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Adaptations of Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde
The work is known for its vivid portrayal of a split personality, and since the 1880s dozens of stage and film adaptations have been produced, although there have been no major adaptations to date that remain faithful to the narrative structure of Stevenson's original. Most omit the figure of Utterson, telling the story from Jekyll's and Hyde's viewpoint and often having them played by the same actor, thus eliminating entirely the mystery aspect of the true identity of Hyde, which was the original's twist ending and not the basic premise it is today. Many adaptations also introduce a romantic element which does not exist in the original story. While Hyde is portrayed in the novella as an evil-looking man of diminutive height, many adaptations have taken liberties with the character's physical appearance, sometimes depicting him with bestial or monstrous features.
There are over 123 film versions, not including stage and radio, as well as a number of parodies and imitations. Notable examples are listed below in chronological order.
1887, a play in four acts. Thomas Russell Sullivan's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde opened in Boston in May 1887. The first serious theatrical rendering, it went on to tour Britain and ran for 20 years. It became forever linked with Richard Mansfield's performance; he continued playing the part until shortly before his death in 1907. Sullivan reworked the plot to centre around a domestic love interest.
1888, a play in four acts. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde was written by John McKinney in collaboration with the actor Daniel E. Bandmann. It opened at Niblo's Garden in March 1887 with Bandmann in the title role. Later that year it competed directly with Sullivan's 1887 adaptation, when both opened in London within days of each other.
1994, a musical for schools opened, Jekyll!, written by Alex Went, with music by John Moore, and directed by Peter Fanning. First performed at Shrewsbury School in 1994. The touring production at the 1995 Edinburgh Fringe was awarded a Fringe First for outstanding new drama.
2009, a new theatrical adaptation by playwright Jeffrey Hatcher, for Tony Award-winning local Cincinnati Playhouse in the Park.
2010, The Holden Kemble Theatre Company run a new adaptation titled The Scandalous Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde at the Edinburgh Festival and then a 3 week run at the Tabard Theatre in Chiswick, London.
2012, Synetic Theater runs a critically acclaimed silent adaptation of Jekyll & Hyde featuring Alex Mills as Jekyll/Hyde, Peter Pereyra as Lanyon, and Brittany O'Grady as the Fiancée.
2012, new version by Jonathan Holloway workshopped and premiered at The Courtyard Theatre, London, featuring Melody Roche as Jekyll, Charlie Allen as Utterson and Gary Blair as Enfield.
2013, a version of the story presented by Flipping the Bird at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival, explores the unique twist of Jekyll as a woman, Doctor Tajemnica Jekyll, recently arrived in London from an unspecified foreign country, whose transformation to Edward Hyde came about as part of her desire to defy social boundaries. Utterson serves as her lover and lawyer, while she claims Hyde is her deformed nephew before admitting the truth.
2016, Bangor English Dramatic Society will stage a version of 'A New Case of Jekyll and Hyde' at the Edinburgh Fringe Festival, transferring the story to a modern setting, dealing with how Mrs Elizabeth Jekyll helps her husband recover from post traumatic stress disorder, through making a serum and testing it on herself. This serum appears to lower inhibitions rather than explicitly releasing the darker side of the subject, with Elizabeth apparently more aggressive than other subjects as she drank alcohol shortly after consuming the serum, subsequently using smaller doses of it in drinks to make her associates- such as her friend Harriet Lanyon and psychiatrist Doctor Utterson- more suggestible to her commands.
1920, film Germany, Der Januskopf (literally, The Janus-Head, Janus being a Roman God depicted with two faces). Directed by F. W. Murnau. An unauthorized version of Stevenson's story, disguised by changing the names to Dr. Warren and Mr. O'Connor. The dual roles were essayed by Conrad Veidt. The film is now lost.
1931, film USA, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Known for its acting, visual symbolism, and special effects, it follows the Sullivan plot. Fredric March won the Academy Award for his portrayal. The technical secret of the transformation scenes was not revealed until after the director's death.
1957, film U.S., Daughter of Dr. Jekyll. A young woman discovers she's the daughter of Dr. Jekyll. This low-budget adaption includes the bizarre and unique feature of Mr. Hyde as a "human werewolf", who can only be destroyed by a stake through the heart, which is the traditional way of killing vampires, not werewolves.
1960, film UK, The Two Faces of Dr. Jekyll (released in the US as House of Fright and Jekyll's Inferno). A lurid love triangle and explicit scenes of snakes, opium dens, rape, murder and bodies crashing through glass roofs.
1971, film UK, I, Monster. Starring Christopher Lee in the Jekyll and Hyde role and Peter Cushing as Utterson. Recasts Jekyll (with a name change to Dr. Charles Marlowe/Mr. Edward Blake) as a 1906 Freudian psychotherapist. Retains some of Stevenson's original plot and dialogue.
2006, film Canada, Jekyll + Hyde. Starring Bryan Fisher as Henry "J" Jekyll and Bree Turner as Utterson. Two medical students set out to create a drug derived from ecstasy that would enhance and change their personalities.
2008, film U.S., Igor. Jaclyn (Jennifer Coolidge) stars as the henchman of Dr. Schadenfreude (Eddie Izzard), turning into Heidi to spy on Schadenfreude's competition.
2012, BBC Radio Scotland crime drama, The Strange Case of Dr. Hyde, a four-part reworking of the Stevenson story written by Chris Dolan set in modern-day Edinburgh. Detective Inspector Newman (David Rintoul), assisted by Detective Constable Lanyon (Kenny Blyth), is investigating a series of mutilation murders and seeks the help of eccentric pathologist Dr. Hyde (Jimmy Chisholm), becoming involved along the way with solicitor Jane Poole (Wendy Seager).
2016, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, BBC Radio 4BBC Drama with Stuart McQuarrie as Jekyll, John Dougall as Hyde and Madeleine Worrall as Lorna Utterson This version is presented as a speculative version of what the original Jekyll & Hyde would have been like before Stevenson edited it based on his wife's objections, and introduces the twist of a third identity for Jekyll in the form of George Denman, intended to represent all the most positive aspects of Jekyll's character, only for Denman to regress to Hyde when he loses his temper.
1955, Season 1 Episode of CBS's live CLIMAX! drama program starring Michael Rennie. Hosted by Bill Lundigan, this episode was originally aired on 28 July 1955 (Season 1 Episode 34). The story was adapted for television by Gore Vidal.
1968, TV U.S. and Canada, The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Starring Jack Palance, directed by Charles Jarrott and produced by Dan Curtis of Dark Shadows fame. Nominated for several Emmy awards, it follows Hyde on sexual conquests and hack and slash murders. The TV-movie aired on CBC in Canada on 3 January 1968; and on ABC in the US on 7 January.
1973, TV U.S. and England, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, a musical made-for-TV version starring Kirk Douglas in one of his few singing roles. No relation to the later musical version, the songs for this one were by Lionel Bart, who wrote Oliver.
1981, TV, UK, Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, a BBC adaptation directed by Alastair Reid with David Hemmings in the title roles. This version turns the convention of the (performed) role upside down, with Hemmings appearing in heavy make-up as Jekyll, and with less makeup as a debonair, man-about-town Hyde. This version also gives a twist to the usual ending when Jekyll's body turns into Mr. Hyde upon his death.
1990, TV U.S., Jekyll & Hyde, a made-for-television film starring Michael Caine in the title roles. Added to the story is Jekyll's sister-in-law character (Cheryl Ladd), who is raped by Hyde.
1999, TV film USA. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde starring Adam Baldwin. In this modern-day re-imagining, plastic surgeon Henry Jekyll learns ancient Chinese herbal medicine to give himself superhuman powers, which he uses to exact revenge for his wife's murder. Francis Ford Coppola produced.
2002, TV film UK Dr. Jekyll And Mr. Hyde starring John Hannah as both characters, with body language and wardrobe the only distinction between the appearance of the two. The narrative is chronologically disjointed, beginning with the end of the story then returning to the beginning via narrated flashbacks with the occasional brief glimpse of the reading of Jekyll's confession by Utterson.
2007, TV serial UK, Jekyll. A six-part BBC serial, aired from 16 June 2007, starring James Nesbitt as Tom Jackman, a modern Jekyll whose Hyde wreaks havoc in modern London.
2013, TV U.S., Do No Harm, an NBC series. This is a contemporary take on the story, with actor Steven Pasquale in dual roles as Dr. Jason Cole/Ian Price. Cole is a successful neurosurgeon who has long been able to suppress Price, his evil, alternate personality with an experimental drug. However, Price develops an immunity to the drug and subsequently wreaks havoc on Cole's life, when in control.
2015, TV UK, Jekyll & Hyde a "superhero-themed" 10-episode series, produced by ITV Studios for ITV, being filmed between February and July 2015. Beginning on 25 October 2015, the series takes place in the 1930s and centred around Robert Jekyll, the grandson of Henry Jekyll, who has inherited his grandfather's curse to become Mr. Hyde when angry, but could keep this from happening by taking special tablets. In the course of the series, Robert finds himself caught between MIO, a British organisation created to hunt the supernatural, and the ruthless Tenebrae, an organisation that seeks to use the supernatural for power, as well as his own attempts to control the Hyde within him by researching his family history, finding his long-hidden grandmother and previously-unknown sister (Who has a Hyde of her own).
2015, South Korean television romance-thriller series, Hyde, Jekyll, Me, starring Hyun Bin as both Hyde and Jekyll, renamed Seo-jin and Robin. In this version, Hyde is the main personality, while Jekyll is the new personality created by an accident.
"Jekyll and Hyde" appears on the 2001 Judas Priest album Demolition.
1890, The Untold Sequel of the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde by Frances H. Little is a 're-telling' of the story based on the idea that Edward Hyde was an actual person, a former actor whom Jekyll had met in America and brought to London, and not the alter-ego of Henry Jekyll. Told from the perspective first of Utterson and then of Hyde, the story recounts Hyde murdering first Sir Danvers Carew in an opium-induced fit of rage, then Jekyll for the inheritance stated in Jekyll's will, and finally hiding Jekyll's body in a secret room in Jekyll's house. Hyde finally tricks Lanyon with a false transformation before committing suicide as in Stevenson's book.
1979, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Holmes, by Loren D. Estleman, is a 'retelling' of the story based on the idea that Utterson hired Sherlock Holmes to investigate Hyde's connection to Jekyll in the belief that Hyde is a blackmailer. The novel is written in a manner that suggests it was essentially taking place 'behind the scenes' of the familiar storyline, with Utterson hiring Holmes to investigate the apparent blackmail and the Queen herself later asking Holmes to investigate the death of Sir Danvers. The story culminates with Holmes and Watson confronting Hyde just as he consumes the last sample of the potion to turn back into Jekyll, Jekyll telling them his story before forcing Holmes to kill him as he recognizes that Hyde will never commit suicide. In the novel's final chapter, Holmes shares the story with Robert Louis Stevenson, but asks that Stevenson leave Holmes and Watson out of his version of the story to prevent anyone realizing that it is a chronicle of real events and to avoid facing the legal issue of Holmes killing Jekyll even if in self-defence.
1990, Robert Bloch's The Jekyll Legacy acts as a sequel to the novel, in which Hester Lane, a reporter from Canada, discovers that she's Jekyll's heir. However, someone is continuing Jekyll's experiments. The novel takes an even more sinister turn as Jekyll's butler Poole and Mr. Utterson are bludgeoned to death.
2001, Ludovic Debeurme's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde illustrated edition adapted for young readers.
The Robert Swindells book Jacqueline Hyde concerns the protagonist's struggle with her 'Hyde' after smelling a bottle, the contents of which releases her bad side.
The 2014 Daniel Levine book, Hyde, acts as the original book's companion, telling it from Hyde's perspective, adding new elements to the plot
Mad, Mad, Mad Monsters, a 1972 American animated "prequel of sorts" to Mad Monster Party?. Dr. Jekyll appears only twice briefly in the story and is not mentioned by name until the second time at the end, where he drinks his potion and changes into Mr. Hyde.
1990 novel Mary Reilly by Valerie Martin, a reworking of Stevenson's plot, told from the viewpoint of a maid in Jekyll's household, named Mary Reilly in this novel.
1993, animated film, The Nightmare Before Christmas, Mr. Hyde appears as one of the citizens of Halloween Town. Only seen in his "Hyde" form, he keeps two smaller versions of himself underneath his hat.
1994, movie U.S., The Pagemaster, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde play as supporting characters, both voiced by Leonard Nimoy, Hyde threatening the main characters before they drop him down a pit.
2003, film The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen, adapted from Alan Moore's eponymous comic book series. The film adaptation stars Jason Flemyng as both Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, the latter using prosthetic makeup. Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde are employed by The League of Extraordinary Gentlemen to combat The Fantom. The version of Hyde depicted in both comic and movie bears more resemblance to the Hulk than the malevolent dwarf of the novel, possessing great strength and size. As in the comic book on which it is based, this is attributed to Hyde "growing, free from boundaries, free from limitations" (Although the film version is still dependent on Jekyll drinking the serum to transform rather than Hyde no longer requiring the potion to manifest).
2004, film Van Helsing. Robbie Coltrane provides the voice of a CGI animated Mr. Hyde, who Van Helsing unintentionally kills at the cathedral of Notre Dame when pursuing him through Paris. Like in The League of Extraordinary Gentleman, Mr. Hyde is also portrayed as a large, hulking brute. When Hyde dies, he transforms back into Dr. Jekyll.
2008, animated film, Igor: a major character is Jacqueline and Heidi.
2010, television series, Sanctuary, the character Adam Worth's story was stolen by a former friend and retold under the "fictional" title of the Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Adam's psychological disorder is one of "split personality" at a time before modern psychiatry.
2012, Sony Pictures animated film, Hotel Transylvania, Mr. Hyde can be seen as one of the monsters in Hotel Transylvania. This version has an underbite, has pale yellow skin, and wears a suit and a top hat.
2014, In Fate/Prototype: Fragments of Blue & Silver, a light novel series based on the original drafts of Fate/stay night, Dr. Jekyll appears as the Servant of the Berserker class, portrayed as a gentle and good looking young man. His Noble Phantasm allows him to transform into Mr. Hyde.
2016, TV UK. Penny Dreadful season 3, with Shazad Latif as Dr. Henry Jekyll. Here, Jekyll is an old medical school friend of Victor Frankenstein's, who once schemed with him to upend the medical establishment. He comes to Victor's aid after the latter has lost control of his creations.
2016, TV U.S., Once Upon a Time season 5 and 6, with Hank Harris as Dr. Jekyll and Sam Witwer as Mr. Hyde. In this version, Rumplestiltskin helps Dr. Jekyll to create his formula, hoping to benefit from Dr. Jekyll's work. Dr. Jekyll still has evil tendencies at times, and Hyde can be nice. The characters separate and appear in the present day.
In Power Rangers Dino Super Charge, the name of the character Heckyl refers to Dr. Jekyll & Mr. Hyde because he has a split personality and shares a body with Snide.
2017, Russell Crowe plays Dr. Jekyll(and Mr. Hyde) in The Mummy, which is the first installment in the Dark Universe and is a role which will be elaborated on in further films within the series.
An dating sim app by game company NTT Solmare titled "Guard me, Sherlock" Has a version of Jekyll and Hyde, both characters were created in 2018. In this adaptation, however, they are not the same person, and are instead brothers, Jekyll being the elder. And, unlike many adaptations, Hyde is not depicted as monstrous and instead appears as a normal brown haired, blue eyed male with a scar across his face. Both Jekyll and Hyde are not potential romance options as of now.
Spoofs and parodies
Dr. Pyckle and Mr. Pryde, a 1924 silent, black-and-white comedy film starring Stan Laurel in a solo film appearance and directed by Percy Pembroke. A parody in which the Hyde character Mr. Pride is more of a compulsive prankster than evil.
Hyde and Go Tweet, a 1960 Looney Tunes cartoon featuring Sylvester and Tweety, with the bird as the dual character.
Sicque! Sicque! Sicque!, the ninth episode of The Inspector animated film series. It was produced in 1966 and features Deux-Deux drinking a green potion from a test tube and constantly changing into a huge, ugly, green monster when the Inspector is not looking. The monster Deux-Deux becomes keeps shooting and stomping on the Inspector.
"Nowhere to Hyde," the 12 September 1970, episode of Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! in which the ghost of Mr. Hyde is committing jewelry store robberies and one of the suspects is a descendant of Dr. Jekyll.
The Jerry Lewis version of The Nutty Professor shows the schlemiel academic turn into a suave lady killer by drinking his potion.
The Adult Version of Jeyll & Hide, 1972 "underground" erotic film starring John Barnum as "Dr. Leeder" who finds and uses Jekyll's diary and formula, turning him into "Miss Hyde" (Jane Tsentas)
Dr. Heckyl and Mr. Hype, 1980 film starring Oliver Reed, in which a kindly but hideous doctor develops a potion that turns him into a suave, but evil, man of the world.
Wondergran Meets Dr. Jackal and Mr. Hide the first episode of twelfth season of The Benny Hill Show. Produced in 1981, it starred Benny Hill as surgeon Dr. Jackal who, after eating a mix of chemicals, changed into the evil monster Mr. Hide.