Academic Rank
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Academic Rank

This list of academic ranks identifies the hierarchical ranking structure found amongst scholars and personnel in academia. The lists below refer specifically to colleges and universities throughout the world, although other institutions of higher learning may follow a similar schema.

Afghanistan

  • ?
  • ?
  • ?
  • ?

Argentina

[1]

Tenured positions (confermato):

  • Profesor Titular Ordinario, or Profesor Titular Regular. A tenured, full professor position.
  • Profesor Asociado Ordinario, or Profesor Asociado Regular. A tenured, associate professor position.
  • Profesor Adjunto Ordinario, or Profesor Adjunto Regular. A tenured, adjunct professor position.

Armenia

  • Professor (research professor, professor of practice, visiting professor, adjunct professor, professor emeritus)
  • Associate Professor (Docent) (associate research professor, associate professor of practice, visiting associate professor, adjunct associate professor, associate professor emeritus)
  • Assistant Professor (assistant research professor, assistant professor of practice, visiting assistant professor, adjunct assistant professor)
  • (Senior) Lecturer
  • (Senior) Instructor

Australia

  • Level A - Associate Lecturer, Research Associate; equivalent to Lecturer, Adjunct or Graduate Instructor at a US university.
  • Level B - Lecturer, Research Fellow; equivalent to Assistant Professor at a US university or Lecturer at a UK university.
  • Level C - Senior Lecturer, Senior Research Fellow; equivalent to Associate Professor at a US university or Senior/Principal Lecturer at a UK university.
  • Level D - Associate Professor, Principal Research Fellow; equivalent to Professor with tenure at a US university or Reader/Associate Professor at a UK university.
  • Level E - Professor, Senior Principal Research Fellow; equivalent to Distinguished/Endowed Professor at a US university or Professor at a UK university.

There are other types of professorship with significant honour and contribution to our society, such as Distinguished Professor, or Emeritus Professor.

Austria

Bangladesh

Teachers are categorised in four main classes in Bangladesh at university level. The ascending rank of teacher is Lecturer, Assistant Professor, Associate Professor and Professor. The initial position Lecturer is generally enrolled from master's degree holder. Master's degree is required for normal university level Lecturer. After PhD, the appointment starts with Assistant Professor, then gradually Associate Professor and Professor depending on research/teaching experience. Beside these, professor of Emeritus is given to extraordinary professor after their retirement.

Belarus

Academic ranks

  • Prafiesar / (Full professor)
  • Dacent / (Associate professor)
  • Starejshy vykladchyk / (Senior lecturer)
  • Asistent / Vykladchyk / / (Assistant professor / Lecturer)

Administrative ranks

  • Rektar / , rector
  • Prarektar / , vice-rector
  • Dekan Fakultet? / ?, dean of the faculty
  • Namiesnik dekana / , vice-dean
  • Zahadchyk kafiedry / ?, head of department

Belgium

Dutch speaking community
  • Gewoon hoogleraar (full professor, full-time) (professor ordinarius)
  • Deeltijds gewoon hoogleraar - buitengewoon hoogleraar (part-time full professor) (previously: professor extraordinarius)
  • Hoogleraar (professor)
  • Hoofddocent (associate professor)
  • Docent (assistant professor)
  • Doctor-assistent (postdoc research assistant)
  • Assistent (research assistant)
  • Aspirant (research fellow, enrolled in a Ph.D. degree, appointed by the Fund for Scientific Research FWO)

Administrative ranks:

  • Rector
  • Vice-Rector
  • Decaan (dean, i.e. head of a faculty)
French speaking community
  • Professeur ordinaire (full professor)
  • Professeur extraordinaire (visiting professor in Switzerland, part-time professor in Belgium)
  • Professeur (professor)
  • Chargé de cours définitif (associate professor, tenured)
  • Chargé de cours temporaire (associate professor, tenure-track)
  • Chargé de cours invité (visiting assistant professor, non-tenured)
  • Maître de conférences (senior lecturer / adjunct professor, tenure-track)
  • Directeur de recherche (research director / senior research associate, appointed by National Fund for Scientific Research F.R.S.-FNRS)
  • Chef de travaux agrégé (senior researcher with teaching aggregation, with Ph.D.)
  • Maître de recherche (senior researcher / senior research associate, with Ph.D., appointed by National Fund for Scientific Research F.R.S.-FNRS, tenured)
  • Chef de travaux (senior researcher, with Ph.D.)
  • Chercheur qualifié (senior researcher / research associate, with Ph.D., appointed by federal research council FNRS, tenured)
  • Premier assistant (senior research assistant / junior lecturer, with Ph.D.)
  • Maître d'enseignement (volunteer lecturer, unpaid, non-tenured)
  • Chargé de recherche (postdoctoral researcher, appointed by National Fund for Scientific Research F.R.S.-FNRS)
  • Assistant de recherche (research assistant)
  • Aspirant (research fellow, enrolled in a Ph.D. degree, appointed by National Fund for Scientific Research F.R.S.-FNRS)

Administrative ranks:

  • Recteur (president of university)
  • Vice-Recteur
  • Doyen (dean, i.e. head of a faculty, elected)
  • Président d'institut (director of research institute, elected)
  • Vice-Doyen (vice-dean, i.e. head of studies in a faculty)
  • Président de département (department head, elected)

Bosnia and Herzegovina

  • Asistent - teaching assistant (Must hold Undergraduate Degree with excellent grades. Relevant working experience could be required as well)
  • Vi?i Asistent - senior teaching assistant (Must hold at least Masters Degree with excellent grades. Relevant working experience could be required as well)
  • Docent - assistant professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate Degree. Relevant working experience could be required as well)
  • Vanredni profesor - associate professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate and have experience of minimum of five years as a Docent)
  • Profesor - full professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate and have experience of minimum of seven years as a Vanredni profesor)

Administrative ranks

  • Rektor - rector / chancellor / head of university
  • Prorektor - prorector / vice-chancellor / head of university assistant
  • Dekan - dean / head of faculty or school at the university
  • Prodekan - vice-dean / head of faculty or school at the university assistant
  • ?ef katedre - head of department

Honorary ranks

  • Profesor emeritus - professor emeritus

Brazil

There is no official academic ranking in Brazilian private universities. However, most of the public Federal Universities apply the following (from the highest position to the lowest one):

  • Professor Emérito (professor emeritus)
  • Professor Titular (full professor) - PhD required
  • Professor Associado (associate professor) - PhD required
  • Professor Adjunto (assistant professor) - PhD required
  • Professor Assistente (lecturer) - only a master's degree is required
  • Professor Auxiliar (assistant lecturer) - no post-graduation degree is required
  • Professor Substituto ou Temporário (temporary lecturer)

Bulgaria

  • Assistant Professor -
  • Chief/Senior Assistant Professor -
  • Docent/Associate Professor -
  • Professor/Full Professor -
University
  • Assistant Professor -
  • Chief/Senior Assistant Professor -
  • Docent/Associate Professor -
  • Professor/Full Professor -
Academy of Sciences
  • Scientist III: after Master thesis or Diploma, equal to Assistant
  • Scientist II: after Doctoral thesis/PhD/Dissertation, after Dr. Grade (3-5 or 7 years work after Master), equal Chef Assistant, *Associate or Post Doc
  • Scientist I: After second Post Doc (1 or 2 years work after PhD/Dr), equal Senior Assistant or Senior Associate.
  • Senior Scientist I: after PhD (USA, UK....) or Doctoral dissertation/thesis (France, Germany, Russia...) and some years of *Post-Doc, equal of Assoc. Prof.
  • Senior Scientist II: after Habilitation, equal to Professor
  • Full Professor
Higher administration of the academy of sciences
  • Member of correspondence for the Academy of Science (after professor/habilitation), very rare
  • Academic: after member of correspondence (for the entire of Bulgaria).
Administrative ranks
  • Rector
  • Vice-rectors
  • Assistant rector
  • Secretary general
  • Academic ombudsman

Canada

Faculty (teaching staff)

  • Professor emeritus or university professor emeritus, it is a retired professor still active in research; Fr professeur émérite
  • Endowed chair professor (e.g. Canada Research Chair professor - Tier 1), it is a distinguished full professor with endowment
  • Professor or full professor (research professor, professor of practice, visiting professor, adjunct professor, professor emeritus; Fr professeur titulaire)
  • Associate professor (research associate professor, visiting associate professor, adjunct associate professor; Fr professeur agrégé)
  • Senior Lecturer (teaching professor)
  • Assistant professor (research assistant professor, adjunct assistant professor; Fr professeur adjoint)
  • Lecturer or instructor (sessional lecturer or sessional instructor; Fr chargé de cours)

Assistant professor is the entry-level rank for non-tenured members of faculty.

Non-faculty teaching and research personnel

Administrative ranks

  • Dean (often also full professors)
  • Associate dean (often also full professors)
  • Directors of administrative departments
  • Associate/assistant directors of administrative departments
  • Chairmen of academic departments (usually full professors)
  • Graduate Coordinators
  • Undergraduate Coordinators

China

  • Full professor ()
  • Associate professor ()
  • Lecturer()
  • Assistant Lecturer/Associate Lecturer()

Colombia

Costa Rica

  • Emeritus professor (Professor Emérito)
  • Titular professor (Professor Catedrático)
  • Associated professor (Professor Asociado)
  • Lecturer professor (Professor Adjunto)
  • Instructor/Adjunct (Professor Instructor)

Croatia

  • Redoviti profesor u trajnom zvanju equivalent to distinguished professor (prof. dr. sc. Name Surname)
  • Redoviti profesor equivalent to full professor (prof. dr. sc. Name Surname)
  • Izvanredni profesor equivalent to associate professor (izv. prof. dr. sc. Name Surname)
  • Docent equivalent to assistant professor (doc. dr. sc. Name Surname)
  • Vi?i asistent equivalent to teaching/research assistant, PhD (dr. sc. Name Surname)
  • Asistent equivalent to teaching/research assistant, usually a PhD student
  • Vi?i predava? equivalent to senior lecturer
  • Predava? equivalent to lecturer

Honorary academic rank

  • Professor emeritus - awarded to some full professors in retirement

Administrative ranks

  • Rektor equivalent to rector, head of university (in USA equivalent to president of university)
  • Prorektor equivalent to prorector, assistant to head of university (in USA equivalent to vice-president of university)
  • Dekan equivalent to dean, head of faculty or school in university
  • Prodekan equivalent to vice-dean, assistant to dean
  • Pro?elnik odsjeka equivalent to department chairman
  • Predstojnik zavoda equivalent to head of department
  • Predstojnik katedre equivalent to head of chairman

Cuba

Tenured:

  • Professor (Profesor Titular)(full/part-time, PhD required)
  • Associate Professor (Profesor Auxiliar)(full/part-time, PhD mostly required)
  • Assistant Professor (Profesor Asistente)(full/part-time)
  • Lecturer (Instructor)(full/part-time)

Cyprus

Tenure-track faculty positions

  • Professor
  • Associate professor
  • Assistant professor
  • Lecturer

Non-tenure track positions

  • Special teaching personnel
  • Special scientists

Czech Republic

Denmark

Egypt

Teachers are categorized in five main classes in Egypt at university level. The ascending rank of teacher is Demonstrator, Assistant Lecturer, Lecturer, Associate Professor and Professor. The initial position Demonstrator is generally enrolled as the top student of the class. Master's degree is required for university level Assistant Lecturer. After PhD, the appointment starts with Lecturer, then gradually Associate Professor and Professor depending on research/teaching experience. Beside these, professor of Emeritus is given to extraordinary professor after their retirement.

  • OSTADH MOTAFAREGH ( ), equivalent to professor emeritus.
  • OSTADH () (the "DH" pronounced like the "TH" in the word "THE"), equivalent to professor (usually after minimum of five years serving as OSTATH MOSAED as well as publishing certain number of research papers)
  • OSTADH (the "DH" pronounced like the "TH" in the word "THE") MOSAED ( ), equivalent to associate professor.
  • MODARRES (?), Lecturer (must have a PhD degree)
  • MODARRES MOSA'ED (? ), Assistant Lecturer (must have a master's degree)
  • MOA'ED (?), or Teaching Assistant- also called demonstrator- (must have a bachelor's degree; usually graduated top of the class).

Estonia

  • Emeriitprofessor (professor emeritus)
  • Professor
  • Dotsent (associate professor)
  • Lektor (lecturer)
  • Õpetaja (teacher)

Finland

In Finland, there's no "graduate" or "undergraduate" system; university students may be employed as a research assistant (tutkimusapulainen) before they graduate with a master's degree. A doctoral student must already hold a master's degree, and are typically employed by the university, or enjoy a similar grant, and will be called tohtorikoulutettava (doctoral candidate), tutkija (researcher) or assistentti (teaching assistant). Besides post-doctoral researchers (tutkijatohtori) and senior teaching assistants (yliassistentti), there are several mid-level non-professorial positions such as teaching researcher (opettava tutkija). Senior teachers and researchers may be employed as e.g. erikoistutkija ("special researcher") or yliopistotutkija (university researcher). Docent (dosentti) is a non-professiorial rank and title (for life) awarded to academics qualified as a principal investigator and for supervision of doctoral students; however, they do not belong to the professor corps and may be employed elsewhere. Professors (professori) are understood as research group leaders and managers, and traditionally there's no direct equivalent of an assistant / associate / full professor career path, although Aalto University is introducing these. Qualifications for a professor's position are earned as a docent or in other mid-career positions. In management, professors serve as department heads (laitosjohtaja or osastonjohtaja) and deans (head of faculty, dekaani). The leader of a university is called a rector (rehtori), assisted by multiple vice-rectors (vararehtori). Vice-rectors may retain their professor's positions or work full-time as a vice-rector. Some universities have an even more senior officer called Chancellor (kansleri), which works more with outreach and public relations than daily management.

France

Faculty Research-only Teaching-only Part-time
Permanent positions Professeur des universités or Directeur d'études Directeur de recherche Professeur des universités associé
Maître de conférences Chargé de recherche professeur agrégé or professeur certifié Maître de conférences associé
Temporary positions Attaché temporaire d'enseignement et de recherches (ATER) Post-doctorant Chargé d'enseignement
Doctorant contractuel chargé d'enseignement Doctorant contractuel

In French business schools, ranks are the same as in the United States: Assistant Professor, Associate Professor, and finally (Full) Professor.

Germany

Greece

  • Professor Emeritus (Greek: (male) / ? or ? ? (female)). ?n honorary title for people at the rank of Professor who have reached the legal age for retirement; If they wish, they have the right, for a limited time after retirement, to continue their research projects.
  • Professor ( (male) / ? (female)).
  • Associate Professor ( (male) / ? (female)).
  • Assistant Professor ( (male) / ? (female)).
  • Lecturer (in universities and technical universities? (both male and female) / in technological educational institutes: (male) / ? (female)). ?n universities and technical universities this academic rank existed only from 1982 to 2011, but people holding the rank remain as teaching staff until retirement.[2]
  • Laboratory Teaching Staff member (Greek: ? ? ? (?..?.)). Holders of a Ph.D. that are members of this rank can independently teach courses, same as the Teaching Research Staff (Greek: ? (?.?.?.)) (i.e., professors ranks) members do. All members can be instructors in laboratories.
  • Adjunct Assistant Professor ( (male) / ?--formerly, Adjunct Lecturer ( (male) / (female)). A temporary employee with a short-term contract, usually for one semester, usually holder of a Ph.D. as described in the Greek Presidential Decree 407/1980. Adjunct Assistant Professors are sometimes called simply as "407" or "P.D. 407", after the number of the Decree.
  • Teaching assistant. This rank was abolished in 1982, but people holding it remain teaching assistants until retirement.

Administrative ranks (Universities and Technical Universities)

  • Rector ().
  • Vice-rector ().
  • Secretary General (? ? (male) / ? (female)).
  • Dean (?)
  • Deputy Dean ( ? (male) / ? (female)).
  • Chairman of the Department ( ).
  • Deputy Chairman of the Department ( ).
  • Director of the Section (? (male) / (female)).

The holders of administrative ranks must be Professors or Associate Professors. The only exception is Secretary General, who is not a faculty member.

Administrative ranks (Technological Educational Institutes)

  • President ().
  • Vice-president ().
  • Secretary General (? ? (male) / ? (female)).
  • Director of the School (? (male) / ? (female)).
  • Supervisor of the Department ( (male) / (female)).
  • Director of the Section (? (male) / (female)).

The holders of administrative ranks must be Professors or Associate Professors.

Guyana

  • Professor Emeritus (on retirement)
  • Professor
  • Reader
  • Senior Lecturer
  • Lecturer II
  • Lecturer I
  • Assistant Lecturer
  • Tutor
  • Laboratory Demonstrator

Administrative ranks

Hong Kong

In the past, Hong Kong followed the British system (4 levels). In recent years it is moving towards the North American counterpart, with the titles renamed to their corresponding equivalence (professor (professor), associate professor (professor/reader), and assistant professor (senior-)lecturer)). Hong Kong's universities usually differ between professorial grades (end- or mid-career research and teaching positions) and lecturers (entry or mid-career positions - in the UK called either teaching fellows or lecturers, and "Mittelbau" in German-speaking countries).[3] Depending on institutions, the title of "professor" is assumed by chair professors and professors, or assistant professors and above.

Academic ranks

  • Chair professor
  • Emeritus professor
  • Professor
  • Associate professor
  • Assistant professor
  • Senior Lecturer
  • Lecturer
  • Assistant Lecturer
  • Research assistant professor
  • Post-doctoral fellow
  • Adjunct (associate/assistant) professor
  • Honorary (associate/assistant) professor
  • Professional consultant or teaching consultant/fellow
  • Research associate
  • Research assistant and teaching assistant (or tutor, instructor, demonstrator)
  • Postgraduate or graduate
  • Undergraduate

Administrative ranks

Hungary

Professzor Emeritus (distinguished professor) Professzor (reader) Docens (senior lecturer) Adjunktus (lecturer) Tanársegéd (assistant lecturer)

Iceland

In Icelandic universities, especially The University of Iceland, prófessor is the most senior ranking teaching position. Below prófessor is dósent, then lektor. This three step hierarchy is akin to the US-scale, of full-, associate- and assistant-professors. Until the early 1990s no upward mobility was available in the Icelandic system. Most university teachers were hired as "prófessor." A "dósent" or a "lektor" wishing to ascend to a higher rank had to apply for a new position when it became available. Currently (since the 1990s) much more university teachers are hired as junior rank "lektor" and are promoted to "dósent" and "prófessor" if their work proves worthy of it.

  • Prófessor
  • Dósent (associate-professors)
  • Lektor (assistant-professors)

India

Regular Academic ranks (Hierarchy from top): Academic institutions in India have the mandate of teaching, training and research. This also includes research universities.

  1. Professor
  2. Associate Professor
  3. Assistant Professor
  4. In addition to these, there are government sponsored fellowships such as Ramanujan & Ramalingaswami. The fellowship is awarded to able candidates for a 5-year contract period during which they are hosted by an academic or research organisation. Their primary function is to carry out high quality original research. They may become a regular faculty as an assistant professor or associate professor during this period subject to their performance.
  5. Assistant Professor (on contract) / Adhoc faculty - They are primarily involved in teaching for a limited contract period typically 6 months - 1 year.

Research ranks (Hierarchy from top): Research institutions such as national labs have a different kind of hierarchy and are primarily concerned with basic and applied research. They guide Ph.D. students in their research thesis but do not grant degrees. In most cases the Ph.D. candidates are registered with another university which grants the degree. Awarding of degree is subjected to meeting the same criteria as Ph.D. guided by university professors.

  1. Scientist H
  2. Scientist G
  3. Scientist F
  4. Scientist E (in some cases EII)
  5. Scientist D (in some cases EI)
  6. Scientist C
  7. Scientist B

Non-faculty ranks

  1. Research associate (postdoctoral fellows/inspire faculty)
  2. Senior research fellow (Ph.D. students after completing two years of course work and research)
  3. Junior research fellow (Newly joined Ph.D. candidates)

Administrative ranks in universities

  1. Chancellor
  2. Vice chancellor
  3. Pro vice chancellor
  4. Deans / directors
  5. Chairmen / HODs / wardens

Administrative ranks in research institutions

  1. Director general
  2. Director
  3. Chairman of departments / divisions

Indonesia

Academic ranks

According to the Joint Regulations of the Ministry of Education And Culture And Head of National Civil Service Agency No 4/VIII/PB/2014; No 24 Year 2014 and the Regulation of Ministry of Administrative and Bureaucratic Reform No. 46 Year 2013 and No. 17 Year 2013 Article 6, the academic ranks (Jabatan Fungsional) for lecturer (university-based) and researcher (non-university) are

Academic ranks for lecturers

  1. Asisten Ahli (Assistant Professor - Lower)
  2. Lektor (Assistant Professor - Upper )
  3. Lektor Kepala (Associate Professor)
  4. Guru Besar, Profesor (Professor)

Academic ranks for researchers

  1. Peneliti Pertama (Junior Researcher)
  2. Peneliti Ahli Muda (Associate Researcher)
  3. Peneliti Ahli Madya (Senior Researcher)
  4. Peneliti Ahli Utama (Research Professor)

Administrative ranks (university)

  • Rektor (Rector)
  • Wakil Rektor (Vice Rector)
  • Dekan (Dean)
  • Wakil Dekan (Vice Dean)
  • Kepala Program Studi (Head of Department)

Iran

Holders of bachelor's degree when granted to teach in a college:

  • Assistant instructor (in Persian ? ; transliteration: "morabbi-?muze?y?r")

Holders of master's degrees when granted to teach in a college:

Holders of Ph.D. degrees:

  • Assistant professor (in Persian?, transliteration: ost?dy?r)
  • Associate professor (in Persian, transliteration: d?neshy?r)
  • (Full) Professor (in Persian: ( (?, transliteration: ost?d (tamam))
  • Distinguished Professor (in Persian? , transliteration: ost?d-e momt?z'')

Terms of address in general: ost?d

Emeritus ranks

Administrative ranks

  • President
  • Chancellor
  • Dean
  • Head of department.

Iraq

Holders of master's degrees can be (in ascending order):

  • Assistant lecturer (? )
  • Lecturer (?)
  • Assistant professor ( )
  • Professor ()

Holders of PhD degrees can be (in ascending order):

  • Lecturer (?)
  • Assistant professor ( )
  • Professor ()

Note: Holders of PhD degrees are automatically promoted to lecturer if they were assistant lecturers before they received their PhD.

  • ‎ equivalent to professor.
  • ‎ equivalent to associate professor.
  • ?‎ equivalent to assistant professor in American Universities (with PhD) or with researches.
  • ? ‎ Assistant lecturer (without PhD).

Israel

Academic:

  • Professor Emeritus
  • Professor Min Haminyan (Full Professor)
  • Professor Chaver (Associate Professor)
  • Senior Lecturer
  • Lecturer

Administrative Ranks:

  • President
  • Rector
  • Dean
  • Department Chairman

Italy

Tenured positions (confermato):

  • Professore Ordinario, or Professore di I fascia. A tenured, full professor position.
  • Professore Associato, or Professore di II fascia. A tenured, associate professor position.
  • Professore Aggregato. A 'ricercatore confermato' who is in charge of teaching university classes.
  • Ricercatore confermato. A tenured position as researcher or assistant professor.

Non-tenured positions (non confermato):

  • Professore Straordinario, also Professore di I fascia. A three-year full professor appointment leading to tenure.
  • Professore Associato non confermato, also Professore di II fascia. A three-year associate professor appointment leading to tenure at associate level.
  • Ricercatore non confermato. A three-year position at assistant professor/researcher/lecturer level.
  • Ricercatore a tempo determinato di tipo B. A three-year position at assistant professor/researcher/lecturer level, leading to the Professore Associato position.
  • Ricercatore a tempo determinato di tipo A. A three-year position (one possible two-year renewal) at assistant professor/researcher/lecturer level.
  • Assegnista di Ricerca. A research fellow with a fixed-term appointment.

An honorary title as Professore Emerito also exists and is typically appointed to illustrious academics after retirement.

Jamaica

  • Professor Emeritus
  • Professor
  • Senior Lecturer (Tenured)
  • Lecturer (Tenured/Tenure track)
  • Assistant Lecturer
  • Instructor
  • Graduate/Research Assistant

Japan

Tenured or non-tenured faculty[note 1]

The ranking is as follows:[4][circular reference]

  • Professor emeritus, Meiyo Ky?ju (?)
  • Professor, Ky?ju ()
  • Associate professor, Junky?ju () (previously, Joky?ju ())
  • Lecturer / Junior associate professor / Instructor / Assistant professor, K?shi ()
  • Assistant professor / Research Associate, Joky? () (previously, Joshu ())

The Japanese system includes non-tenure, term-limited, tokunin () positions at all ranks, including professor. These are referred to as ninki tsuki (?) positions and officially include tokunin in the title. Limited tenure track positions (similar to the United States) have recently been introduced ("tenure". . Retrieved 2015.). In this system Joky? () corresponds to assistant professor. A major difference between the United States system and Japan is that granting of tenure and promotion to associate professor are not linked; one may be tenured yet remain an assistant professor. Advancing upward typically requires a higher-level post to be vacated, even in the new tenure-track system[].

Jordan

  • Assistant Prof
  • Associate Prof
  • Prof

Kenya

Latvia

Administrative positions:

  • Rektors (male), Rektore (female) (rector)
  • Dek?ns (male), Dek?ne (female) (dean), head of a faculty (human sciences, natural sciences etc.)
  • Noda?as vad?t?js (male) Noda?as vad?t?ja (female) (department manager), head of a department (computer science, mathematics etc.)

Academic positions:

  • Profesors (male) Profesore (female) Professor
  • Asoci?tais profesors (male) Asoci?t? profesore (female) associate professor
  • Docents (male), Docente (female) (assistant professor), usually almost the same teaching/research/administration division as professor, Doctoral Degree required
  • Lektors (male), Lektore (female) Lecturer. Requires MA degree
  • Asistents (male), Asistente (female) research or teaching assistant

Lebanon

Academic positions at the Lebanese American University:

  • Instructor
  • Senior Instructor
  • Lecturer
  • Assistant Professor
  • Associate Professor
  • Professor
  • Distinguished Professor

Libya

  • Professor ()
  • Associate professor ( )
  • Assistant professor ( )
  • Lecturer ()
  • Assistant Lecturer ( )

[5]

Lithuania

  • Professor, Profesorius (male) / Profesor? (female)
  • Associate professor, Docentas (male) / Docent? (female)
  • Lecturer, Lektorius (male) / Lektor? (female)
  • Assistant lecturer, Asistentas (male) / Asistent? (female)

Macau

At the University of Macau there are nine levels of faculty rank, namely

  • Chairman professor,
  • Distinguished professor,
  • Professor,
  • Associate professor,
  • Assistant professor
  • Senior lecturer
  • Lecturer
  • Senior instructor
  • Instructor

At the Macau Polytechnic Institute there are three levels

  • professor (professor coordenador)
  • associate professor (professor adjuncto)
  • lecturer (assistente)

North Macedonia

  • Demonstrator, -(Graduate employee in a university)
  • Younger assistant, -(B.Sc.)
  • Assistant, -(M.Sc.)
  • Docent, -(Assistant professor)
  • Vonreden Professor, -(associate professor)
  • Professor, -(full-time professor)
  • Professor emeritus, -(retired professor)
  • Academic, -(academician)

Administrative positions:

  • Pomlad referent, - (Younger Civil Servant) -High School Diploma
  • Referent, - (Civil Servant) -High School Diploma
  • Postar Referent, - (Senior Civil Servant) -High School Diploma
  • Pomlad Sorabotnik, ?- (Younger Associate) -Associate Degree
  • Sorabotnik, ?- (?ssociate) -Associate Degree
  • Postar Sorabotnik, ?- (Senior Associate) -Associate Degree
  • Rakovoditel na studentski prasanja, ? ?- (Head of Students Affairs) -Bachelor's degree
  • Rakovoditel na katedra/institut, ?/- (Head of Department/Institute) -Ph.D.
  • Prodekan, - (Vice Dean) -Ph.D.
  • Dekan, - (Dean) -Ph.D.
  • Prorektor, - (Vice Rector) -Ph.D.
  • Rektor, - (Rector) -Ph.D.

Malaysia

Malta

  • Professor
  • Associate Professor
  • Senior Lecturer
  • Lecturer
  • Assistant Lecturer

Mexico

The ranking system in most Mexican public universities is as follows

  • Profesor Asociado A (early assistant professor)
  • Profesor Asociado B (assistant professor)
  • Profesor Asociado C (early associate professor)
  • Profesor Titular A (associate professor)
  • Profesor Titular B (full professor)
  • Profesor Titular C (senior full professor)
  • Profesor Emerito (equivalent to distinguished professor, not to be confused with emeritus professor)

Usually Mexican academics are also fellows of the Sistema Nacional de Investigadores (SNI) that has four levels (candidate, I, II and III) that more or less correlate (but are not equivalent) to the Asociado and Titular A, B, and C professorships. The rank as professor is determined by the individual's institution while the SNI level is determined by an independent committee that evaluates the researchers nationwide.

Many universities and research institutions make a distinction between "Profesores" -Professors- and "Investigadores" -Researchers- (Asociado A, B, C, Titular A, B, C), the main difference is that "Profesores" have a higher load of teaching, while "Investigadores" have a higher load of research, but normally all of them take part in both activities and are considered equivalent.

Research rankings are awarded by the Sistema Nacional de Investigadores which depends on the national research council (Conacyt):

  • SNI emeritus researcher (not necessarily higher rank but lifetime, requires 15 continuous years as SNI III)
  • SNI III researcher (about 7% of the researchers in SNI)
  • SNI II researcher (about 16% of the researchers in SNI)
  • SNI I researcher (about 59% of researchers in SNI)
  • SNI candidate researcher (C) (about 18% of researchers in SNI)

All titles, both professors and researchers, can be given in a:

  • Full-time, or
  • Part-time basis

Administrative academic positions:

  • Rector
  • Director of Faculty or College
  • Coordinator

Morocco

Academic Positions

1. Professeur d'Enseignement Supérieur

2. Professeur Habilité à Diriger les Recherches (supervise les recherches)

3. Professeur Assistant (co-encadre les recherches)

Before Academic Position

1. Docteur

2. Doctorant

Nepal

Academic Positions

1. Professor Emeritus

2. Professor

3. Associate professor/Reader

4. Assistant Professor

5. Lecturer

6. Teaching Assistant

7. Instructor

8. Technical support staff

Administrative Positions

  • Chancellor
  • Pro-chancellor
  • Vice-chancellor
  • Rector
  • Registrar
  • Deans of School
  • Heads of department
  • Program Coordinator

Netherlands

New Zealand

Nigeria

Academic Positions

  • Emeritus Professor (retired)
  • Professor
  • Associate Professor / Reader
  • Senior Lecturer
  • Lecturer I
  • Lecturer II
  • Assistant Lecturer
  • Graduate Assistant

Administrative Positions

  • Chancellor
  • Pro-chancellor
  • Vice-chancellor
  • Deputy vice-chancellor
  • Pro-vice-chancellor
  • Deans of faculties (some are referred to as provost)
  • Heads of departments/schools
  • Department/school directors of studies

Norway

Pakistan

The hiring of academic positions in public universities throughout Pakistan is managed by the Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, the requirement for all positions vary with respect to the field of studies e.g. Engineering, IT, Medical, Law, and Arts and Design.

There are four faculty ranks lecturer, assistant professor, associate professor, and professor.

In engineering public universities, a lecturer requires an M.Sc. or B.Sc. degree and high academic standing in the field (e.g. gold medalist, among top 15 students of graduating class). An assistant professor position requires a Ph.D. in relevant field with no experience. An associate professorship can be conducted in the fourth year of employment, although, it is becoming more common for promotion and tenure to be awarded in the sixth year of employment. The review requires a certain number 5/8/10 research publications (with at least 1/2/4[jargon] publications in the last 5 years) by the calendar years 2007/2008/2012 respectively, in HEC/PEC recognized journals.

A professor requires ten years post-PhD teaching/research experience in an HEC recognized university or a post-graduate institution or professional experience in the relevant field in a national or international organization. It requires a minimum of 8/12/15 research publications (with at least 2/3/5 publications in the last 5 years) by the calendar years 2007/2008/2012 respectively, in HEC/PEC recognized journals

  • Professor Emeritus
  • Meritorious Professor/ Distinguished National Professor
  • Professor
  • Associate professor
  • Assistant professor
  • Lecturer
  • Lab Engineer
  • Research Associate

Peru

After some recent reforms in the University Law (Minedu, 2014),[6] the Peruvian universities (publics and privates) consider these ranks:

Extraordinary Professors: Principally, this is a category of recognition for his contribution as professor or researcher when he retires or as a professional when he has built a great contribution to society throughout his career. To have 10% as maximum of these professors in any university (public or private) is mandatory.

  • Emeritus professor (Profesor Emérito) - For this recognition, the candidate should be faculty member (former ordinary professor in retiring process).
  • Honorary professor (Profesor Honorario) - For this recognition, the candidate is not related to a faculty member. For instance, in this category is the Doctor Honoris Causa.

Research Professors: Principally, full-time research position with few teaching responsibilities. Research professorships are almost always funded by grants or fellowships apart from the regular university budget. He is designated because of its academic excellence. He has a special bonus of fifty percent (50%) of its total payments. The competent authority of each university evaluates every two years, the production of the ordinary professors, for their permanence as a researcher.

Ordinary Professors: Often full-time (with exclusivity) professors with research competences. Principal faculty. To have 25% as minimum of these professors in any university (public or private) is mandatory.

  • Full professor (Profesor Principal) - PhD and MSc required, and former Associate professor or 15 years of experience (minimum) as researcher in the field to apply.
  • Associate professor (Profesor Asociado) - PhD (postgraduate level) and MSc required, and former Assistant professor or 10 years of experience (minimum) as researcher in the field to apply.
  • Assistant professor (Profesor Auxiliar) - PhD (postgraduate level) and MSc required, and 5 years of experience (minimum) as researcher in the field to apply.

Lecturer (Hired Professors): Often part-time (with non-exclusivity) professors. Complementary faculty. Generally, the primary employer is not the university with which they have the status. Principally, this kind of professor come from practitioner market and not develop research activities. MSc required.

In addition, the universities developed prior ranks, as junior temporary rank, to get experience and training (with strong motivation to be ordinary professor):

  • Instructor (Instructor, Jefe de Práctica) - MSc required in Postgraduate level and BSc required in Undergraduate level.
  • Teaching/Research Assistant (Asistente Académico/Investigador) - MSc required in Postgraduate level and BSc required in Undergraduate level.

The lectures are usually hired by private universities as they can offer this type of part-time contract. The instructors are usually hired by public universities as their type of contract has to be full-time. Even if the duties of these two ranks are similar and the terminology for both is the same in Spanish: "Jefe de prácticas", we should consider the differences in their type of contract.

Philippines

  • Professor Emeritus
  • Professor
  • Associate Professor (doctorate is typically required)
  • Assistant Professor (master's degree required; typically this is also the entry-level rank for PhD holders)
  • Instructor (master's degree required)
  • Assistant Instructor
  • Lecturer (other Universities/Colleges)
  • Guest Lecturer (other Universities/Colleges)

Administrative ranks (UP System;National)

  • Chancellor/University President
  • Vice Chancellor/Vice President for Planning and Development
  • Vice Chancellor/Vice President for Research and Extension
  • Vice Chancellor/Vice President for Academic Affairs
  • Vice Chancellor/Vice President for Finance and Management
  • University Registrar
  • Dean
  • Assistant Dean/Associate Dean
  • Department Chairman/Program Chairman
  • Faculty Members and Staff

Other professors

  • Professor-researcher
  • Researcher
  • Professor Emeritus
  • Ad honorem professor

Tenure

Due to Philippine labor laws regarding permanency, a faculty member who has not received tenure within three years of initial hire cannot continue as a full-time hire at the same university.

Poland

Research-and-teaching staff (higher rank)

  • (pl 'asystent') - research-and-teaching assistant / research-and-teaching fellow (hold master's degree)
  • (pl 'adiunkt') - assistant professor (requires PhD)
  • (pl 'docent') - senior lecturer (requires PhD or habilitation), (a new position, since 2007 optional and only in some universities, does not involve any research duties and is meant mainly for teaching). Until 1987 a position between assistant professor and associate professor.
  • (pl 'profesor uczelni') - associate professor (requires at least PhD and significant teaching or professional or scientific or artistic achievements), according to German nomenclature sometimes called "professor extraordinarius"
  • (pl 'profesor') - full professor (requires the professor title conferred by the President of the Republic of Poland, which is an academic title, not an academic position), sometimes called "professor ordinarius"

and also for a special purpose:

  • (pl 'profesor wizytuj?cy')- visiting professor
  • (pl 'profesor emerytowany')- professor emeritus

Teaching staff: (lower rank)

  • (pl 'instruktor') - instructor (sport)
  • (pl 'lektor') - instructor, foreign language teacher
  • (pl 'wyk?adowca') - lecturer
  • (pl 'starszy wyk?adowca') - senior lecturer (please note the same term is used for both "docent" and "starszy wyk?adowca"

Elected or nominated posts

  • Rector (Rektor) - the principal head of the university (one per university); usually assisted by several deputy rectors (pl prorektor)
  • Dean (Dziekan); the principal head of the faculty (one per faculty), usually assisted by several deputy deans (pl prodziekan);
  • Head (Kierownik) - the head of the institute/department/chairman (one per organizational unit)

Portugal

  • Professor Catedrático (full professor) - PhD and Agregação required
  • Professor Associado com Agregação (associate professor with Agregação) - PhD required
  • Professor Associado (associate professor) - PhD required
  • Professor Auxiliar com Agregação (assistant professor) - PhD required
  • Professor Auxiliar (assistant professor) - PhD required.

Extinct ranks:

  • Assistente (teaching assistant) - without a PhD
  • Assistente estagiário (junior teaching assistant) - without a PhD or a master's degree

Romania

Administrative ranks

  • Rector (Rector): one per university
  • Prorector (Vice-rector): one or more per university
  • Decan (Dean): one per college
  • Prodecan (Vice-dean): one or more per college
  • Director de departament (Head of department): one per department
  • ?ef de catedr? (Head of department): one per department

Research-and-teaching staff (higher rank)

  • Profesor universitar (Professor): holding a doctorate degree international-impact research activity
  • Conferen?iar universitar (Associate professor): holding a doctorate degree and national-impact research activity
  • Lector universitar or ?ef de lucr?ri (Lecturer/Head of works): holding a doctorate degree and local-impact research activity
  • Asistent universitar (Assistant professor): holding a doctorate degree (or in case of a limited time contract they can be in the process of getting a doctorate degree)

Special

  • Profesor vizitator (Visiting professor)
  • Profesor emerit or Profesor consultant (Emeritus professor)

Russia

Rwanda

Academic ranks

  • Full Professor
  • Associate Professor
  • Senior Lecturer
  • Lecturer (PhD)
  • Assistant Lecturer (Msc)
  • Tutorial assistant (Cum Laude undergraduate assisting in teaching and research)

Saudi Arabia

  • Professor
  • Associate Professor
  • Assistant Professor
  • Lecturer
  • Demonstrator ?

Serbia

Singapore

Singapore universities adopt a hybrid of US and British academic ranks. Faculty members on the tenure-track are appointed for sustained excellence in both teaching and research. Assistant Professors are appointed on term contracts, while Associate Professors and Professors may be appointed either with tenure or on term contract. Faculty members on the Educator Track engage in high quality educational activities. They are oriented towards teaching excellence, student learning, and pedagogical research and innovation. Appointments in this Track include Teaching Assistants, Instructors, Lecturers, Senior Lecturers and Associate Professors (Educator Track). They are on term contracts which are usually of 1 - 3 years in the first instance. Research track faculty members focus on conducting fundamental research of high international quality. Appointments on this Track include Research Assistants, Research Fellows, Senior Research Fellows, Associate Professor (Research) and Professor (Research). They are on term contracts of 1 - 3 years in the first instance. Practice Track faculty members are scholar-practitioners with professional skills and expertise in industry to complement the teaching and research enterprise of the university. They also contribute significantly to the outreach activities of the School. Appointments are to Associate Professor (Practice) and Professor (Practice). They are on term contracts of 1 - 3 years in the first instance.[7]

  • Tenure Track: Assistant Professor; Associate Professor; Professor
  • Educator Track: Teaching Assistant; Instructor; Lecturer; Senior Lecturer; Associate Professor (Educator Track)
  • Research Track: Research Assistant; Research Fellow; Senior Research Fellow; Associate Professor (Research); Professor (Research)
  • Practice Track: Associate Professor (Practice); Professor (Practice)

Slovakia

  • Profesor (professor), both degree (written prof. before name) and position. Professors are appointed by the president after a successful accomplishment of the process of awarding a professorship. One of the requirements is an already accomplished docent degree.
  • Docent (associate professor), both degree (written doc. before name) and position. The degree is awarded by the rector after a certain number of years of teaching and after a successful accomplishment of habilitácia (a process concluded by a defense of a reviewed research manuscript and a public lecture).
  • Odborný asistent (lecturer / researcher), this title covers positions from lecturers to researchers. Requirements for lecturers / researchers vary, usually a Ph.D. / Th.D. is required
  • Asistent (assistant lecturer), at least Master degree is required

Special

  • Hos?ujúci profesor (hosting professor), significant expert with whom a dean with the approval of the scientific council of a faculty concluded employment at the position of professor
  • Hos?ujúci docent (hosting associate professor), significant expert with whom a dean with the approval of the scientific council of a faculty concluded employment at the position of associate professor
  • Mimoriadny profesor (adjunct professor; sometimes also translated as associate professor, but it is not same position as docent), associate professor temporarily appointed to the position of professor at a faculty while being an expectant to professor degree (written mimoriadny profesor after name)

Administrative

  • Rektor (rector), head of the university
  • Prorektor (vice-rector), typically three to five people are vice-rectors; the position is further specified by indicating domain a vice-rector is responsible for (e. g. study-related issues, research, public relationships, international relationships, development, information technology)
  • Kvestor (registrar, bursar), senior professional financial administrator of the university
  • Dekan (dean), head of a faculty
  • Prodekan (vice-dean); the position is further specified by indicating domain a vice-den is responsible for (e. g. admissions, study-related issues, research, public relationships, international relationships, information technology)
  • Riadite? (director), head of a sub-unit at the university or a faculty (institute, research center), e. g. Institute of Life-Long Learning of the Slovak University of Technology, Institute of Physical Education and Sport at the Pavol Jozef ?afárik University
  • Vedúci katedry (departmental chairman), head of a katedra (department) - sub-unit at a faculty
  • Zástupca vedúceho katedry (deputy departmental chairman), deputizes department chairman if necessary

Honorary ranks

  • Emeritný profesor (professor emeritus), may be awarded by the rector on the proposal of the scientific council of the university for significant contributions in the field of science, art or education to professor older than 65 years who is no longer employment at the university, but is still active in research and teaching
  • Doctor honoris causa (honorary doctor for the sake of the honor), honorary doctorate of the university or a faculty awarded for special merit (written Dr.h.c. before name)

Slovenia

  • Asistent - assistant (Must hold at least Master (after Bologna process) or Honours degree (university diploma awarded before the Bologna process) with excellent grades, pursuing a postgraduate studies (either Doctorate / PhD studies or pre-Bologna process Magister studies). Relevant working experience or publications could be required as well)
  • Asistent-raziskovalec - research assistant (Must hold at least Master (after Bologna process) or Honours degree (university diploma awarded before the Bologna process) with excellent grades, pursuing a postgraduate studies (either Doctorate / PhD studies or pre-Bologna process Magister studies). Relevant working experience or publications could be required as well)
  • Lektor (usually a native speaker of a taught language)
  • Docent - assistant professor (Must hold Doctorate / PhD. Relevant working experience or publications could be required as well.)
  • Izredni profesor - associate professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate and have experience of minimum of four years as a Docent)
  • Redni profesor - full professor (Must hold PhD or Doctorate and have experience of minimum of four years as a Docent)

Administrative ranks

  • Rektor - rector / chancellor / head of university
  • Prorektor - prorector / vice-chancellor / head of university assistant
  • Dekan - dean / head of faculty, academy or school at the university
  • Prodekan - vice-dean / head of faculty, academy or school at the university
  • Predstojnik oddelka - head of department; several per faculty, academy or school at the university

Honorary ranks

  • Zaslu?ni profesor - distinguished professor, a title bestowed to professors for their extraordinary achievements

South Africa

South Korea

Protected job titles (a.k.a. tenure positions):

  • (Full) professor (/)
  • Associate professor ()
  • Assistant professor ()

Other positions:

  • Lecturer ()
  • Research professor ( )
  • Clinical professor ( )
  • Adjunct professor ( )
  • Teaching assistant professor ( ? )
  • Collegiate professor
  • Visiting professor ( / )
  • Chaired professor ( )
  • Emeritus professor ( )

Spain

  • Full Professor / Catedrático de Universidad
  • Associate Professor / Profesor Titular
  • Instructor (Often Part Time) / Profesor Asociado

Sri Lanka

The appointment of professors follows the British system and is governed by the University Grants Commission regulations. A points-based system considers contributions to the research field, national development and institutional development. Several types of professorships exist:

  • Professor emeritus (on retirement at the age of 65)
  • Senior professor
  • Professor
  • Associate professor

Professor positions are clearly separated from other junior faculty positions such as, in seniority order: senior lecturer (grade I) (usually PhD and 6+ years service), senior lecturer (grade II) (usually a PhD and 2+ years service), lecturer (usually with PhD), lecturer (probationary), assistant lecturer.

  • Professor emeritus (on retirement)
  • Senior professor
  • Professor
  • Associate professor
  • Senior lecturer
  • Lecturer
  • Temporary Assistant lecturer
  • Instructor/ demonstrator
  • Student instructor (undergrad)

Administrative ranks

  • Chancellor (titular)
  • Vice-chancellor/president
  • Registrar
  • Deans of faculties
  • Heads of departments/schools
  • Directors of Postgraduate Institutes

Sudan

  • Professor
  • Associate Professor
  • Assistant Professor
  • Lecturer
  • Teaching Assistant

Sweden

Researcher level

  • Licentiate (Licentiat)
  • Doctor (Doktor)

Higher titles

  • Docent/Associate Professor (Docent)
  • Adjunct Professor (Adjungerad professor)
  • Lecturer (Adjunkt)
  • Director musices (Director Musices)
  • Assisting the Professor (Forskarassistent)
  • Assistent Professor (Lektor)
  • Postdoc (Postdok)
  • Head of Department (Prefekt)
  • Deputy Head of Department (Proprefekt)
  • Vice Dean of Department (Prodekanus)
  • Dean (Dekan)
  • Professor (Professor)
  • Professor Emeritus (Professor Emeritus)
  • Deputy President (Prorektor)
  • President (Rektor)

Honorary titles

  • Honorary doctor (Hedersdoktor)
  • Honorary Fellow (Honorary Fellow)

Switzerland

German-language universities

[note 2]

  • Hilfassistent/Hilfassistentin: Undergraduate research assistant / Undergraduate teaching assistant
  • Assistent/Assistentin: research assistant (typically a PhD student)
  • Wissenschaftlicher Mitarbeiter/Wissenschaftliche Mitarbeiterin: Scientific Staff (Note: typically synonymous with "Assistent/Assistentin")
  • Postdoc: Postdoc (i.e., after PhD)
  • Oberassistent/Oberassistentin: senior researcher/lecturer (typically after 1-2 years as a postdoc)
  • Lehrbeauftragter/Lehrbeauftragte: lecturer / adjunct professor
  • Gastdozent/Gastdozentin: visiting lecturer
  • Assistenzprofessor/Assistenzprofessorin: assistant professor (requires PhD)
  • Privatdozent/Privatdozentin (PD): senior lecturer (has the habilitation but not professorship)
  • Professor/Professorin: full professor (ordinary and extraordinary)
French-language universities
  • Professeur ordinaire (full professor, chairman)
  • Professeur extraordinaire
  • Professeur invité
  • Professeur associé (associate professor literally, yet functions as full professor or reader, non-chairman, tenured)
  • Professeur assistant (assistant professor literally, yet functions as associate professor, tenure-track)
  • Chargé de cours (senior lecturer, yet functions as associate professor, tenure-track)
  • Privat docent (has the habilitation but not professorship, required for tenure-track)
  • Maître-Assistant (assistant professor or lecturer, non-tenured)
  • Assistant (lecturer, usually a graduate student)
  • Moniteur (undergraduate student)

Syria

The academic rankings in the Syrian Arab Republic are very similar to the Egyptian ones; see Academic ranks in Egypt for details.

Taiwan

  • Professor emeritus(?)
  • Professor()
  • Associate professor()
  • Assistant professor (?)(assistant professor and above are mainly for people who hold a PhD degree. Some are promoted to this rank by distinctive industrial performance.)
  • Lecturer
  • Adjunct professor
  • Adjunct associate professor
  • Adjunct assistant professor (According to the contract work, and less welfare. Usually 1 to 2 years.)
  • Adjunct researcher

Thailand

Professor ()
Associate professor ()
Assistant professor ()
Lecturer (?)

Trinidad and Tobago

  • Professor Emeritus
  • Professor
  • Senior Lecturer
  • Lecturer
  • Assistant Lecturer
  • Instructor
  • Graduate/Research Assistant

Tunisia

  • Professeur ordinaire (full professor)
  • Professeur extraordinaire (full professor)
  • Professeur (professor)
  • Chargé de cours définitif (associate professor, tenured)
  • Chargé de cours temporaire (assistant professor, tenure-track)
  • Chargé de cours invité (visiting assistant professor, non-tenured)
  • Maître de conférences (associate professor, tenured)
  • Directeur de recherche (research director, appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Chef de travaux agrégé (senior researcher with teaching aggregation, with Ph.D.)
  • Maître de Conférences (senior researcher, with Ph.D., appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Chef de travaux (senior researcher, with Ph.D.)
  • Chercheur qualifié (senior researcher., appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Premier assistant (senior research assistant, with Ph.D.)
  • Chargé de recherche (researcher, typically post.doc., appointed by federal research council FNRS)
  • Assistant de recherche (research assistant)

Administrative ranks

  • Recteur (president of university)
  • Vice-Recteur
  • Doyen (dean, i.e. head of a faculty, elected)
  • Président d'institut (director of research institute, elected)
  • Vice-Doyen (vice-dean, i.e. head of studies in a faculty)
  • Président de département (department head, elected)

Turkey

Academic ranks

  • emeritus profesör (Honorary Retired professor)
  • Ordinaryus Profesör(At least 5 years professor with a chair, representing a given area)
  • Profesör(Full professor)
  • Doçent, (Associate professor)
  • Dr.Ö?retim Üyesi, (Assistant Professor)
  • Ö?retim Görevlisi, (Lecturer)
  • Okutman, (Instructor)
  • Ara?t?rma Görevlisi, (Research/teaching assistant)

Administrative ranks

  • Rektör, rector or president (professors)
  • Rektör Yard?mc?s?, vice-rector or vice-president (professors)
  • Fakülte Dekan?, dean of the faculty (professors)
  • Enstitü müdürü, Director of the institute (doctorate or above for research institutes, professors for graduate education institutes)
  • Dekan Yard?mc?s?, vice-dean or associate dean (associate professor or above)
  • Enstitü müdür yard?mc?s?, Deputy director of the institute (associate professor or above)
  • Bölüm Ba?kan?, head of department (doctorate or above)
  • Yüksekokul Müdürü, head of school (doctorate or above)
  • Ana Bilim Dal? Ba?kan?, chairman of academic programs (doctorate or above)

Ukraine

Academic ranks

  • Profesor / (Full professor)
  • Docent / (Associate professor)
  • Starshyj naukovyj doslidnyk (spivrobitnyk) / ? () (Senior researcher)
  • Starshyj vykladach / ? (Senior lecturer)
  • Asystent / (Assistant professor)
  • Vykladach / (Lecturer)

Administrative ranks

  • Rektor / , rector or president (professors)
  • Prorektor / , vice-rector or vice-president (professors)
  • Dyrektor instytutu / centru / / , Director of the institute / centre (assistant professor or above)
  • Dekan Fakultetu / ?, dean of the faculty (associate professor or above)
  • Zastupnyk dekana/dyrektora / /, vice-dean or associate dean (associate professor or above) / deputy director of the institute (assistant professor or above)
  • Zaviduvach kafedry / ?, head of department (assistant professor or above)
  • Zaviduvach laboratoriji / , head of laboratory (assistant professor or above)
  • Zaviduvach sekciji kafedry / ?, chairman of academic programs (assistant professor or above)

United Kingdom

Research and teaching career pathway

  • Professor/Chair (equivalent to distinguished professor)
  • Reader (or Principal Lecturer in some post-1992 institutions) (equivalent to full professor)
  • Senior lecturer (equivalent to associate professor)
  • Lecturer, clinical lecturer (equivalent to assistant professor)
  • Assistant lecturer, demonstrator, seminar leader, associate lecturer, graduate teaching assistant, departmental lecturer

Research career pathway

  • Professor/professorial research fellow/research professor
  • Reader
  • Senior research fellow
  • Doctor
  • Research fellow, Research associate
  • Research assistant

Teaching career pathway

  • Senior Tutor
  • Professorial teaching fellow
  • Senior teaching fellow
  • Teaching fellow
  • Teaching associate

United States

Most common hierarchy

  • Distinguished, Endowed or University Professor
  • Professor
  • Associate Professor
  • Assistant Professor
  • Master Instructor
  • Senior Instructor
  • Instructor
  • Research Associate, Lecturer
  • Adjunct Professor/Lecturer (Often Part Time)

Venezuela

  • Titular professor (Profesor Titular)
  • Associated professor (Profesor Asociado)
  • Aggregate professor (Profesor Agregado)
  • Assistant professor (Profesor Asistente)
  • Instructor (Instructor)

Dedication rank

  • Exclusive dedication professor (Profesor a Dedicación Exclusiva)
  • Full-time professor (Profesor a Tiempo Completo)
  • Contracted professor (Profesor a Tiempo Convencional - academic rank is usually optional)

Administrative ranks (public national)

  • University council (Consejo Universitario - Órgano Colegiado)
  • Rector or chairman (Rector)
  • University secretary or registrar (Secretario)
  • Academic vice rector (Vicerrector Académico)
  • Administrative vice rector (Vicerrector Administrativo)
    • Faculty council (Consejo de Facultad - Órgano Colegiado)
    • Dean (Decano - one per faculty)
    • Vice-dean (Vicedecano - one per faculty - optional)
    • Academic council (Concejo Académico - Órgano Colegiado)
    • Dean's council (Consejo Decanal - Órgano Colegiado)
      • School council (Consejo de Escuela - Órgano Colegiado)
      • Principal (Director - one per school)
      • Vice-principal (Subdirector - one per school -- optional)
        • Chief of Department (Jefe de Departamento)
          • Chief of chairman (Jefe de Cátedra)

Other professors

  • Professor-researcher (Profesor Investigador)
  • Researcher (Investigador)
  • Retired professor (Profesor Retirado)
  • Ad honorem professor (Profesor Ad Honorem)
  • Consultant professor (Profesor Consultante)
  • Visiting professor (Profesor Visitante)
  • Emergency teacher (Docente de Emergencia)

Auxiliary and Lab assistants

  • Auxiliary teacher I (Docente Auxiliar I)
  • Auxiliary teacher II (Docente Auxiliar II)
  • Auxiliary teacher III (Docente Auxiliar III)
  • Auxiliary teacher IV (Docente Auxiliar IV)
  • Auxiliary teacher V (Docente Auxiliar V)

Zimbabwe

The appointment and ranking of academics is governed by the Minister of Higher and Tertiary Education, Science and Technology Development. A points-based system considers an academic's contributions to research, teaching, and university and community service. The following structure of grades and notches for Academic Staff exist at universities in Zimbabwe:

  • Professor/Research Professor (Grade 3b)
  • Associate Professor/Associate Research Professor (Grade 4)
  • Senior Lecturer/Senior Research Fellow (Grade 5)
  • Lecturer/Research Fellow (Grade 6)
  • Teaching Assistant/Assistant Lecturer/Assistant Research Fellow (Grade 7)

University Administrative ranks[8]

  • Chancellor (President of the Republic of Zimbabwe)[9]
  • Vice-chancellors
  • Registrars
  • Deans / Executive Deans of faculties
  • Heads / Chairpersons of departments/schools
  • Directors of Postgraduate Institutes

Description of each Academic Rank

Grade 7 - Teaching Assistant/Assistant Lecturer/Assistant Research Fellow Conditions: First Degree. Annual appointment for a maximum period of three years during which one must acquire a recognized master's degree.

Grade 6 - Lecturer/Research Fellow (Master's Degree/PhD Degree) Conditions: Lecturers may be tenured after three years subject to a minimum of 5 publications in refereed Journals (or assessed equivalent including patents, copyrights, trademarks). Research Fellows may be tenured after three years subject to a minimum of 7 publications in refereed Journals (or assessed equivalent including patents, copyrights, trademarks).

Grade 5 - Senior Lecturer/Senior Research Fellow Conditions: Senior Lecturer (may be equivalent to Assistant Professor rank in other countries - PhD/earned Doctorate with 6 - 10 publications in refereed journals (or assessed equivalent including patents, copyrights, trademarks). May be tenured on appointment. Senior Research Fellow - PhD/earned Doctorate with 8 - 12 publications in refereed journals (or assessed equivalent including patents, copyrights, trademarks). May be tenured on appointment.

Grade 4 - Associate Professor/Associate Research Professor Conditions: Associate Professor - PhD/earned Doctorate with 21 but less than 35 publications in refereed journals (or assessed equivalent including patents, copyrights, trademarks). Tenured on appointment. Associate Research Professor - PhD Degree/earned Doctorate with 24 or more publications in refereed journals (or assessed equivalent including patents, copyrights, trademarks) Associate Professor. Tenured on appointment.

Grade 3b - Professor/Research Professor Conditions: Professor - PhD/earned Doctorate with 35 or more Publications in refereed journals (or assessed equivalent including patents, copyrights, trademarks). Research Professor - PhD/earned Doctorate with 40 or more Publications in refereed journals (or assessed equivalent including patents, copyrights, trademarks).

Notes

  1. ^ Japan has been taking steps to make its academic rankings similar to that of the United States. But whereas only PhDs can acquire the rank of "assistant professor" in the US, in the past many Japanese "assistant professors" and "associate professors" have only master's degrees and do not advance beyond that.
  2. ^ The title of "Oberassistent" is comparable to the German Akademischer Rat [de], a postdoctoral position that today has mostly been replaced by the position of Juniorprofessur [de]. It is typically non-tenured and does not imply faculty rank (i.e., one would not participate in faculty meetings of professors).

External links

References

External links


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