Adi Da Samraj, born Franklin Albert Jones (November 3, 1939 - November 27, 2008), was an American spiritual teacher, writer and artist. He was the founder of a new religious movement known as Adidam. He changed his name numerous times throughout his life; these names included Bubba Free John, Da Free John, Da Love-Ananda, Da Kalki, Da Avadhoota and Da Avabhasa, among others. From 1991 until his death, he was known as Adi Da Love-Ananda Samraj or Adi Da.
Adi Da initially became known in the spiritual counterculture of the 1970's for his books and public talks and for the activities of his religious community. His philosophy was essentially similar to many eastern religions which see spiritual enlightenment as the ultimate priority of human life. Distinguishing his from other religious traditions, Adi Da declared that he was a uniquely historic avatar (incarnation of a god or divinity in human form). As such, Adi Da stated that, henceforth, devotional worship of him would be the sole means of spiritual enlightenment for anyone else.
Adi Da wrote many books about his spiritual philosophy and related matters, founding a publishing house to print them. He gained praise from authorities in spirituality and philosophy, but was also criticized for what were perceived as his isolation, controversial behavior, claims toward exclusive realization, and cult-like community.
In the mid-1980's, allegations by former followers of false imprisonment, brainwashing, sexual abuse, assault and involuntary servitude received international media attention. These allegations resulted in lawsuits or threatened suits on both sides 
Adi Da as an infant, 1940
Adi Da was born Franklin Albert Jones on November 3, 1939, in Queens, New York and raised on Long Island. His father was a salesman and his mother a housewife. A sister, Joanne, was born when he was eight years old. He served as an acolyte in the Lutheran church during his adolescence and aspired to be a minister, though after leaving for college in the autumn of 1957 he expressed doubts about the religion to his Lutheran pastor. He graduated in 1961 with a bachelor's degree in philosophy from Columbia University and went on to complete a master's degree in English literature at Stanford University in 1963.
After graduating from Columbia, Adi Da began using a variety of hallucinogenic and other drugs, sometimes heavily. In 1963, after finishing at Stanford, for 6 weeks he was a paid test subject in drug trials of mescaline, LSD, and psilocybin that were conducted at a Veterans Administration hospital in California. He wrote later that he found these experiences "self-validating" in that they mimicked ecstatic states of consciousness from his childhood, but problematic as they often resulted in paranoia, anxiety, or disassociation. For over a year, Adi Da lived with his girlfriend Nina Davis in the hills of Palo Alto. While she worked to support them, he wrote, took drugs, meditated informally, and studied books on hermeticism in order to make sense of his experiences.
Responding to an intuitive impulse, they left California in June 1964 in search of a spiritual teacher in New York City. Settling in Greenwich Village, Adi Da became a student of Albert Rudolph, also known as "Rudi", an oriental art dealer and self-styled spiritual guru. Having studied a number of spiritual traditions, including "The Work" of G.I. Gurdjieff and Subud, Rudolph was then a follower of Siddha Yoga founder SwamiMuktananda, who gave Rudi the name "Swami Rudrananda". Rudi taught an eclectic blend of techniques he called "kundalini yoga" (having no literal relationship to the Indian tradition by that name.)
Adi Da's father told Rudi of his son's onetime aspiration to become a Lutheran minister. Feeling that he needed better grounding, in 1965 Rudi insisted that he marry Nina, find steady employment, lose weight, end his drug use, and begin preparatory studies to enter the seminary. As a student at Philadelphia's Lutheran Theological Seminary in 1967, Adi Da described undergoing a terrifying breakdown. Taken to a hospital emergency room, a psychiatrist diagnosed it as an anxiety attack. It was the first in a series of such episodes he would experience throughout his life, each followed by what he explained to be profound awakenings or insights. Feeling none of his Lutheran professors understood this experience, Adi Da left and briefly attended St. Vladimir's Russian Orthodox Seminary in Tuckahoe, New York. Disillusioned, he moved back to New York City and got a job working for Pan American Airlines, in hopes this would facilitate his being able to visit Swami Muktananda's ashram in India. He did so for four days in April 1968. Swami Muktananda encouraged Adi Da to end his studies with Rudi and study with himself directly.
Back in New York, Adi Da and wife Nina became members and then employees of the Church of Scientology. Following Scientology protocol, he wrote Rudi a letter severing all contact. After a little more than a year of involvement, Adi Da left Scientology. He then returned to India for a month-long visit in early 1969, during which Swami Muktananda authorized him to initiate others into Siddha Yoga.
In May 1970, Adi Da, Nina, and a friend from Scientology named Pat Morley gave away their belongings and traveled to India for what they believed would be an indefinite period living at Swami Muktananda's ashram. However, Adi Da was disappointed by his experience there, especially by the numbers of other Americans who had arrived since his previous visit. Three weeks after arriving, Adi Da said that visions of the Virgin Mary (that he interpreted as a personification of divine feminine power, or shakti) directed him to make a pilgrimage to Christian holy sites. After two weeks in Europe and the middle east, all three returned to New York before moving to Los Angeles in August.
Becoming a guru (1970-73)
Adi Da in Los Angeles, 1973
In September 1970, Adi Da said that while sitting in the Vedanta Society Temple in Hollywood, he permanently realized "The Bright", his term for a state of complete spiritual enlightenment. He wrote an autobiography titled The Knee of Listening, which was published in 1972. In it, Adi Da wrote that he had uniquely been born with full awareness of "the Bright," but this knowledge became obscured in childhood. His subsequent spiritual journey was a quest to recapture this awareness, and share it with others.
In October 1970, Swami Muktananda stopped in California on a worldwide tour largely underwritten by Rudi. Adi Da visited him and related his experience the previous month of "The Bright." Adi Da felt that the swami did not understand or properly acknowledge the full importance of his experience. During the visit Adi Da reconciled with Rudi.
With fellow former Scientology employee Sal Lucania as financier, Adi Da opened Ashram Books (later Dawn Horse Books), a spirituality bookshop in Los Angeles. He began giving lectures there based on his autobiography, soon attracting a small following due in part to his charismatic speaking style. He taught in a traditional Indian style, lecturing from a raised dais surrounded by flowers and oriental carpets, with listeners seated on the floor. He incorporated many ideas from the KashmirShaivite and Advaita Vedanta schools of Hinduism, but also expressed original insights and opinions about both spirituality and secular culture. He was one of the first westerners to become well known as a teacher of meditation and eastern esoteric traditions at a time when these were of growing interest. Some early participants stated that Adi Da demonstrated an ability to produce alterations in their consciousness, likening the effect to shaktipat of Indian yoga traditions.
With an increasing number of followers, Adi Da founded a new religious movement called "The Dawn Horse Communion". In 1973, he traveled to India to meet a final time with Swami Muktananda in hopes of being recognized as a "Mahasiddha", or fully enlightened sage. They disagreed on a series of questions Adi Da had prepared. This effectively ended their relationship, and they went on to later disparage each other's relative level of spiritual accomplishment. Adi Da nevertheless stated that he continued to appreciate and respect Muktananda as his onetime teacher.
The Mountain Of Attention Sanctuary in Lake County, California
Upon returning to Los Angeles, Adi Da (then Franklin Jones) directed his students that he should now be addressed as "Bubba Free John," based on a nickname meaning "friend" combined with a rendering of "Franklin Jones". He divorced Nina, although she remained a follower. In January 1974, Adi Da told his followers that he was "the divine lord in human form". Later that year, the church obtained an aging hot springs resort in Lake County, California, renaming it "Persimmon" (it is now known as "The Mountain of Attention"). Adi Da and a group of selected followers moved there and experimented in communal living. Most followers relocated from Los Angeles to San Francisco, where Dawn Horse Books also moved.
Adi Da often changed his name, saying it reflected differences or changes in the nature of his message and relationship to followers. In 1979, he changed his name from "Bubba Free John" to "Da Free John". Subsequent names included Da Love-Ananda, Dau Loloma, Da Kalki, Hridaya-Samartha Sat-Guru Da, Santosha Da, Da Avadhoota, Da Avabhasa, and from 1994, Adi Da Love-Ananda Samraj, or Adi Da. Adi Da translated the Sanskrit syllable Da as "giver."
"Crazy Wisdom" (1973-84)
Adi Da during the Garbage and the Goddess period, 1974
In 1973, Adi Da began to use more unconventional means of instruction he called "crazy wisdom", likening his methods to a tradition of yogic adepts who employed seemingly un-spiritual methods to awaken observer's consciousness. Some followers reported having profound metaphysical experiences in Adi Da's presence, attributing these phenomena to his spiritual power. Others present remained skeptical, witnessing nothing supernatural.
Adi Da initiated a period of teachings and activities that came to be known as the "Garbage and the Goddess". He directed his followers in "sexual theater", a form of psychodrama that often involved public and group sex, the making of pornographic movies, and other intensified sexual practices. Drug and alcohol use were often encouraged, and earlier proscriptions against meat and "junk food" were no longer adhered to.
Adi Da said that this behavior was part of a radical overturning of all conventional moral values and social contracts in order to help shock students into insights regarding habitual patterns and emotional attachments so that they could more completely surrender to him and the community. Conventional marriage received Adi Da's particular criticism, and many couples were forced to split up or switch partners. Adi Da himself had nine or more polygamous partners during this time that he called his "wives", including Playboycenterfold Julie Anderson, aka "Whitney Kaine" who had entered the community as a follower's girlfriend. He likewise recommended polygamy or polyamory to some followers.
Adi Da published his fourth book, titled Garbage and the Goddess: The Last Miracles and Final Spiritual Instructions of Bubba Free John. It documented the relatively unexpurgated lectures and activities of this period. It quickly sold out its first print run, and a second was sent to bookstores. However, due to the controversial nature of its contents, all available copies were quickly retrieved and ritually burned at Adi Da's behest.
In 1983, Adi Da moved with a group of about 40 followers to the Fijian island of Naitaba, purchased by a wealthy follower from the actor Raymond Burr. It was his primary residence until the end of his life.
Public controversies (1985-86)
Accusations of Adi Da abusing his power as a spiritual leader attracted international attention in 1985. Adi Da and Adidam (then known as Da Free John and The Johannine Daist Communion) were subjects of almost daily coverage in the San Francisco Chronicle, San Francisco Examiner, Mill Valley Record, other newspapers, and regional television news and talk shows over several weeks early in the year. The story gained national attention with a two-part exposé on The Today Show that aired May 9 and 10.
In investigative reports and dozens of interviews, both named and anonymous ex-members made numerous specific allegations of Adi Da forcing members to engage in psychologically, sexually, and physically abusive and humiliating behavior, as well as accusing the church of committing tax fraud. Others stated that they never witnessed or were involved in any such activities.
Adi Da and his organization were sued by Beverly O'Mahoney, then wife of the Adidam president, for fraud, intentional infliction of emotional distress, false imprisonment, and assault and battery (among other things); the suit sought $5 million in damages.
To a local reporter, Adidam threatened to file its own lawsuit against O'Mahoney, as well as five others who had been named in stories and interviews making allegations of abuse (no suit was ever filed). Adidam charged that allegations against the church were part of an extortion plot.
The church issued conflicting statements in response to the coverage. A lawyer for the church said that controversial sexual activities had only occurred during the "Garbage and Goddess" period years earlier. Shortly after, an official church spokesman said that "tantra-style encounters" of the kind described in allegations were still occurring, but were mostly confined to an inner circle. This confirmed the stories by former members that such activities had continued up to the time of the lawsuits and interviews, but had been kept hidden. The church said that no illegal acts had taken place and that the movement had a right to continue experiments in lifestyles.
Two lawsuits were filed against Adi Da and the church in California in 1985. The O'Mahoney suit was dismissed the next year. The other lawsuit and several threatened suits in subsequent years were settled with payments and confidentiality agreements, negatively impacting member morale and bleeding the organization financially.
"Divine emergence" and final years (1986-2008)
Adi Da at The Mountain Of Attention Sanctuary, 1986
On January 11, 1986, distressed by what he felt was the futility of his work, Adi Da experienced a physical and psychological crisis. Doctors diagnosed exhaustion and stress, but he afterward described it as a death and resurrection. As in previous and subsequent similar episodes, Adi Da attributed special significance to it, calling it his "Divine Emergence". From this point on, he said that one needed only to meditate on his image or body in order to "participate in his enlightened state".
Adi Da had predicted that by 2000 he would be recognized by the entire world for his unique spiritual realization. When this failed to occur, he experienced another crisis. This was said to initiate another period, where Adi Da would shift from "active teaching" to silent "spiritual blessing" to counteract negative forces in the world. He nonetheless continued to write books, make art, and give talks to his followers, but with an increased emphasis on what he called "silent darshan".
In 2000, some followers of spiritual teacher Frederick Lenz (a.k.a. Zen Master Rama) joined Adidam. Reportedly, this upset longtime followers who felt the new members were undeservedly privileged. (Lenz, also a magnet for controversy, had committed suicide in 1998). Adi Da claimed to have been Swami Vivekananda in a past life, and said that in a previous incarnation Lenz was a disciple.
Later, Adi Da began to exhibit his digital art and photography. Followers reported that he died of cardiac arrest on November 27, 2008 at his home in Fiji, while working on his art.
Adi Da had four children: three biological daughters with three different women, and one adopted daughter. These include actress Shawnee Free Jones.
Fundamental to Adi Da's religious philosophy is the essentially "eastern" religious concept that the purpose of human life is spiritual enlightenment, an awakening to ultimate reality that is the natural state of all human beings (though seemingly obscured.)
Adi Da said that what keeps human beings from experiencing this ultimate, enlightened reality is the activity of ego, which he stated is the source of all emotional, psychological, and spiritual dissatisfaction. He called this activity "self-contraction," and defined it as a psychological mechanism lying somewhere beneath the normal level of conscious awareness, leading people to believe they are limited, suffering individuals. He said that fundamentally, all efforts to unite with the divine from the point of view of a separate self were futile, since that separate self itself is illusory.
"Seventh stage realization"
Adi Da developed a map of potential human and spiritual evolution that he called "the seven stages of life".
First Stage--"individuation/physical development"
Third Stage--"integration/mental development"
Fourth Stage--"spiritualization/Divine Communion"
Fifth Stage--"spiritual ascent"
Sixth Stage--"abiding in consciousness"
Seventh Stage--"Divine Enlightenment: awakening from all egoic limitations"
The first six stages account for all permutations of religion and culture throughout history, as well as levels of personal development. Adi Da categorized the fourth, fifth, and sixth stages of life as the highest respective stages of human development. He characterized those who have reached these stages as "saints", "yogis", and "sages", including other religious figures such as Gautama Buddha and Jesus Christ.
Relative to this spectrum, Adi Da stated that while some "yogis, saints, and sages" had occasionally indicated some awareness of a "seventh stage", only he as a unique avatar had ever been born fully invested with the capability to fully embody it; furthermore, as the first "Seventh Stage Adept" only he would ever need to (or be capable of) doing so. He stated that the seventh stage has nothing to do with development and does not come after the sixth stage in a sequential manner. The culminating awareness of this seventh stage is a permanent, natural state of "open-eyed ecstasy", for which Adi Da employed the Sanskrit term Sahaja Nirvikalpa Samadhi.
Adi Da insisted that since he solely embodied seventh stage realization, devotional worship of him would henceforth be the exclusive means for others to free themselves from "self-contraction", thereby allowing them to "participate in his enlightened state" (i.e. attain awareness themselves of the seventh stage, or "realize" it.)
Adidam refers to both the organization of Adi Da's devotees and the religion he taught. The organization, or church, founded initially in 1972, went by many earlier names, including the Dawn Horse Communion, the Free Communion Church, the Laughing Man Institute, the Crazy Wisdom Fellowship, the Way of Divine Ignorance, and the Johannine Daist Communion.
Adidam presupposes an eastern view of divinity and accepts the concepts of karma, reincarnation, chakras, etc. It also employs many Sanskrit terms and concepts. God, or the divine, is seen as a principle and energy, a consciousness that predates creation but is not a willful creator itself.
Though earlier manifestations were more eclectic and experimental, over time Adidam increasingly came to resemble the Hindu tradition of bhakti yoga. The practice of Adidam is now defined by its emphasis on a devotional relationship to Adi Da, whom followers see as an enlightened source of power serving as the sole gateway to the divine. Adi Da's followers often refer to him simply as "Beloved". Through devotion and service, it is believed that the follower's consciousness is gradually transformed in the image of Adi Da's. While devotion to Adi Da and the study of his teachings are the primary features of Adidam, other specified practices are also prescribed, including the study of other religious texts, physical exercises, regulation of sexuality, and a raw vegan diet.
Adi Da said that after his death there would not be any further teachings or "revelations", and that his message was complete. His artwork, writings, and the religious hermitages and sanctuaries "empowered" by his presence are to remain as expressions of his teaching and being. He was emphatic that no individual assert themselves as his representative or heir.
While the church is based on Naitaba Island, Fiji, there are five officially designated ashrams, or "sanctuaries", belonging to Adidam. Three are located in North America, with another in Hawaii. Followers of Adidam have been ambitious and prolific in their dissemination of Adi Da's books and teachings; however, the church is estimated to have remained more or less constant at approximately 1,000 members worldwide since 1974, with a high rate of turnover among membership.
Orpheus and Eurydice (diptych), 2008 Eurydice One: The Illusory Fall of the Bicycle into The Sub-Atomic Parallel Worlds of Primary Color and Point of ViewPart Three: The Abstract Narrative in Geome and Linnead (Second Stage) - L 4 (from Linnead One) 2007, 2009 - Lacquer on aluminum, 96 x 198 x 5 inches.
Adi Da wrote prolifically about his spiritual philosophy, creating the Dawn Horse Press in 1973 to publish his books. It continues to print many Adi Da-authored titles. Best known among these is his autobiography, The Knee of Listening. First published in 1972, it has been reissued in a number of editions, undergoing extensive revisions and additions. The first edition was 271 pages long; the latest is 840.
In the last decade of his life, Adi Da created visual art. These works were primarily photographic and digitally produced. He labeled his style "Transcendental Realism." In 2007 Adi Da's works were included in an exhibition collateral to the Venice Biennale in Italy curated by Italian art historian Achille Bonito Oliva; the exhibit then moved to Florence.
The Spectra Suites, a book of Adi Da's art, has an introduction by American art historian and critic Donald Kuspit.
From 1980 to 1990, philosophical theorist and author Ken Wilber wrote a number of enthusiastic endorsements and forewords for Adi Da's books, including The Dawn Horse Testament, The Divine Emergence of the World-Teacher, and Scientific Proof of the Existence of God Will Soon Be Announced by the White House! Wilber also recommended Adi Da as a spiritual teacher to those interested in his own writings.
Later, Wilber alternated between praise and pointed criticism. In his last public statement concerning Adi Da he wrote: "I affirm all of the extremes of my statements about Da: he is one of the greatest spiritual Realizers of all time, in my opinion, and yet other aspects of his personality lag far behind those extraordinary heights. By all means, look to him for utterly profound revelations, unequaled in many ways; yet step into his community at your own risk."
In 1982, yoga and religion scholar Georg Feuerstein formally became a follower of Adi Da and wrote a number of introductions to Adi Da books. He later renounced this affiliation, becoming publicly critical of Adi Da and the community surrounding him in Fiji. Feuerstein devoted a chapter to Adi Da in his 1991 book Holy Madness: Spirituality, Crazy-Wise Teachers, and Enlightenment. In the introduction to the 2006 edition, Feuerstein describes having edited the sections devoted to Adi Da to reflect these changes in opinion.
Asian-Religions scholar Scott Lowe was an early follower of Adi Da and lived in the community in 1974. In an essay later analyzing what he had witnessed as well as Adi Da's subsequent career, he perceives a pattern of "abusive, manipulative, and self-centered" behavior, saying "does it necessarily follow that the individual who is 'liberated' is free to indulge in what appear to be egocentric, hurtful, and damaging actions in the name of spiritual freedom? I personally think not, while acknowledging the subtlety and complexity of the ongoing debate".
Lowe and others have also criticized Adi Da's claims toward the exclusivity of his realization. In part, critics point to his earlier message, strongly rejecting the necessity for any religious authority or belief, due to "enlightenment" being every individual's natural condition.
Adi Da heavily edited subsequent editions of his books, for which they have been criticized as auto-hagiography and self-mythology.
In a foreword to the 2004 edition of Adi Da's autobiography The Knee Of Listening, religious scholar Jeffrey Kripal described Adi Da's total corpus as being "the most doctrinally thorough, the most philosophically sophisticated, the most culturally challenging, and the most creatively original literature currently available in the English language."
Physician and homeopath Gabriel Cousens wrote an endorsement for Adi Da's biography The Promised God-Man Is Here, saying, "it has deepened my experience of Him as the Divine Gift established in the cosmic domain". He also mentions Adi Da in his books Spiritual Nutrition and Tachyon Energy.
The Knee Of Listening: The Divine Ordeal of The Avataric Incarnation of Conscious Light. Book Four of the Seventeen Companions of the True Dawn Horse. 1st ed. 1972 subtitled "The Early Life and Radical Spiritual Teachings of Franklin Jones", 2nd ed. 1973, 3rd ed. 1978, 4th ed. 1984, standard ed. 1992, new ed. 1995 subtitled "The Early-Life Ordeal and the Radical Spiritual Realization of the Divine World-Teacher, Adi Da (The Da Avatar)", standard ed. 2004: ISBN1-57097-167-6
The Method of the Siddhas: Talks with Franklin Jones on the Spiritual Technique of the Saviors of Mankind, 1st ed. 1973, 2nd printing 1973, 3rd ed. 1978, 4th ed. 1987, new ed. 1992, new ed. 1995, new ed. 2004 as My Bright Word: Discourses from The Divine Siddha-Method Of The Ruchira Avatar: ISBN1-57097-015-7
Garbage and the Goddess: The Last Miracles and Final Spiritual Instructions of Bubba Free John, 1974: ISBN0-913922-10-2
Conscious Exercise and the Transcendental Sun, 1st ed. 1974, 2nd ed. 1975, 3rd ed. 1977: ISBN0-913922-30-7
No Remedy: An Introduction to the Life and Practices of the Spiritual Community of Bubba Free John, 1st ed. 1975, 2nd ed. 1976: ISBN0-913922-20-X
The Paradox of Instruction: An Introduction to the Esoteric Spiritual Teaching of Bubba Free John, 1977: ISBN0-913922-28-5
Breath and Name: The Initiation And Foundation Practices Of Free Spiritual Life, 1977: ISBN0-913922-29-3
The Way That I Teach: Talks on the Intuition of Eternal Life, 1978: ISBN0-913922-38-2
The Enlightenment of the Whole Body: A Rational and New Prophetic Revelation of the Truth of Religion, Esoteric Spirituality, and the Divine Destiny of Man, 1978: ISBN0-913922-35-8
Love of the Two-Armed Form: The Free and Regenerative Function of Sexuality in Ordinary Life and the Transcendence of Sexuality in True Religious or Spiritual Practice, 1st ed. 1978, 2nd ed. 1985: ISBN0-913922-37-4
The Eating Gorilla Comes in Peace: The Transcendental Principle of Life Applied to Diet and the Regenerative Discipline of True Health, 1st ed. 1979, 2nd ed. 1987: ISBN0-913922-19-6
The Four Fundamental Questions: Talks and Essays About Human Experience and the Actual Practice of an Enlightened Way of Life, 1st ed. 1980, reprinted 1984: ISBN0-913922-49-8
Compulsory Dancing: Talks and Essays on the Spiritual and Evolutionary Necessity of Emotional Surrender to the Life-Principle, 1st ed. 1980, reprinted 1983: ISBN0-913922-50-1
Bodily Worship of the Living God: The Esoteric Practice of Prayer Taught by Da Free John, 1st ed. 1980, 2nd ed. 1983: ISBN0-913922-52-8
Scientific Proof of the Existence of God Will Soon Be Announced By The White House!: Prophetic Wisdom About the Myths and Idols of Mass Culture and Popular Religious Cultism, the New Priesthood of Scientific and Political Materialism, and the Secrets of Enlightenment Hidden in the Body of Man, 1980: ISBN0-913922-48-X
The Bodily Sacrifice of Attention: Introductory Talks on Radical Understanding and the Life of Divine Ignorance, 1981: ISBN0-913922-59-5
"I" Is the Body of Life: Talks and Essays on the Art and Science of Equanimity and the Self-Transcending Process of Radical Understanding, 1981: ISBN0-913922-60-9
The Bodily Location of Happiness: On the Incarnation of the Divine Person and the Transmission of Love-Bliss, 1982: ISBN0-913922-61-7
Raw Gorilla: The Principles of Regenerative Raw Diet Applied in True Spiritual Practice as lived by members of The Johannine Daist Communion under the guidance of the Divine Adept Da Free John, 1982: ISBN0-913922-62-5
The Da Upanishad: The Short Discourses on Self-Renunciation, God-Realization, and the Illusion of Relatedness, 1989: ISBN0-918801-16-8
The Lion Sutra: The "Perfect" Revelation-Book of the Divine World-Teacher and True Heart-Master, Da Avabhasa (The "Bright"). (On Perfect Transcendence Of The Primal Act, Which Is the ego-"I", the self-Contraction, or attention itself, and All The Illusions Of Separateness, Otherness, Relatedness, and Difference), previously published as The Love-Ananda Gita (The Free Song of Love-Bliss), 1st ed. 1986, new ed 1995: ISBN1-57097-012-2
Feeling Without Limitation: Awakening to the Truth Beyond Fear, Sorrow, and Anger, 1991: ISBN0-918801-28-1
The Heart's Shout: The Liberating Wisdom of Da Avabhasa, 1st ed. 1993, 2nd ed. 1996: ISBN1-57097-019-X
The Incarnation of Love: "Radical" Spiritual Wisdom and Practical Instruction on Self-Transcendending Love and Service in All Relationships by The Divine World-Teacher and True Heart-Master, Da Avabhasa (The "Bright"), 1st ed. 1993, 2nd printing 1994, 3rd printing 1994: ISBN0-918801-86-9
Money: The Commitment of Life-Force in the Forms of Efforts and Love. Instructions on Financial Responsibility and the Sacred Use of Money in the Way of the Heart from The Divine World-Teacher and True Heart-Master, Da Avabhasa (The "Bright"), 1993: ISBN0-918801-88-5
The Art and Yoga of Sexual Practice: Talks on the Regenerative Sexual Yoga for Beginners in the Way of the Heart, 1994: ISBN0-918801-97-4
Abide WIth Me In Faithful Love: The Heart-Word of Adi Da (The Da Avatar) on Sexual Practice and Renunciation in the Way of the Heart, 1995: ISBN1-57097-020-3
The Order Of My Free Names: The Self-Revelation of the Incarnate Divine Person, Adi Da, and How to Call Him By Name, 1996: ISBN1-57097-024-6
Drifted In The Deeper Land: Talks on Relinquishing the Superficiality of Mortal Existence and Falling by Grace in the Divine Depth That Is Reality Itself, 1997: ISBN1-57097-037-8
The Mummery Book: A Parable Of The Divine True Love, Told By Means Of A Self-Illuminated Illustration Of The Totality Of Mind, 2005: ISBN1-57097-175-7
Real God Is The Indivisible Oneness Of Unbroken Light: Reality, Truth and The "Non-Creator" God In The True World-Religion Of Adidam. Book One of The Seventeen Companions of The True Dawn Horse. 1999: ISBN1-57097-055-6
The Truly Human New World-Culture Of Unbroken Real-God-Man: The Eastern Versus The Western Traditional Cultures Of Mankind and The Unique New Non-Dual Culture Of The True World-Religion of Adidam. Book Two of the Seventeen Companions of the True Dawn Horse. 1999: ISBN1-57097-056-4
What, Where, When, How, Why, and Who To Remember To Be Happy Book: A Simple Explanation Of The Divine Way Of Adidam (For Children, and Everyone Else). Book Thirteen of the Seventeen Companions of the True Dawn Horse. 2000: ISBN1-57097-074-2
I Give You The Gift Of One Another: The Call to ego-Transcending Cooperation and the Creation of Authentic Intimate (Local) and Global Community, 2000: ISBN1-57097-083-1
Death Is A Living Process: The Mate Moce Guide to Serving the Dying, 2000: ISBN1-57097-085-8
The Seven Stages Of Life: Transcending The Six Stages Of egoic Life and Realizing The ego-Transcending Seventh Stage Of Life In The Divine Way Of Adidam. Book Ten of the Seventeen Companions of the True Dawn Horse. 2000: ISBN1-57097-105-6
Aham Da Asmi (Beloved, I Am Da). Book One of The Five Books of The Heart of The Adidam Revelation. 1st ed. 1998, 2nd ed. 2000, 3rd ed. 2003: ISBN1-57097-163-3
Da Love-Ananda Gita (The Free Avataric Gift of the Divine Love-Bliss). Book Two of The Five Books of The Heart of The Adidam Revelation. 1st ed. The Love-Ananda Gita 1989, standard ed. The Love-Ananda Gita 1990, standard ed. The Santosha Avatara Gita 1995, standard ed. 1998, standard ed. 2000, standard ed. 2005: ISBN1-57097-166-8
Ruchira Avatara Gita (The Avataric Way of the Divine Heart-Master). Book Three of The Five Books of The Heart of The Adidam Revelation. 1st ed. The Hymn of the Master 1982, new ed. The Hymn Of The True Heart-Master 1992, standard ed. The Hymn Of The Tue Heart-Master 1995, standard ed. 1998, standard ed. 2000, standard ed. 2004: ISBN1-57097-164-1
Hridaya Rosary (Four Thorns Of Heart-Instruction). Book Four of The Five Books of The Heart of The Adidam Revelation. 1st ed. Four Thorns Of Heart-Instruction 1997, standard ed. 1998, standard ed. 2000, standard ed. 2005: ISBN1-57097-204-4
Eleutherios (The Only Truth That Sets The Heart Free). Book Five of The Five Books of The Heart of The Adidam Revelation. 1st ed. [The Liberator (Eleutherios)] 1982, new ed. [The Liberator (Eleutherios)], 1995, standard ed. 1998, standard ed. 2001, standard ed. 2006: ISBN1-57097-187-0
The Dawn Horse Testament Of The Ruchira Avatar: The Testament Of Divine Secrets Of The Divine World-Teacher, Ruchira Avatar, Adi Da Samraj, 1st ed. 1985, 2nd ed. 1991, new ed. 2004: ISBN1-57097-168-4
Easy Death: Spiritual Wisdom on the Ultimate Transcending of Death and Everything Else, 1st ed. 1983, 2nd ed. 1991, 3rd ed. 2005: ISBN1-57097-202-8
Religion and Reality: True Religion Is Not Belief in Any God-Idea but the Direct Experiential Realization of Reality Itself, 2006: ISBN1-57097-212-5
The Ancient Reality-Teachings: The Single Transcendental Truth Taught by the Great Sages of Buddhism and Advaitism, 2006: ISBN1-57097-198-6
The Liberator: The "Radical" Reality-Teachings of The Avataric Great Sage, Adi Da Samraj, 2006: ISBN1-57097-211-7
The Perfect Tradition: The Wisdom-Way of the Ancient Sages and Its Fulfillment in the Way of "Perfect Knowledge", 2006: ISBN1-57097-197-8
The Way of Perfect Knowledge: The "Radical" Practice of Transcendental Spirituality in the Way of Adidam, 2006: ISBN1-57097-213-3
The Yoga of Right Diet: An Intelligent Approach To Dietary Practice That Supports Communion with the Living Divine Reality, 2006: ISBN1-57097-193-5
The Ancient Walk-About Way: The Core Esoteric Process of Real Spirituality and Its Perfect Fulfillment in the Way of Adidam, 2007: ISBN1-57097-221-4
"Radical" Transcendentalism: The Non-"Religious", Post-"Scientific", and No-Seeking Reality-Way of Adidam, 2007: ISBN1-57097-226-5
^Gallagher, Eugene V.; Ashcraft, W. Michael (2006). Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, Vol IV. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press. p. 93. ISBN0-275-98712-4. "Jones has made his self-protective seclusion a defining mark of his teaching career."
^Feuerstein, Georg (1996). "Holy Madness: The Dangerous and Disillusioning Example of Da Free John". What is Enlightenment?. Spring/Summer 1996 (9). ISSN1080-3432.
^ abcLowe, Scott; Lane, David (1996). DA: The Strange Case of Franklin Jones. Mt. San Antonio College Philosophy Group. ISBN1-56543-054-9."Not only had I seen nothing out of the ordinary, but no one within my earshot had mentioned anything at all about the miracle at the very time it was supposedly happening...It slowly emerged that I was not alone in missing this miracle; my skeptical cohorts on the community's fringe were similarly in the dark. Within several days, we were drawn aside, individually, for somber meetings with the ashram authorities in which we were told that it had been a mistake to accept us into the community without testing."
^"US-Born Cult Leader on Fiji Island Treated Like a God". Fiji Sun. October 25, 2007.
^ abGallagher... "Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America," Vol IV, p.86-88
^Feuerstein, Georg, "Holy Madness," 1st ed., Arkana, 1992, p. 80
^"Obituaries". Columbia College Today. June 2009. Retrieved 2020.
^Jones, Franklin "The Knee of Listening: The Life and Understanding of Franklin Jones" (1971), chapter 4 "He had some raw peyote, and we decided to take the drug, although neither of us had any idea what its effects would be. In the past months I had used marijuana a few times and found it very enjoyable and relaxing. And so I willingly accepted a chance for some kind of very powerful "high.""
^Adi Da, "The Knee of Listening," Middletown, CA: Dawn Horse Press, 1995, p. 168, "I would often exploit the possibilities of sex or become deeply drunk on wine, engage in orgies of eating, or smoke marijuana for hours."
^Gourley, Edmiston "Adidam Comes to the North Coast", North Coast Journal Weekly, Jan. 14, 1999 "Following a summer job as a hotel waiter, during which time he experimented with peyote, Jones entered graduate school at Stanford University...During this time, his autobiography states, Jones took "large doses" of cough medicine and was a poorly paid subject for hallucinogenic drug trials which included mescaline, LSD and psilocybin that were being conducted at the local Veterans Administration hospital. Responding to what he called a vision, Jones prepared to leave California in June 1964 in search of a spiritual teacher in New York City."
^Jones, Franklin "The Knee of Listening..." (1971), chapter 8 "By the spring of 1965 I had begun to use marijuana frequently. I found it relaxing and particularly necessary under the pressure of work and effort that Rudi required. But the drug began to have a peculiarly negative effect...I would realize a profound anxiety and fear...I took other drugs with my old friends. We took Romilar [cough syrup] again, but now its effects seemed minor...I took a drug called DMT which had a remarkable and miraculous effect...Such remarkable states of awareness combined with my rising sense of anxiety, fear and reluctance in relation to drugs, so that finally, in the early summer of 1965, I determined somehow to stop their use"
^Jones, Franklin "The Knee of Listening..." (1971), chapter 4 "I voluntarily submitted to drug trials at the V.A. hospital in Fountain View, California...At the V.A. hospital I was given a dose of drugs one day per week. I was told that I would be given mescalin, LSD, or psilocybin at three separate sessions, and, during a fourth session, some combination of these...There were also various bizarre experiences and periods of anxiety...I suffered anxiety attacks and occasional nervousness for perhaps a year beyond the actual tests."
^Gallagher... "Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America," Vol IV, p.88 "Jones discovered that his psychedelic drug experiences sometimes mimicked the ecstatic states he had known in childhood and was now desperate to recapture."
^Gallagher... "Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America," Vol IV, p.88 "He spent 1963-64 secluded in remote cabins in northern California working on his writing...he was supported by Nina Davis, a woman he later married, establishing a pattern of financial dependence that was to mark all but a few years of his life."
^Jones, Knee...Ashram (1972), p. 22-23 "After my experiences at the VA hospital, I went into a period of relative seclusion...Nina worked as a schoolteacher and supported our living."
^Patterson, W.P., The Gurdjieff Journal, "Gurdjieff & The New Age Part IX, Franklin Jones & Rudi Part I": "Jones and his girlfriend, Nina, went to live in a cabin in the mountains above Santa Cruz where she supported them while after he meditated, did drugs and tried to make sense out of what he had experienced by immersing himself in books of hermetic wisdom."
^Jones, "Knee..." Ashram (1972), p.35 "I saw pictures of a store with oriental sculpture...in New York..."
^Swami Rudrananda [Rudi]. Spiritual Cannibalism. Links Books, New York, 1973, First Edition[page needed]
^Historical dictionary of New Age movements by Michael York The Rowman Litterfield Publishing Group, 2004, pp 11-12
^Gallagher... "Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America," Vol IV, p.88
^Gallagher...Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America Vol. IV, p. 91
^Rawlinson, Andrew, Book of Enlightened Masters: Western Teachers in Eastern Traditions Open Court (1997) ISBN0-8126-9310-8 page 222
^Gordon/Baumann. Religions of The World- A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO Ltd. (2002). ISBN1-57607-223-1. page 3 In his autobiography he asserts that he was born in a state of perfect awareness.... Jones spent his college and subsequent years in a spiritual quest...
^Jones, The Knee of Listening, 1972 ed., pp. 101-102.
^Gallagher, Eugene, Ashcraft, Michael. (2006). Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, Volume V, p.85 "...began to attract a small following"
^"Hypnotic Da Free John - Svengali of the truth-seeking set", San Francisco Examiner/April 5, 1985
^ ab"The Gurdjieff Journal," Gurdjieff & The New Age Part IX, Franklin Jones & Rudi Part I, by William Patrick Patterson
^Gallagher...Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America Vol. IV, p. 88-89
^Gallagher...Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America Vol. IV, p. 88
^Gallagher..."Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America" Vol. IV, pp. 85-86
^Lowe, Scott and Lane, David. (1996) "DA: The Strange Case of Franklin Jones", Mt. San Antonio College Philosophy Group: "In his evening talks, Da Free John frequently referred to Muktananda as a "black magician." Muktananda spoke of his former student in similar terms."
^Gallagher...Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America Vol. IV, pp. 90-91
^Feuerstein, "Holy Madness," p. 83 "[Jones] believed that his guru was settling for less than the ultimate, while Muk. dismissed [Jones] arguments as pretentious...a breach between them opened that never formally healed. [Jones] continued to criticize Muk. in talks and publications, while at the same time acknowledging his debt..."
^Gallagher...Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America Vol. IV, pp. 85, 105
^Feuerstein, Georg and Feuerstein, Patricia (1982) Remembrance Of The Divine Names of Da, ISBN0-913922-72-2
^The Yoga Tradition: Its History, Literature, Philosophy and Practice By Georg Feuerstein; p25
^Feuerstein, "Holy Madness," (1992) p.84 "(students) experienced visions, spontaneous body movements known as kriyas, bliss states, heart openings, kundalini arousals, and several were apparently drawn into the mystical unitive state or even into temporary sahaja-samadhi"
^Butler, Katy: "Sex Practices Did Not Cease, Marin Cult Officials Admit" San Francisco Chronicle, April 9, 1985 "Officials of the Free John group said they participate in "spiritual theater," a kind of psychodrama in which people are encouraged to release sexual and emotional problems as they travel the path to union with God."
^Feuerstein, "Holy Madness," p. 86-87 "In 1974 he started his "sexual theater", involving the switching of partners, sexual orgies, the making of pornographic movies, and intensified sexual practices - all of which led to the temporary or, in some case permanent breakups of relationships"
^Free John, Bubba, "Garbage and the Goddess: the last Miracles and Final Spiritual Instructions of Bubba Free John," DHP, 1974, p. 13 "This is what the spiritual life is all about...nothing conventional survives."
^...Gurdjieff Journal: "In particular, Bubba attacked the "cult of pairs" and notions of marriage in particular, which he said only serves the seeking and separateness which at root are the denial of the Divinity of the simple here and now...Bubba first told them: "The instant you marry, you must discard it. Otherwise marriage is another cultic form, a sex contract, in which you become medievally involved with personality forms, making yourself strategically unavailable to the rest of life, and again mutually create the sensation of separate existence, including "poor me" or "fantastic me."... The cult of marriage is a principal obstacle in the affair of the spiritual Community..." Bubba then broke up couples and marriages and began what was called the "sexual theater," that of switching partners, instituting orgies and making pornographic movies.
^Leydecker, Mary: "Suit Shatters Calm for Sect Members, "Marin Independent-Journal, April 5, 1985
^Bubba Free John, "Garbage and the Goddess" (Lower Lake, CA: Dawn Horse Press, 1974)
^Feuerstein, Georg (1996), "Holy Madness: The Dangerous and Disillusioning Example of Da Free John," What Is Enlightenment? Issue 9
^Seidman, Peter, "Sexual experiments continued after '76, JDC officiaIs admit"
Mill Valley Record/April 10, 1985
^Butler, Katy: "Sex Practices Did Not Cease, Marin Cult Officials Admit"
San Francisco Chronicle, April 9, 1985
^ abMolly Colin, Peter Seidman, and Tony Lewis, "Defectors voice several charges"
Mill Valley Record/April 3, 1985
^Neary, Walt,'Inner Circle Privy to Parties,' Lake County Record Bee, April 12, 1985
^Sex Slave Sues Guru: Pacific Isle Orgies Charged San Francisco Chronicle, April 4, 1985.
^Molly Colin, "Da Free John Sect Sues 6 Ex-Members On Extortion Charge, The Mill Valley Record, April 17, 1985.
^Feuerstein, "Holy Madness," Arkana, 1992, p.90 "sexual [experiments] were for the most part confined to an inner circle. But occasionally some relative newcomers were included. This happened to one couple in 1982, who provide this fascinating extensive account...(p. 92)Tantra-style encounters of this kind occurred periodically and more or less secretly until at least the end of 1985, and led to legal difficulties..."
^Wildermuth, John, "Sex Guru Touts Celibacy", The San Francisco Chronicle, June 16th, 1986, "...a Marin County judge ruled that O'Mahony had no legal basis for bringing the (lawsuit)..."
^"Deep Throat's Daughter, The Kindred Free Spirit", Washington Post, June 12, 2005 "The lawsuits and threatened suits that dogged the group in the mid-1980s were settled with payments and confidentiality agreements, says a California lawyer, Ford Greene, who handled three such cases."
^Gallagher...Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America Vol. IV, p. 93
^Feuerstein, "Holy Madness," Arkana, 1992, p.267-268 "Over the years, [Jones] has been sued several times by disaffected students, although institutional representatives have so far succeeded in keeping him out of court. Cases were settled by arbitration, which bled the [church] financially."
^Feuerstein, Georg. (2006). Holy Madness: Spirituality, Crazy-Wise Teachers, An Enlightenment, Hohm Press. ISBN1-890772-54-2 pp. 166 - 167 "On January 11 he underwent what he describes as a "literal death experience" This was of many experiences of this kind since his days in college. This particular incident, however, was subsequently greatly elaborated and invested with special significance and it continues to shape his relationship with devotees into the present...In a talk given at the end of February 1986, he explained that on that eventful morning he has spoken to his close devotees of his grief sorrow and frustration and the seemingly futility of his teaching work..."
^Gallagher... "Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America," Vol IV, p. 94 "the most loudly trumpeted event since Jones' initial enlightenment was his so-called 'Divine Emergence', the result of an apparent 'near-death' experience Jones had in 1986. As Jones describes it, he was in such despair over the failure of his work that he prayed for an immediate end to the charade."
^Feuerstein, Georg. (2006). Holy Madness: Spirituality, Crazy-Wise Teachers, And Enlightenment, Hohm Press. ISBN1-890772-54-2 "Page 166 - 167 "He explained that most enlightened beings "incarnate only partially" into the body. Adi Da said that in this event he "descended" fully into the body, becoming "utterly human"...it was sufficient for disciples to simply meditate upon him to "participate in his enlightened state"
^Gallagher... "Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America," Vol IV, p.95, "the year 2000 was momentous for Jones. He was not recognized by the entire world, contrary to expectations, and he died again."
^York, Michael, Historical Dictionary of New Age Movements, Rowman Litterfield Publishing Group, ISBN978-0-8108-4873-3, 2004, p. 12 "Since his "emergence" Adi Da has shifted his focus from teaching to..."Spiritual Blessing Work" to diminish the world's negative forces.
^ abGallagher... "Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America," Vol IV, p.96
^Gallagher... "Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America," Vol IV, p.95; Adi Da "actively recruited followers of [Lenz] after his highly sedated death by drowning. Lenz's followers were widely admired for their success in business and computing and represented an attractive potential "catch." From all reports, Jones pulled out all the stops, giving immediate satsang to Lenz's followers and inviting some directly into his inner circle, deeply offending his own long-suffering devotees. Jones also proclaimed that Lenz...had been a reincarnation of Swami Rama Tirtha...a former disciple."
^Feuerstein, Holy Madness (2006), p.176 "Also in the year 2000, Adi da welcomed into his church the remaining community of Fredrick P Lenz III"
^from an email sent to the Adidam community by a spokesperson in Fiji
Dear Devotees, It is the middle of the night here at Adi Da Samrajashram, devotees remain in what is now clearly the Mahasamadhi Vigil of Beloved Bhagavan Sapta Na Adi Da Samraj. The time of Beloved Bhagavan's Divine Mahasamadhi is being placed at approximately 5:10 PM on Thursday, November 27th, 2008. Everyone here has been shocked at how quickly the Mahasamadhi occurred. Bhagavan Adi Da was sitting in His Chair Working in Picture Perfect. Just a minute before, He had been Giving Instructions relative to His Divine Image Art. A few minutes before that, He had been speaking humorously and laughing. And then He silently fell over on His Side and within a very short period of no more than a couple of minutes, He had entered into His Mahasamadhi. Dr. Charles Seage and Dr. Andrew Dorfman diagnose that Beloved Bhagavan suffered a fatal heart attack.
^Gallagher...New Religions, p.100 "...despite this state being well attested in yogic literature (for instance among the ascetic Bauls of Bengal), Adi Da portrayed it as his own exclusive state."
^Samraj, Adi Da, Eleutherios, Dawn Horse Press, 2006, p. 456; "I Am the First (and the Only One) to Realize and to Demonstrate seventh stage Realization, which (now, and forever hereafter) I Alone, and Uniquely, Reveal and Transmit to all my formally practicing true devotees and thus potentially to all beings."
^Feuerstein, Georg. (2006) Holy Madness, p. 167 "it was sufficient for disciples to simply meditate upon him to "participate in his enlightened state"
^Gallagher/Ashcraft, Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America, p. 99
^George D. Chryssides, The A to Z of New Religious Movements, Rowan Litterfield Publishing Group, 2001, p. 47
^Reilly, Gary; "How Franklin Jones Became the Master", The Mill Valley Record/April 3, 1985
^Gallagher... "Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America," Vol IV, p.98-99
^Gallagher, The New Religious Movements Experience in America, p.98-99
^Gallagher... "Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America," Vol IV, p.97
^Samraj, Adi Da, "The Orders of My True and Free Renunciate Devotees", Dawn Horse Press, 2007, pg.110 "all those who truly devotionally recognize Avatar Adi Da serve as "instruments" of His Blessing-Regard in the world."
^Gallagher, The New Religious Movements Experience in America, p.97
^Gallagher... "Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America," Vol IV, pp.86, 105
^Feuerstein 1992, p. 93 "[He] has a flair for drama and it has been successful in keeping the attention of [some] for years...but it evidently is not a way that holds an attraction for larger numbers of spiritually motivated people."
^ abGallagher... "Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America," Vol IV, p.106 "Jones significantly modified later editions of Knee, including...""...in later editions, Jones' childhood is presented as utterly exceptional...It is clear that Jones' autobiography might best be understood as a kind of auto-hagiography, since its purpose is to preserve for posterity a sanitized, mythologized, and highly selective account of Jones' life and spiritual adventures."
^Gallagher... "Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America," Vol IV, pp.106
^Gallagher..."Introduction to New and Alternative Religions in America," Vol IV, pp.98-99
^Lowe, Scott and Lane, David. (1996) "DA: The Strange Case of Franklin Jones". Mt. San Antonio College Philosophy Group, p.23
^Feuerstein, (1992) pp.83, 96 "the original published version has the ring of authenticity and can be appreciated as a remarkable mystical document...Later [editions], regrettably, tend toward mythologization..."
^"Da: The Strange Case of Franklin Jones", by Scott Lowe and David Lane, Walnut CA: Mt. San Antonio College, 1996.
^Ellwood, Robert. (1997)"Nova Religio" book review of "DA: The Strange Case of Franklin Jones", October 1997, Vol. 1, No. 1, Pages 153-153
^Samraj, Adi Da (2004). "Foreword". The Knee Of Listening. p. xiv.