Examples of 7.62×54mmR Rimmed ammunition. The photo shows, reading from left to right: Sellier & Bellot hollow point boat tail; "Czech silver tip", mild steel core, light ball; Hungarian silver/yellow-tip, mild steel core, heavy ball; Wolf Ammunition Gold soft-point; USSR 1986 steel core light ball, Factory 60. ; Yugoslav surplus (1953); USSR 1940s lead core light ball 
|Place of origin||Russian Empire|
|Designer||Captain Sergei Mosin|
|Parent case||8×52mmR Mannlicher|
|Case type||Rimmed, Bottleneck|
|Bullet diameter||7.92 mm (0.312 in)|
|Neck diameter||8.53 mm (0.336 in)|
|Shoulder diameter||11.61 mm (0.457 in)|
|Base diameter||12.37 mm (0.487 in)|
|Rim diameter||14.40 mm (0.567 in)|
|Rim thickness||1.6 mm (0.063 in)|
|Case length||53.72 mm (2.115 in)|
|Overall length||77.16 mm (3.038 in)|
|Case capacity||4.16 cm3 (64.2 gr H2O)|
|Rifling twist||240 mm (1 in 9.45 in)|
|Primer type||Berdan or Boxer Large Rifle|
|Maximum pressure||390.00 MPa (56,565 psi)|
|Test barrel length: 73 cm (28 in)|
The 7.62×54mmR is a rimmed rifle cartridge developed by the Russian Empire and introduced as a service cartridge in 1891. Originally designed for the bolt-action Mosin-Nagant rifle, it was used during the late Tsarist era and throughout the Soviet period to the present day. The cartridge remains one of the few standard-issue rimmed cartridges still in military use and has the longest service life of all military-issued cartridges in the world.
The American Winchester Model 1895 was also chambered for this cartridge per a contract with the Russian government. The 7.62×54mmR is still in use by the Russian military in the Dragunov, SV-98 and other sniper rifles, as well as some modern general-purpose machine guns like the PKM and Pecheneg machine gun. Originally, the round was designated as " ? 1891 ?" - (Three-line cartridge model of 1891). It then became widely known under the designation "7,62 " (7.62mm rifle cartridge). The round has erroneously come to be known as the "7.62mm Russian" (and is still often referred to as such colloquially), but, according to standards, the "R" in designation (7.62×54mmR) stands for "rimmed", in line with standard C.I.P. designations. The name is sometimes confused with the "7.62 Soviet" round, which refers to the rimless 7.62×39mm cartridge used in the SKS and AK-based (AK-47, AK-15, AEK-973) rifles.
The 7.62×54mmR is the oldest cartridge still in regular combat service with several major armed forces in the world. In 2011, the cartridge reached 120 years in service. As of December 2013Dragunov sniper rifle, SV-98 and machine guns like the PKM. It is also one of the few (along with the .22 Hornet, .30-30 Winchester, and .303 British) bottlenecked, rimmed centerfire rifle cartridges still in common use today. Most of the bottleneck rimmed cartridges of the late 1880s and 1890s fell into disuse by the end of the First World War.the 7.62×54mmR is mainly used in designated marksman/sniper rifles like the
The .30-06 Springfield cartridge (7.62×63 mm), with its higher service pressure and case capacity, will outperform the 7.62×54mmR when same-length test barrels are used, though this is very uncommon as .30-06 Springfield firearms are generally sold with much shorter barrels than 7.62×54mmR firearms. Commonly available 7.62×54mmR 150 gr (9.7 g) commercial ammunition chronographs around 3,000 ft/s (914 m/s) from the typical Mosin-Nagant (29") barrel, while the heavier 180 gr (11.7 g) loads chonograph in the low 2,700 ft/s (823 m/s) range. This is identical to .30-06 Springfield performance from a 24" barrel and slightly better than .30-06 Springfield performance from a 22" barrel.
The 7.62×54mmR originally had a 13.7 g (210 grain) "Jager" round-nosed full metal jacket (FMJ) bullet. The projectile was replaced in 1908 by the 9.61-gram (148.3 gr) ? (Lyogkaya pulya, "Light Bullet") spitzer bullet, whose basic design has remained to the present. The Lyogkaya pulya, or "L"-bullet, had a ballistic coefficient (G1 BC) of approximately 0.338 and (G7 BC) of approximately 0.185.
To increase accuracy for the Dragunov SVD, the Soviets developed the 7N1 variant of the cartridge in 1966. The 7N1 was developed by V. M. Sabelnikov, P. P. Sazonov and V. M. Dvorianinov. It used match-grade extruded powder instead of the coarser ball propellant and had a 9.8 g (151.2 gr) boat-tailed FMJ jacketed projectile with an air pocket, a steel core and a lead knocker in the base for maximum terminal effect. It had a ballistic coefficient (G1 BC) of approximately 0.411 and (G7 BC) of approximately 0.206. Produced by "Factory 188" (Novosibirsk Low Voltage Equipment Plant), cartridges are only head-stamped with the number "188" and the year of manufacture. It came packaged 20 loose rounds to a paper packet, 22 packets to a metal "spam" tin, and two tins per wooden case for a total of 880 rounds. The individual paper packets, hermetically sealed metal 'spam' cans, and wooden shipping crates were all distinctly marked (Snaiperskaya, the adjective form of "Sniper"). Even the wax wrapping paper for the paper packets was covered in red text to make sure it wasn't misused.
As hard body armor saw increasing use in militaries, the 7N1 was replaced in 1999 by the 7N14 special load developed for the SVD. The 7N14 round is loaded with a 9.8 g (151.2 gr) projectile containing a sharp hardened steel penetrator to improve penetration which is fired with an average muzzle velocity of 830 m/s (2,723 ft/s), for a muzzle energy of 3,375 J (2,489 ft?lbf).
The 7.62×54mmR has 4.16 ml (64 grains H2O) cartridge case capacity. The exterior shape of the case was designed to promote reliable case feeding and extraction in bolt-action rifles and machine guns alike, under challenging conditions. The cartridge's shape remains the same to the present day.
7.62×54mmR maximum C.I.P. cartridge dimensions. All sizes in millimeters (mm).
Americans would define the shoulder angle at alpha/2 ? 18.5 degrees. The common rifling twist rate for this cartridge is 240 mm (1 in 9.45 in), 4 grooves, Ø lands = 7.62 mm (0.300 in), Ø grooves = 7.92 mm (0.312 in), land width = 3.81 mm and the primer type is Berdan or very rarely Boxer (in large rifle size).
According to the official C.I.P. (Commission Internationale Permanente pour l'Epreuve des Armes à Feu Portatives) rulings the 7.62×54mmR can handle up to 390.00 MPa (56,565 psi) Pmax piezo pressure. In C.I.P. regulated countries every rifle cartridge combo has to be proofed at 125% of this maximum C.I.P. pressure to certify for sale to consumers. This means that 7.62×54mmR chambered arms in C.I.P.-regulated countries are currently (2014) proof tested at 487.50 MPa (70,706 psi) PE piezo pressure.
The attainable muzzle velocities and muzzle energies of the 7.62×54mmR are comparable with (but slightly higher than) standard 7.62×51mm NATO cartridges. However, a rimmed case such as the one used in the 7.62×54mmR cartridge can complicate smooth feeding within box magazines, but they are by no means unreliable. The spitzer bullets used in the military variants have a particularly elongated shape which results in a favorable ballistic coefficient and sectional density, contributing to an adequate long-range performance and energy retention.
When used with modern hunting bullets, the 7.62×54mmR is capable of taking game in the medium- to large-sized class (CXP2 and CXP3). The 7.62×54mmR can offer very good penetrating ability due to a fast twist rate that enables it to fire long, heavy bullets with a high sectional density. In Russia, the 7.62×54mmR is commonly used for hunting purposes, mostly in sporterized Mosin-Nagant rifles and civil Dragunov variants (Tigers).
The 7.62×54mmR rounds in use with the Russian Armed Forces are designed for machine guns and sniper rifles. As of 2003, there were several variants of 7.62×54mmR rounds produced for various purposes. All use clad metal as case material.
||57-N-323S||7N13 (AP)||7T2 (tracer)||7BZ3 (API)||7N1 (sniper load)|
|Cartridge weight||21.8 g (336 gr)||21.7 g (335 gr)||22 g (340 gr)||22.6 g (349 gr)||21.9 g (338 gr)|
|Bullet weight||9.6 g (148.2 gr)||9.4 g (145.1 gr)||9.65 g (148.9 gr)||10.39 g (160.3 gr)||9.8 g (151.2 gr)|
|Muzzle velocity||828 m/s (2,717 ft/s)||828 m/s (2,717 ft/s)||798 m/s (2,618 ft/s)||809 m/s (2,654 ft/s)||823 m/s (2,700 ft/s)|
|Muzzle energy||3,291 J (2,427 ft?lbf)||3,222 J (2,376 ft?lbf)||3,073 J (2,267 ft?lbf)||3,400 J (2,508 ft?lbf)||3,319 J (2,448 ft?lbf)|
|Accuracy of fire at
300 m (328 yd)
|90 mm (3.5 in) (R50)||90 mm (3.5 in) (R50)||150 mm (5.9 in) (R50)||150 mm (5.9 in) (R50)||80 mm (3.1 in) (R100)|
7.62×54mmR is widely available both as military surplus and new production, but less so for match-grade rounds. Most surplus ammunition is steel-cased and uses Berdan primers, which effectively hinders its use for handloading. However, with the increased popularity of surplus Eastern-bloc Mosin-Nagant, SVT-40, and PSL rifles in the United States, Boxer-primed ammunition and unfired cases are increasingly available; these cases take large rifle primers.