Accession of North Macedonia to the European Union
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Accession of North Macedonia to the European Union

Macedonian EU accession bid
European Union and North Macedonia locator map.svg
Status
Candidate
Chapter Progress
0% complete
Screening Progress
0% complete
WebsiteSecretariat for European Affairs
Statistics
EU averageNorth Macedonia
PPP GDP ($M)552,78017,396
PPP per capita ($)40,60014,631
Area (km2)165,04825,713
Population18,583,5982,038,514

The accession of North Macedonia (formerly the Republic of Macedonia) to the European Union (EU) has been on the current agenda for future enlargement of the EU since 2005, when it became a candidate for accession. North Macedonia submitted its membership application in 2004, thirteen years after its independence from Yugoslavia. It is one of five current EU candidate countries, together with Albania, Montenegro, Serbia and Turkey.

History

North Macedonia began its formal process of rapprochement with the European Union in 2000, by initiating negotiations about the EU's Stabilisation and Association Process, and it became the first non-EU country in the Balkans to sign the Stabilisation and Association Agreement (SAA), on 9 April 2001 in Luxembourg. The agreement was ratified by the Macedonian parliament on 12 April 2001 and came into force on 1 April 2004.

On 22 March 2004, Macedonia submitted its application for EU membership. On 6 September 2004, the Macedonian government adopted a National Strategy for European integration, supported by the country's parliament through its Commission for European Issues. The government subsequently began the procedure of answering the questionnaire of the European Commission regarding its performance in preparation for membership in accordance with the Copenhagen criteria, a process that was finished by 31 January 2005. The European Council officially granted the country candidate status on 17 December 2005, after a review and a positive recommendation of the candidacy by the European Commission. Accession negotiations were expected to start on 15 October 2019,[1] but this was denied by the European Union.[2]

Name dispute with Greece

A major obstacle for the accession process was the Republic's unresolved objection by Greece over its name, as it argued that it implied territorial ambitions towards Greece's own northern province of Macedonia. While the country preferred to be called by its constitutional name, Republic of Macedonia, the European Union, in acknowledgment of concerns raised by Greece, maintained a practice of recognising it only as the "former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", a compromise of "provisional reference" introduced by the United Nations in 1993. Greece, as any other EU country, has veto power against new accessions, and blocked Macedonian accession due to the naming dispute.[3][4][5][6]

On 12 June 2018, an agreement was reached between Greek prime minister Alexis Tsipras and his Macedonian counterpart Zoran Zaev, known as the Prespa agreement,[7] under which the country would be renamed the "Republic of North Macedonia".[8] As part of this deal, Greece explicitly withdrew its previous opposition, allowing the EU to approve on 27 June 2018 the start of accession talks with the future Republic of North Macedonia.[9]

Historical dispute with Bulgaria

The governments of Bulgaria and Macedonia signed a friendship treaty to bolster the complicated relations between the two Balkan states in August 2017. On its ground a joint commission on historical and educational issues was formed in 2018. This intergovernmental commission is a forum where controversial historical issues will be raised and discussed, to resolve the problematic readings of history. However, with nationalism in both countries rising, there are still Bulgarian scholars who claim a Macedonian nation and language did not exist until the middle of the 20th century and therefore could not exist in the present. In Skopje, meanwhile, there are growing concerns that the negotiations with Bulgaria over its history may lead to violence and internal clashes. In the early October 2019, Bulgaria has set a lot of tough terms for North Macedonia's EU progress. The Bulgarian government accepted an ultimate "Framework position", where it has warned that Bulgaria will not allow the EU integration of North Macedonia to be accompanied by European legitimisation of an anti-Bulgarian ideology. On the list, there are more than 20 demands and a timetable to fulfill them, during the process of North Macedonia's accession negotiations. It states that the rewriting of the history of part of the Bulgarian people after 1944 was one of the pillars of the bulgarophobic agenda of then Yugoslav communist authorities. The Bulgarian National Assembly voted on 10 October and approved this "Framework Position" put forward by the government on the EU accession of North Macedonia.[10]

Domestic politics

EU funding

North Macedonia is currently receiving EUR1.3 billion of development aid until 2020 from the Instrument for Pre-Accession Assistance, a funding mechanism for EU candidate countries.

Campaign

The government's motto for the candidacy is "The Sun, too, is a star.", referring to the sun from the flag of North Macedonia being displayed among the other stars in the flag of Europe.

Government structuring

North Macedonia's government has established a management infrastructure for the European integration process on the basis of a paper adopted in 1997 under the title "The strategic bases of the Republic of [North] Macedonia on achieving the membership of the European Union". It consists of the following institutions:

  • The Committee for Euro-Atlantic Integration plays the central role in the decision-making of the country's policies in the European integration process. It is chaired by the Prime Minister with members including Deputy Prime Ministers, all ministers in the Government, the Governor of the National Bank of North Macedonia, and the President of the Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts.
  • The Working Committee for European Integration of the Government of the Republic of [North] Macedonia (WCEI) - It is chaired by the Deputy Prime Ministers in charge of EU Integration, whose deputy is the Minister of Economy. The members are the secretaries from all Ministries. It is an operational, inter-ministerial body establishing the methods and dynamics for implementation of strategic decisions, political guidelines and priorities of the Government, as well as monitoring the realisation of the concrete tasks.
  • The Deputy to the President of the Government is responsible for the European integration as centre in the management and co-ordination of the operational part of the integration process. Its support and service is the Sector for European Integration within the General Secretariat of the Government of the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.
  • The Sector for European Integration within the Republic's government is given the task to organise, co-ordinate and synchronise the EU integration process. It is organised in seven units in charge of the approximation of the national legislation with that of the EU, translation of the EU legal acts, institution building, support to the WCEI, co-ordination of foreign assistance, and information to the broader public on EU and the European integration process.
  • Departments/Sectors/Units for European Integration within the Ministries have similar structure and competencies as the central Sector for European Integration within the Government, being a key link in the institutional infrastructure.
  • The Ministry of Foreign Affairs - EU domain - is responsible for communications with the EU structures through the Mission of former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia in Brussels, gathering valid and timely information that have impact on the integration process and presenting the uniform perspectives and positions in the European structures.

The other institutions supporting the EU integration process are the following:

  • the Republic's Assembly and its Commission for European Issues
  • the Secretariat for Legislation
  • the General Secretariat of the Government
  • the Subcommittee of the WCEI for approximation of the legislation with its working groups

Ethnic Albanian sentiments

Sentiments among ethnic Albanians of North Macedonia are traditionally strongly pro-EU.[11]

Chronology of relations with the EU

Date Event
October 1992 The Republic of Macedonia appoints its representative in Brussels,[] agreeing to the use of the "former Yugoslav" before its constitutional name ("Republic of Macedonia") designation in bilateral relations.[]
22 December 1995 The Republic and the EU establish diplomatic relations. Negotiations commence directed at an agreement with a wide scope of co-operation in the fields of trade, financial operations and transport.
10 March 1996 Macedonia becomes a full partner in the PHARE Programme (Poland and Hungary: Assistance for Reconstruction of their Economies).
November 1997 The Transport Agreement enters into force
1 January 1998 The Cooperation Agreement enters into force.
February 1998 1st political talks on ministerial level are held in Ohrid, in accordance with the Cooperation Agreement.
11 March 1998 A Trade and Textile Agreement is signed (it remains in force until 1998 and is later replaced with a new agreement on 1 January 2000).
21 and 22 March 1998 1st meeting of a mutual Cooperation Council in Skopje.
5 March 1999 2nd meeting of the Cooperation Council in Brussels
24 January 2000 The European Commission adopts directives regarding co-operation and regarding the official start of negotiations for potential membership.
March 2000 Opening of the EU Delegation in Skopje; appointment of the first Chief of the Delegation.
5 April 2000 Start of 1st round of negotiations on the SAA.
June 2000 Adoption of a Perspective (regulation) on Potential Membership by the European Council in Fiera.
24 November 2000 The SAA is initiated at the Zagreb Summit.
December 2000 Entering into force of Council Regulation on Introducing Exceptional Trade Measures; Macedonia joins the Regional CARDS Programme 2002-2006.
16 February 2001 Interim Agreement on SAA Trade Provisions signed.
9 April 2001 SAA and Interim Agreement on Trade and Trade Issues signed. The Agreement enters into force on 1 June 2001.
January 2002 Supplementary Protocol on Wine and Spirits, and Textile Products Trade Agreement.
20 February 2003 The President of the European Commission, Romano Prodi, visits Skopje, reconfirming the EU position on the country's perspective for EU membership.
25 July 2003 Last of 6 meetings of the Cooperation Council in Brussels.
February 2004 "Declaration on the Application for EU membership" signed by the Macedonian parliament.
22 March 2004 At a ceremony in Dublin, Ireland, the Macedonian government submitted the application for membership in the EU.
1 April 2004 SAA enters into force following the ratifications by all the EU Member States.
Status of SAA ratification
Event North Macedonia [12] Croatia [13] Albania [14] Montenegro [15][Note 1] Bosnia and
Herzegovina
[17]
Serbia [18][Note 2] Kosovo* [19][Note 3]
SAA negotiations start 2000-04-05 2000-11-24 2003-01-31 2005-10-10 2005-11-25 2005-10-10 2013-10-28[21]
SAA initialled 2000-11-24 2001-05-14 2006-02-28 2007-03-15 2007-12-04 2007-11-07 2014-07-25[22]
SAA/IA signature 2001-04-09 2001-10-29 2006-06-12 2007-10-15 2008-06-16 2008-04-29 2015-10-27[23]
Interim Agreement:
EC ratification 2001-04-27 2002-01-30 2006-06-12 2007-10-15 2008-06-16 2009-12-08 N/A [Note 4]
SAP state ratification 2001-04-27 2002-01-30 2006-10-09 2007-11-14 2008-06-20 2008-09-22 N/A [Note 4]
entry into force 2001-06-01 2002-03-01 2006-12-01 2008-01-01 2008-07-01 2010-02-01 N/A [Note 4]
Deposit of the instrument of ratification:
SAP state 2001-04-27 2002-01-30 2006-11-09 2007-11-13 2009-02-26 2008-09-22 2016-02-26
Austria 2002-09-06 2002-03-15 2008-05-21 2008-07-04 2009-09-04 2011-01-13 N/A
Belgium 2003-12-29 2003-12-17 2008-10-22 2010-03-29 2010-03-29 2012-03-20 N/A
Bulgaria entered the EU later 2008-05-30 2009-03-13 2010-08-12 N/A
Croatia entered the EU later N/A
Cyprus entered the EU later 2008-05-30 2008-11-20 2009-07-02 2010-11-26 N/A
Czech Republic entered the EU later 2008-05-07 2009-02-19 2009-07-23 2011-01-28 N/A
Denmark 2002-04-10 2002-05-08 2008-04-24 2008-06-25 2009-05-26 2011-03-04 N/A
Estonia entered the EU later 2007-10-17 2007-11-22 2008-09-11 2010-08-19 N/A
Finland 2004-01-06 2004-01-06 2007-11-29 2009-03-18 2009-04-07 2011-10-21 N/A
France 2003-06-04 2003-06-04 2009-02-12 2009-07-30 2011-02-10 2012-01-16 N/A
Germany 2002-06-20 2002-10-18 2009-02-19 2009-11-16 2009-08-14 2012-02-24 N/A
Greece 2003-08-27 2003-08-27 2009-02-26 2010-03-04 2010-09-20 2011-03-10 N/A
Hungary entered the EU later 2007-04-23 2008-05-14 2008-10-22 2010-11-16 N/A
Ireland 2002-05-06 2002-05-06 2007-06-11 2009-06-04 2009-06-04 2011-09-29 N/A
Italy 2003-10-30 2004-10-06 2008-01-07 2009-10-13 2010-09-08 2011-01-06 N/A
Latvia entered the EU later 2006-12-19 2008-10-17 2009-11-12 2011-05-30 N/A
Lithuania entered the EU later 2007-05-17 2009-03-04 2009-05-04 2013-06-26 N/A
Luxembourg 2003-07-28 2003-08-01 2007-07-04 2009-06-11 2010-12-22 2011-01-21 N/A
Malta entered the EU later 2008-04-21 2008-12-11 2010-01-07 2010-07-06 N/A
Netherlands 2002-09-09 2004-04-30 2007-12-10 2009-01-29 2009-09-30 2012-02-27 N/A
Poland entered the EU later 2007-04-14 2009-02-06 2010-04-07 2012-01-13 N/A
Portugal 2003-07-14 2003-07-14 2008-07-11 2008-09-23 2009-06-29 2011-03-04 N/A
Romania entered the EU later 2009-01-15 2010-01-08 2012-05-22 N/A
Slovakia entered the EU later 2007-07-20 2008-07-29 2009-03-17 2010-11-11 N/A
Slovenia entered the EU later 2007-01-18 2008-02-07 2009-03-10 2010-12-07 N/A
Spain 2002-10-04 2002-10-04 2007-05-03 2009-03-12 2010-06-15 2010-06-21 N/A
Sweden 2002-06-25 2003-03-27 2007-03-21 2009-03-11 2009-09-14 2011-04-15 N/A
United Kingdom 2002-12-17 2004-09-03 2007-10-16 2010-01-12 2010-04-20 2011-08-11 N/A
European Communities or
European Union and Euratom
2004-02-25 2004-12-21 2009-02-26 2010-03-29 2015-04-30 2013-07-22 2016-02-24 [Note 5]
SAA entry into force 2004-04-01 2005-02-01 2009-04-01 2010-05-01 2015-06-01 2013-09-01 2016-04-01[27]
EU membership (SAA lapsed) (TBD) 2013-07-01 (TBD) (TBD) (TBD) (TBD) (TBD)

N/A: Not applicable.

  1. ^ Montenegro started negotiations in November 2005 while a part of Serbia and Montenegro (SiM). Separate technical negotiations were conducted regarding issues of sub-state organizational competency. A mandate for direct negotiations with Montenegro was established in July 2006. Direct negotiations were initiated on 26 September 2006 and concluded on 1 December 2006.[16]
  2. ^ Serbia started negotiations in November 2005 while part of SiM, with a modified mandate from July 2006.
  3. ^ Kosovo is the subject of a territorial dispute between the Republic of Kosovo and the Republic of Serbia. The Republic of Kosovo unilaterally declared independence on 17 February 2008, but Serbia continues to claim it as part of its own sovereign territory. The two governments began to normalise relations in 2013, as part of the 2013 Brussels Agreement. Kosovo is currently recognized as an independent state by 98 out of the 193 United Nations member states. In total, 112 UN member states recognized Kosovo at some point, of which 14 later withdrew their recognition. The European Union remains divided on its policy towards Kosovo, with five EU member states not recognizing its independence. The EU launched a Stabilisation Tracking Mechanism for Kosovo on 6 November 2002 with the aim of aligning its policy with EU standards. On 10 October 2012 the European Commission found that there were no legal obstacles to Kosovo signing a SAA with the EU, as independence is not required for such an agreement.[20]
  4. ^ a b c No Interim Agreement associated with Kosovo's SAA was concluded.[24]
  5. ^ Kosovo's SAA was the first signed after the entry into force of the Lisbon treaty, which conferred a legal personality to the EU. As a result, unlike previous SAAs Kosovo's is exclusively between it and the EU and Euratom, and the member states are not parties independently.[21][25][26]
3 June 2004 1st meeting of the Stabilisation and Association Committee held in Skopje.
6 September 2004 National Strategy for European Integration adopted by the Macedonian government.
14 September 2004 1st meeting of the Stabilisation and Association Council in Brussels.
1 October 2004 Questionnaire on accession preparation submitted to the Macedonian government by the European Commission.
31 January 2005 Answers to the Questionnaire finalised by the Macedonian government.
14 February 2005 Answers to the Questionnaire submitted to the European Commission by a Macedonian delegation in Brussels.
10 May 2005 Additional questions to the Questionnaire of the European Commission that were received on 22 April 2005 are answered, accepted by the Republic's government, and sent to Brussels.
9 November 2005 Positive recommendation on Macedonian accession issued by the European Commission.
17 December 2005 The European Council in Brussels approves the candidate status.
9 November 2006 The European Commission decides to start visa facilitation negotiations with the Republic.
23 June 2008 Following the EU summit, the resolution of the naming dispute was added as a precondition to EU accession.[28]
14 October 2009 The European Commission recommended the start of the accession negotiations for full-fledged membership of the Republic of Macedonia.[29]
29 March 2012 European Commission launches a High Level Accession Dialogue with Skopje.[30]
25 January 2019 The Prespa Agreement enters into force on 25 January 2019, ending the decades long naming-dispute. It is outlined in the agreement that Greece will no longer veto the accession talks between North Macedonia and the European Union.
15 October 2019 Accession talks between North Macedonia and the EU are expected to officially begin.[31]
18 October 2019 The European Union denies the start of accession talks with North Macedonia.[32]

Visa liberalisation process

On 1 January 2008 the visa facilitation and readmission agreements between Macedonia and the EU entered into force.[33] Macedonia began a visa liberalisation dialogue with the EU in February 2008 and was added to the list of visa exempt nationals on 19 December 2009, allowing their citizens to enter the Schengen Area, Bulgaria, Cyprus and Romania without a visa when travelling with biometric passports.[34]

Negotiation progress

No chapters have been opened thus far. Accession negotiations have not yet begun.

Progression 21 / 33
63.6% complete
0 / 33
0% complete
0 / 33
0% complete
0 / 33
0% complete
Acquis chapter Screening Started Screening Completed Chapter Opened Chapter Closed
1. Free Movement of Goods 17 January 2019 - - -
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers 13 March 2019 - - -
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services 11 December 2018 - - -
4. Free Movement of Capital 10 January 2019 - - -
5. Public Procurement 6 December 2018 - - -
6. Company Law - - - -
7. Intellectual Property Law 7 February 2019 - - -
8. Competition Policy - - - -
9. Financial Services 9 April 2019 - - -
10. Information Society & Media - - - -
11. Agriculture & Rural Development - - - -
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy 18 February 2019 - - -
13. Fisheries - - - -
14. Transport Policy - - - -
15. Energy 26 March 2019 - - -
16. Taxation - - - -
17. Economic & Monetary Policy 10 January 2019 - - -
18. Statistics 12 February 2019 - - -
19. Social Policy & Employment 3 April 2019 - - -
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy 29 January 2019 - - -
21. Trans-European Networks 27 March 2019 - - -
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments 2 February 2019 - - -
23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights 27 September 2018 - - -
24. Justice, Freedom & Security 12 November 2018 - - -
25. Science & Research 11 March 2019 - - -
26. Education & Culture 12 March 2019 - - -
27. Environment & Climate Change - - - -
28. Consumer & Health Protection 28 March 2019 - - -
29. Customs Union - - - -
30. External Relations - - - -
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy - - - -
32. Financial Control 5 December 2018 - - -
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions - - - -
34. Institutions - - - -
35. Other Issues - - - -
Acquis chapter Screening Started Screening Completed Chapter Opened Chapter Closed
Progression 21 / 33
63.6% complete
0 / 33
0% complete
0 / 33
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Acquis chapter Preparation[35] Chapter Status
Progression Early stage
Some level of preparation
Moderately prepared
Good level of preparation
Nothing to adopt
33 Unopened Chapters


0 Opened Chapters

0% complete


0 Closed Chapters

0% complete
1. Free Movement of Goods Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers Early stage Chapter not yet opened
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
4. Free Movement of Capital Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
5. Public Procurement Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
6. Company Law Good level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
7. Intellectual Property Law Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
8. Competition Policy Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
9. Financial Services Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
10. Information Society & Media Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
11. Agriculture & Rural Development Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy Good level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
13. Fisheries Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
14. Transport Policy Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
15. Energy Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
16. Taxation Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
17. Economic & Monetary Policy Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
18. Statistics Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
19. Social Policy & Employment Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
21. Trans-European Networks Good level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights
  • Some level of preparation
  • Moderately prepared
Chapter not yet opened
24. Justice, Freedom & Security Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
25. Science & Research Good level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
26. Education & Culture Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
27. Environment & Climate Change Some level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
28. Consumer & Health Protection Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
29. Customs Union Good level of preparation Chapter not yet opened
30. External Relations Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
32. Financial Control Moderately prepared Chapter not yet opened
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions Early stage Chapter not yet opened
34. Institutions Nothing to adopt Chapter not yet opened
35. Other Issues Nothing to adopt Chapter not yet opened
Legend:

Chapters in bold indicate completed chapters.   totally incompatible   early stage   considerable efforts needed   some level of preparation   further efforts needed   moderately prepared   no major difficulties expected   good level of preparation   well prepared / well advanced

Acquis chapter EC Assessment in 2011[36] EC Assessment in 2012[37] EC Assessment in 2013[38] EC Assessment in 2014[39] EC Assessment in 2015[40] EC Assessment in 2016[41] EC Assessment in 2018[42] EC Assessment in 2019[43]
1. Free Movement of Goods Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
2. Freedom of Movement For Workers Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage
3. Right of Establishment & Freedom To Provide Services Early stage Moderately prepared Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
4. Free Movement of Capital Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
5. Public Procurement Well prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
6. Company Law Considerable efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
7. Intellectual Property Law Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
8. Competition Policy Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
9. Financial Services Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
10. Information Society & Media Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
11. Agriculture & Rural Development Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
12. Food Safety, Veterinary & Phytosanitary Policy Good level of preparation Early stage Early stage Early stage Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
13. Fisheries Moderately prepared Further efforts needed Further efforts needed Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
14. Transport Policy Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
15. Energy Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
16. Taxation Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
17. Economic & Monetary Policy Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
18. Statistics Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
19. Social Policy & Employment Considerable efforts needed Considerable efforts needed Early stage Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
20. Enterprise & Industrial Policy Some level of preparation Considerable efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
21. Trans-European Networks Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
22. Regional Policy & Coordination of Structural Instruments Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
23. Judiciary & Fundamental Rights Considerable efforts needed Further efforts needed Further efforts needed Further efforts needed Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Moderately prepared
24. Justice, Freedom & Security Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
25. Science & Research Considerable efforts needed Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
26. Education & Culture Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
27. Environment Considerable efforts needed Further efforts needed Further efforts needed Further efforts needed Moderately prepared Some level of preparation Some level of preparation Some level of preparation
28. Consumer & Health Protection Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
29. Customs Union No major difficulties expected Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation Good level of preparation
30. External Relations Some level of preparation Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
31. Foreign, Security & Defence Policy Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
32. Financial Control Further efforts needed Early stage Early stage Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared Moderately prepared
33. Financial & Budgetary Provisions Totally incompatible with acquis Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage Early stage
34. Institutions Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt
35. Other Issues Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt Nothing to adopt
Legend:

Chapters in bold indicate completed chapters.   totally incompatible   early stage   considerable efforts needed   some level of preparation   further efforts needed   moderately prepared   no major difficulties expected   good level of preparation   well prepared / well advanced

Impact of joining

Member countries Population Area (km²) GDP
(billion US$)
GDP
per capita (US$)
Languages
North Macedonia North Macedonia 2,058,539 25,713 10.98 4,935 Macedonian
EU28 507,890,191 4,381,376 17,267 32,501 24
EU28+1 509,948,730
(+0.41%)
4,407,089
(+0.59%)
17,277.98
(+0.06%)
31,550
(-0.1%)
25

See also

References

  1. ^ "Albania and North Macedonia to start EU accession talks". EUOBSERVER. 30 September 2019. Archived from the original on 1 October 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  2. ^ "EU blocks Albania and North Macedonia membership bids". 18 October 2019. Archived from the original on 30 November 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ "Embassy of Greece - Washington, DC". Answer of FM Ms. D. Bakoyannis regarding the FYROM name issue. Archived from the original on 2 March 2007. Retrieved 2006.
  4. ^ "United Macedonian Diaspora". Interview with Greek Foreign Minister Dora Bakoyannis. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 2006.
  5. ^ "Report by B. Khiotis: « ? ? ? ?»[permanent dead link](in Greek) ("I never used the word veto"), To Vima, 11 September 2007
  6. ^ "Macedonia and Greece: Deal after 27-year row over a name". BBC News. 12 June 2018. Archived from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  7. ^ "FINAL AGREEMENT FOR THE SETTLEMENT OF THE DIFFERENCES AS DESCRIBED IN THE UNITED NATIONS SECURITY COUNCIL RESOLUTIONS 817 (1993) AND 845 (1993), THE TERMINATION OF THE INTERIM ACCORD OF 1995, AND THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A STRATEGIC PARTNERSHIP BETWEEN THE PARTIES" (PDF). Kathimerini.gr. Archived (PDF) from the original on 13 June 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  8. ^ "Tsipras: Republic of North Macedonia' for universal use". Kathimerini. 12 June 2018. Archived from the original on 17 June 2018. Retrieved 2018.
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