in either 1944 or 1945.[28] It started when an order to arrest the Safi leaders - Sultan Mohammad, Abdul Qadir, Mir Salam and Momoond Khan, came to the notice of Mir Salam who informed the other leaders and managed to incite a general uprising at Davagal and Badil among others.[29] The conflict began when Safi rebels ambushed and captured government troops intended to gather conscripts.[30] On 24 June 1945, 4 aircraft were dispatched to Jalalabad to deal with the Safi.[25] Bombs and incendiaries caused extensive damage to Safi villages.[25] One aircraft with 3 bombs, 1 vickers machine gun and 1 Lewis gun was lost during operations against the Safis.[25] Among the villages bombed were the villages of Pacheyano Banda and Tanar.[8] In one of the bombardments of the latter village, 11 members of a family were killed and the rest of the family members were unable to bury the dead in the village graveyard due to the threat of further bombardment.[8] Instead they buried the dead in front of the family home, where they remained as of 2011.[8] During this rebellion, it was rumoured among the Safi that the government intended to ship women off to Kabul to become prostitutes.[31] Among the more enthusiastic rebel fighters were younger men with more to gain and less to lose from fighting the government.[32] The Safi elected a monarch of their own, named Salemai, as well as a Prime Minister (Amanat Lewana) and a Minister of Defence (Amanul Mulk).[33]

Some contemporary British records reported that the three B?dsh?h Guls (i.e. grandsons of the Akhund of Swat) were active in support of the Kabul government while the Gul ib of Babra was secretly urging his followers in Chaharmung and Bajaur to support the Safis. However, further evidence of this has not been found.[13]

The Afghan government armed Nuristani and Shinwari tribesmen to fight the Safi.[9]

At one point in the rebellion, Safi rebels looted the government treasury in Chagha Serai.[34] Starting in late August 1945, 1,500-2,000 Safi rebels besieged a 400-men strong government garrison at Kunar Khas.[24] This siege lasted 14 days, with the Safi being unable to capture Kunar Khas due to the Afghan air force supplying the settlement with food and ammunition.[25] Had the Safi been able to capture Kunar Khas, that may have resulted in the collapse of government control in the eastern province.[24] By the end of October, most of the Safis, except for a few die-hards had come to terms with the Afghan government.[23] This peace agreement included among other things the abandonment or postponement of Safi conscription.[23] Aerial operations against the Safis in the Kunar valley ended in early November.[35] In either 1945 or 1946, the Safi leaders, Shahswar, Said Muhd, Salim Khan and Allah Khan fled to Mohmand tribal territory in the British Raj.[36]

An oral account from 1983 described the revolt as follows:[37]

I think the Safi War [safi jang] was in 1945. It continued for a year and stopped in the winter of 1946. The government secretly planted some paid spies among the people. Approximately five hundred families were exiled after the war. I remember. They brought lorries. I was still small, and I was very happy that I would see a new world. The adult men and some of the women were crying. This exile suddenly came upon our family. I was just small, and I heard that my father had come. He had been in prison along with my uncle. Just one of my uncles was at home. One of my brothers was at the military high school. People arrived - all of a sudden. We heard. One or two people said, "Look!" They were all wearing normal country clothes - not uniforms. I thought that people were coming, and it was announced that my father had been released from prison. My father would be back home with us the next day. I was happy. [It was as though] the Jeshen (Independence Day) celebrations had begun. I was very happy. They were all armed, and as soon as they had come, they suddenly captured my family. Two or three hundred people, all dressed in civilian clothes, all are with the government, they captured us and said, "In the morning, you will be leaving."

On 23 November 1946, Mohammed Dauod Khan gave the remaining Safi peace terms, which included the return of rifles and small arms ammunition captured from government troops, the surrender of Shahswar, Said Muhd, Salim Khan and Allah Khan, the sale of grain to the government at reasonable rates, and the despatch of Safi youths to Kabul for education.[36] It is unclear if the Safi accepted these terms,[36] but all sources agree that the Safi uprising had subsided by the end of 1946.[28]

The events of this uprising are known as the Year of the Safi (Safi kal).[8]

Duration

The Safi uprising has received very little attention from scholars and researchers.[13] Among the few texts that do discuss the revolt, there is disagreement about when it started and ended. The following table summarizes different information provided by various texts.

Start date End date Work Author(s) Ref
1944 1945 Rebuilding Afghanistan's National Army
(Journal of the US Army War College)
Ali Jalali [38]
1944 1946 Afghanistan: Graveyard of Empires: A New History of the Borderland David Isby [39]
1945 1945 Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia
[27]
1945 Winter 1946

(Duration: 1 year)

Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad David B. Edwards [37]
1945 1946 Islam and Politics in Afghanistan Asta Olesen [13]
1945 1946 Wanat : Combat Action In Afghanistan, 2008 Combat Studies Institute [40]
1945 6 months after start The Rule of Law in Afghanistan: Missing in Inaction Whit Mason [8]
1946 1946 Revolutions & Rebellions in Afghanistan Unknown [41]
? Between February and May 1946 British Documents on Foreign Affairs:
Reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print:
Afghanistan, Persia, Turkey and Iraq, 1952
Paul Preston
Michael Partridge
[42]

Mangal uprising

The Mangal tribe rose up in Gardez in June 1945.[43]

Role of aircraft

Afghan Hawker Hind aircraft.

Afghanistan had obtained Hawker Hind aircraft from Britain, purchasing 8 aircraft in 1937 and an additional 20 in 1939.[44] During the tribal revolts of 1944-1947, these would come in use as the Afghan government used aircraft to drop leaflets, gun down tribesmen and drop incendiary bombs.

It was rumoured that on one occasion, Afghan aircraft accidentally bombed and machine gunned government troops or allied tribal levies, causing 40 casualties.[25] There were also a few minor accidents at the Jalalabad airfield, but the aircraft did not incur serious damage.[25] Two aerial officers, Muhd Anwar Khan (pilot) and Abdul Vaqil Khan (observer) were killed in the operations, while another aerial officer, a pilot, fell into the hands of the rebels in the Mazar or Pech Daras, where he was knifed in the back and had his throat cut, but survived after local villagers found him laying unconscious near his aircraft and tended to his wounds.[25]

An incomplete list of aerial reconnaissance operations of note is listed below.[25]

Start Date End Date Duration (in days) Destination Aircraft involved Notes Ref
1944-06-05 1944-06-06 2 Khost 1 [19]
1944-07-02 1944-07-02 0.083 (2 hours) Khost 3 [19]
1944-07-17 1944-07-17 0.083 (2 hours) Khost 9 [19]
1945-04-15 1945-04-17 3 Matun 1 [25]
1945-05-08 1945-05-08 1 Matun 1 [25]
1945-10-03 1945-10-04 2 Matun 1 [25]
1945-10-07 1945-10-07 1 Matun 1 [25]
1945-10-09 1945-10-09 1 Matun 1 [25]
1945-10-13 1945-10-15 3 Matun 3 2 aircraft returned on 14 October, the last returned on 15 October. [25]

Leading figures

Afghan government

  • Mohammed Zahir Shah (15 October 1914 - 23 July 2007) was the king of Afghanistan during the revolts.
  • Mohammed Daoud Khan (18 July 1909 - 28 April 1978) was commander of the central forces during the revolts. He led Afghan forces against the Safi.
  • Mohammad Hashim Khan (1884 - 26 October 1953) was prime minister of Afghanistan during the revolts, until 9 May 1946.
  • Shah Mahmud Khan (1890 - 27 December 1959) was prime minister of Afghanistan during the revolts, from 9 May 1946.

British Empire

  • Archibald Wavell (5 May 1883 - 24 May 1950) was Viceroy and Governor-General of India during this conflict.

Zadran tribe

  • Mazrak Khan Zadran (fl. 1900s - 1972) was the tribal chief of the Zadran tribe, which he led in revolt from February 1944 until his surrender on 11 January 1947.
  • Sher Muhd Khan (fl. 1925 - 1947) was one Mazrak Zadran's brothers. He surrendered alongside Mazrak on 11 January 1947.[1]
  • Saad Akbar Babrak (b. 1921 or 1922 - d. 16 October 1951) was another of Mazrak Zadran's brothers. He was a minor leader in this rebellion.[45]
  • Sultan Ahmad (fl. 1944 - 1945) was a Balochi chieftain who joined Mazrak. He surrendered in November 1945, and was returned to Balochistan in custody.[22]
  • Abdurrahman[46] (nickname Pak,[46]fl. 1945) was a rebel leader who joined Mazrak. British records describe him as a "hardy perennial" and state that he had "inevitably" joined Mazrak.[23]
  • British records mention a "mysterious Malang" who posed as the brother of Amanullah and temporarily helped boost Mazrak's fortunes.[21] A lack of money with which to bribe the tribes was stated to have caused the failure of the movement, and Malang had disappeared into obscurity by March 1945.[21]

Safi tribe

  • Salemai (fl. 1940s) was the Safi king.
  • Amanat Lewana (fl. 1940s) was the Safi prime minister.
  • Amanul Mulk (died c. 2011) was the Safi minister of defence.
  • Shahswar (fl. 1940s) was the Safi minister.
  • Mir Azam Khan (fl. 1940s) was one of the leaders of the Safi revolt.[]
  • Sultan Mohammad (fl. 1940s) was one of leaders of the revolt.[47] According to the account of the University of Peshawar, he was one of the leaders who began the uprising after being informed of his impending arrest.[47] However, according to David B Edwards, he was initially neutral and only joined after Mohammed Daoud Khan insulted him in a personal meeting.[48] He was captured by Afghan forces and was sentenced to death, but Zahir Shah gave him clemency.[48] David B Edwards dedicated significant parts of Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad and Heroes of the Age: Moral Fault Lines on the Afghan Frontier to covering Sultan Mohammad's life, as well as those of his children.
  • Abdul Qadir, Mir Salam and Momoond Khan (fl. 1940s) were, according to the account of the University of Peshawar, three rebel leaders who began the uprising after being informed of their impending arrest.[47]
  • Said Muhd, Salim Khan and Allah Khan (fl. 1946) were three Safi rebel leaders who had fled to the British Raj by November 1946.[36]

Mangal tribe

  • The leaders of the Mangal uprising are unknown.

Other rebel leaders, roles unclear

  • Faqir Ipi (Ghazi Mirzali Khan Wazir; 1897 - 16 April 1960) was a rebel leader who fought alongside the rebels.[46]
  • Ghilzai Malang (fl. 1945) was named by British records as an "outlaw" who was a threat to the Afghan government.[49] It is unclear if he is related to the "mysterious Malang".
  • Pak Malang (fl. 1945) was named by British records as an "outlaw" who was a threat to the Afghan government.[49] It is unclear if he is related to Abdurrahman, who was nicknamed Pak.
  • Abdur Rahim Khan (b. 1886), an ex-governor of Herat, was arrested in January 1946 for suspected complicity in the Safi revolt,[50] together with his son-in-law,[50] the Persian poet Khalilullah Khalili.[51] He was released in 1948.[50]

Aftermath

With the defeat of the Safi and the surrender of Mazrak in late 1946 and January 1947 respectively, the revolts had come to a close. Hundreds of Safi were killed in the revolts,[8] and following their defeat, the Kunar valley was ethnically cleansed of Safi Pashtuns.[39] Other Safis, around 500 families,[37] were exiled to Herat, Kabul or to Sholgara District.[8]

Veterans of the Afghan army who fought against the Safi were awarded the Royal Medal for the Suppression of the Rebellion in Kunar Province. The silver medal bears an inscription and is dated '?' (AH1324 = AD1945). It is very rare.[52]

The tribal revolts of 1944-1947 influenced Afghanistan to take a pro-Pakistan stance during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947-1948. A pro-India stance in this case would necessitate stopping Pashtuns from joining Pakistan's war against India, which was expected to cause a resurgence in rebel activity when the government was hoping to focus on national reform.[53]

Some sources appear to state that a new conflict between the government and the Safi took place somewhere between 1947 and 1949. These include a mention of a "recrudescence in Safi discontent" in a British report dated 12 December 1947, which covered events from 1 May to 31 October 1947, although this report provides very little information in regards to the scope of the "recrudescence".[54]The New Cambridge History of Islam also mentions a revolt among the Safi lasting from 1947 to 1949.[55] An article by Hafeez R. Khan from 1960, titled "Afghanistan and Pakistan", also briefly mentions a Safi revolt lasting from 1948 to 1949 in a timeline of Afghan history.[56]The Sovietization of Afghanistan also mentions a Safi revolt in December 1947, while placing its defeat as late as 1954.[57]Transition in Afghanistan: Hope, Despair and the Limits of Statebuilding mentions "the putting-down of a Safi Pushtun revolt in 1947" as an aside.[58] None of the sources mention an earlier revolt in 1945 or 1946.[55][56][57][58] The Cambridge History also states that the Safi were defeated by Mohammed Daoud Khan,[55] implying that Daoud reprised his role in quelling the Safi in a new conflict from 1947 to 1949. However, Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia's biography of Daoud only mentions a single Safi revolt in 1945, which he quelled during his office as Commander of the Central Forces, which he held from 1939 to 1947.[27] It should also be noted that it's very common for authors writing about the 1945 Safi revolt to give different start and end dates.[28]

References

  1. ^ a b c Yapp, Malcolm (2001). British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the foreign office confidential print. From 1946 through 1950. Near and Middle-East 1947. Afghanistan, Persia and Turkey, january 1947-december 1947. University Publications of America. p. 109. ISBN 978-1-55655-765-1.
  2. ^ Jones, Seth; Muñoz, Arturo (2010). "Afghanistan's Local War" (PDF). rand.org. National Defense Research Institute. pp. 41, 42.
  3. ^ a b c The Assassination of Mr. Liaquat Ali Khan: Report of the Commission of Enquiry. Manager of Publications. 1952. p. 11.
  4. ^ Edwards, David B. (9 May 2017). Caravan of Martyrs: Sacrifice and Suicide Bombing in Afghanistan. Univ of California Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-520-29479-0.
  5. ^ " XXXVIII. ? 1944-1945 . ?". scibook.net. Retrieved 2020. ? ? ? ? 4 . ? ? , ? ? ? ?.
    (English: In battles with safi, government troops lost more than 4 thousand people and began a retreat that escalated into a stampede.)
  6. ^ "Report on Afghan Air Force for the May/July quarter, 1944". 21 December 2016. Retrieved 2019 – via Qatar Digital Library.
  7. ^ Giustozzi, Antonio (2008). "Afghanistan: Transition Without End": 13. S2CID 54592886. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Mason, Whit (14 April 2011). The Rule of Law in Afghanistan: Missing in Inaction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 85, 86. ISBN 978-1-139-49552-3.
  9. ^ a b Edwards, David B. (2 April 2002). Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. University of California Press. pp. 144, 145. ISBN 978-0-520-92687-5.
  10. ^ a b Edwards, David B. (2 April 2002). Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. University of California Press. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-520-22861-0.
  11. ^ Khan, Sarfraz; Ul Amin, Noor (Winter 2014). "The Contribution of Indian Muslims in Developing Print Media and Spreading Enlightenment in Afghanistan (1870-1930)" (PDF). Central Asia Journal. p. 130.
  12. ^ Mu?ammad, Fayz?; McChesney, R. D. (1999). Kabul under siege: Fayz Muhammad's account of the 1929 Uprising. Markus Wiener Publishers. ISBN 9781558761544.
  13. ^ a b c d Olesen, Asta (1995). Islam and Politics in Afghanistan. Psychology Press. pp. 196, 198. ISBN 978-0-7007-0299-2.
  14. ^ a b "Quarterly Report on the Afghan Air Force for the Period 1st February, 1944 to 30th April, 1944". British Legation, Kabul. 10 May 1944.
  15. ^ " XXXVIII. ? 1944-1945 . ?". scibook.net. Retrieved 2020. ?-, ? ?, ? ?. ? ? ? ? -, . ? ? ?. ? ? ? 1944 ?. ? - .
    ? . ? ? 1943 ?. ? ? ? -. ? ?, ? . ? ? 1944 ?. ? ? ?. 3.
    ? . ? ?, ? ? ? ? . ? ? 1944 ?. ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?. ? ? ? ? ? .
    (English: The invitation of the Prime Minister, as subsequent events showed, could not reassure the Pashtun tribes. During the war years, their leaders met repeatedly with the king and Hashim Khan, but could not achieve the satisfaction of their requests. The Pashtuns no longer believed in the Afghan government. As a result, in 1944, a powerful anti-government uprising began in Southeast Afghanistan.
    The first to make warlike vazirs. In December 1943, they sent their representatives to Kabul for negotiations with Hashim Khan. As expected, this trip ended in vain. Then, in February 1944, the mountaineers robbed state warehouses with grain in the area of the city of Urgun3.
    This action served as a signal for the rebellion of neighboring tribes. Following the Wazir, a large and well-armed Jadran tribe revolted, for which the trade in timber and firewood with India was a traditional trade. In early February 1944, the commander of the border detachment Taza Gul priests with several gendarmes he intercepted one Jadran caravan with firewood. During the shootout, he and several border guards were killed.)
  16. ^ a b Preston, Paul; Partridge, Michael; Yapp, Malcolm (1997). British Documents on Foreign Affairs--reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print: Eastern Affairs, January 1944-June 1944. University Publications of America. p. 141. ISBN 9781556556715. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  17. ^ " XXXVIII. ? 1944-1945 . ? ".
  18. ^ a b "Report for the Month of April 1944 for the Dominions, India, Burma, and the Colonies and Mandated Territories". Secretary of State for Dominion Affairs. 25 May 1944. p. 6. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g Lancaster, Alexander (15 August 1944). "Quarterly Report of the Afghan Air Force for the period 1st May to 31st July 1944". British Legation, Kabul.
  20. ^ Lancaster, Alexander (1944). "Quarterly Report on the Afghan Air Force for the period 1st August to 31st October 1944". India Office. p. 1.
  21. ^ a b c d e Preston, Paul; Partridge, Michael; Yapp, Malcolm (1997). British Documents on Foreign Affairs--reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print: Eastern affairs, July 1944-March 1945. University Publications of America. p. 348. ISBN 9781556556715.
  22. ^ a b c d Yapp, Malcolm (2001). British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the foreign office confidential print. From 1946 through 1950. Near and Middle-East 1947. Afghanistan, Persia and Turkey, january 1947-december 1947. University Publications of America. p. 34. ISBN 978-1-55655-765-1.
  23. ^ a b c d Yapp, Malcolm; Preston, Paul; Patridge, Michael; Office, Great Britain Foreign (1999). British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print. From 1946 through 1950. Near and Middle-East. University Publications of America. p. 178. ISBN 978-1-55655-765-1.
  24. ^ a b c Yapp, Malcolm; Preston, Paul; Patridge, Michael; Office, Great Britain Foreign (1999). British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the Foreign Office confidential print. From 1946 through 1950. Near and Middle-East. University Publications of America. p. 176. ISBN 978-1-55655-765-1.
  25. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Lancaster, Alexander (15 November 1945). "Afghan Air Force - Half Yearly Report". India Office. pp. 2, 3, 4, 5. Retrieved 2019.
  26. ^ Malik, Murtaza (1 January 2002). The Curtain Rises: Uncovered Conspiracies in Pakistan, Afghanistan. Royal Book Company. p. 38. ISBN 978-969-407-271-5. Eventually, he and his family surrendered to the Political Agent North Waziristan on January 11, 1947.
  27. ^ a b c Clements, Frank; Adamec, Ludwig W. (2003). Conflict in Afghanistan: A Historical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. p. 67. ISBN 978-1-85109-402-8.
  28. ^ a b c See Duration
  29. ^ Central Asia. University of Peshawar. 1979. p. 21.
  30. ^ Ahmed, Akbar (27 February 2013). The Thistle and the Drone: How America's War on Terror Became a Global War on Tribal Islam. Brookings Institution Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-0-8157-2379-0.
  31. ^ Edwards, David B. (2 April 2002). Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. University of California Press. p. 319. ISBN 978-0-520-22861-0.
  32. ^ Edwards, David B. (2 April 2002). Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. University of California Press. pp. 163, 164. ISBN 978-0-520-22861-0.
  33. ^ Edwards, David B. (9 May 2017). Caravan of Martyrs: Sacrifice and Suicide Bombing in Afghanistan. Univ of California Press. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-520-29479-0.
  34. ^ Edwards, David B. (2 April 2002). Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. University of California Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-520-22861-0.
  35. ^ "Half Yearly Report on the Afghan Air Force for the period 1st November 1945 to 30th April 1946". India Office. 11 May 1946. p. 4.
  36. ^ a b c d Yapp, Malcolm (2001). British documents on foreign affairs: reports and papers from the foreign office confidential print. From 1946 through 1950. Near and Middle-East 1947. Afghanistan, Persia and Turkey, january 1947-december 1947. University Publications of America. p. 136. ISBN 978-1-55655-765-1.
  37. ^ a b c Edwards, David B. (2 April 2002). Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. University of California Press. p. 100. ISBN 978-0-520-22861-0.
  38. ^ Parameters: Journal of the US Army War College. U.S. Army War College. 2002. p. 86.
  39. ^ a b Isby, David (15 July 2011). "Chronology". Afghanistan: Graveyard of Empires: A New History of the Borderland. Pegasus Books. ISBN 978-1-68177-007-9.
  40. ^ Institute, Combat Studies (15 August 2014). "Chapter 1 - Historic and Campaign Background of the Waygal Valley". Wanat : Combat Action In Afghanistan, 2008 [Illustrated Edition]. Pickle Partners Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78289-494-0.
  41. ^ Revolutions & Rebellions in Afghanistan. Institute of International Studies, University of California, Berkeley. 1984. ISBN 978-0-87725-157-6.
  42. ^ Preston, Paul; Partridge, Michael (2006). British Documents on Foreign Affairs--reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print: Afghanistan, Persia, Turkey and Iraq, 1952. LexisNexis. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-88692-720-2.
  43. ^ ?, (1967). ? (in Russian). ; ?. . -. p. 159. Archived from the original on 14 August 2019. Retrieved 2019. , «» 23 ? 1938 ?., ? ? ? ? ? ? ?. ? ?. ? 1944 ?. ? ? -, ? -", ? ? ? 1945 ?. ? ? ?-? ***. ? ? -- ? 1945 ?. ? ? ? ? 149. ? ? ? ? ? ?, ? ? , . , . ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?, ? ? ?. ? , ? ? ? , ? 159.
    (English: Moreover, as the Islakh newspaper reported on June 23, 1938, the leaders of the rebels were promised support from the British imperialists. The government cost a lot of work to suppress the rebels. An uprising of Dzadran Afghans led by Zamrak Khan broke out in the region of Gardez in May 1944, and in June 1945, an Afghan mangal revolted in the same area. *** An armed rebellion was raised in late June and early July 1945. safi and other Afghans in the Kunar valley 149. The local reactionary khans played an important role in all these anti-government protests, using the widespread discontent of the Afghan peasantry on the basis of mass devastation, landlessness, and loss of livestock. rye slogans protect the traditional rights and privileges anciently enjoyed Afghans in the border areas. They demanded that the government tax incentives, termination recruiting the army, the refusal of the total population of disarmament 159.)
  44. ^ Simpson, Andrew (2013). "INDIVIDUAL HISTORY [BAPC 82]" (PDF). Royal Air Force Museum. Retrieved 2018.
  45. ^ State, United States Department of (1977). Foreign Relations of the United States: Diplomatic Papers. U.S. Government Printing Office. p. 1995.
  46. ^ a b c Hill, George (15 November 2013). "Chapter 3, the trip (Bibliography near end of the book)". Proceed to Peshawar: The Story of a U.S. Navy Intelligence Mission on the Afghan Border, 1943. Naval Institute Press. ISBN 9781612513287. Engert letter to State Department, 15 July 1944, says that the rebel leader Abdurrahman, known as "Pak," was next in importance to the faqir of Ipi.
  47. ^ a b c Central Asia. University of Peshawar. 1979. p. 21.
  48. ^ a b Edwards, David B. (2 April 2002). Before Taliban: Genealogies of the Afghan Jihad. University of California Press. ISBN 978-0-520-92687-5.
  49. ^ a b Lancaster, Alexander (15 November 1945). "Afghan Air Force - Half Yearly Report". India Office. p. 5. Retrieved 2019.
  50. ^ a b c Preston, Paul; Partridge, Michael (2008). British Documents on Foreign Affairs--reports and Papers from the Foreign Office Confidential Print: Afghanistan, Turkey, Persia, Iraq and Levant 1954. LexisNexis. pp. xl. ISBN 978-0-88692-720-2.
  51. ^ Reddy, L. R. (2002). Inside Afghanistan: End of the Taliban Era?. APH Publishing. p. 75. ISBN 978-81-7648-319-3.
  52. ^ "Royal Medal for the Suppression of the Rebellion in Kunar Province, AD1945". medal-medaille.com. Retrieved 2020.
  53. ^ Leake, Elisabeth (2017). The Defiant Border: The Afghan-Pakistan Borderlands in the Era of Decolonization, 1936-65. Cambridge University Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-1-107-12602-2.
  54. ^ "Half Yearly Report on the Afghan Air Force for the period 1st May to 31st October 1947". Qatar Digital Library. 12 December 1947. p. 1. Retrieved 2020.
  55. ^ a b c Robinson, Francis (4 November 2010). The New Cambridge History of Islam: Volume 5, The Islamic World in the Age of Western Dominance. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781316175781. In addition, tension between the government and the B?nki Mill? group and the f? Pasht?n tribal revolt (1947- 9) in Nangarh?r Province brought Mu?ammad Dd, who brutally suppressed it, to national attention.
  56. ^ a b Khan, Hafeez R. (1960). "Afghanistan and Pakistan". Pakistan Horizon. 13 (1): 55. ISSN 0030-980X. JSTOR 41392239. 1933: Siege of Matun, the capital of the Afghan province of Khost, by the Mohmands. 1937: Uprising of the Mohmands, the Shinwaris and the Sulayman Khel section of the Ghilzais. 1938: Abortive tribal movement under the Shami Pir to oust King Zahir Shah. 1948-49: Rebellion of the Safi tribes. 1955: Abortive tribal movement on Kabul
  57. ^ a b Majr, Bah?' al-D?n; Majrooh, S. B. (1986). The Sovietization of Afghanistan. Afghan Jehad WorksTranslation Centre. p. 183.
  58. ^ a b Maley, William (17 April 2018). "Chapter 2 - The unravelling of Afghanistan". Transition in Afghanistan: Hope, Despair and the Limits of Statebuilding. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-351-38976-1.

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