2018 New Zealand Census
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2018 New Zealand Census
Thirty-fourth census of New Zealand
← 2013
2023 →
General information
CountryNew Zealand
Date taken6 March 2018; 22 months ago (2018-03-06)
Total population4,699,755[1]
Percent changeIncrease 10.79%
Annual percent changeIncrease 2.1%[1]
Most populous regionAuckland (1,571,718)
Least populous regionWest Coast (31,575)

The 2018 New Zealand census was the thirty-fourth national census in New Zealand, which took place on Tuesday 6 March 2018.[2] The population of New Zealand was counted as 4,699,755 - an increase of 457,707 (10.79%) over the 2013 census.[1]

Results from the 2018 census were released to the public on 23 September 2019, from the Statistics New Zealand website.[3] The next New Zealand census is set to be held in March 2023.[4]

History

Background

The Census Act 1877 required censuses to be held every fifth year and is well embedded in legislation and government systems.[5] Since 1881, censuses have been held every five years, with the exceptions of those in 1931 and 1941 and the one in 2011 which was cancelled due to the February 2011 earthquake in Christchurch, which displaced many Canterbury residents from their homes only a few weeks before census day. It was rescheduled for March 2013, so the 2013 census is the previous census completed before this one.[6]

Issues and controversies

Originally, it was estimated that the 2018 census saw a drop in response rates from 94.5 percent of individuals in 2013 to 90 percent.[7] This drop, which amounted to the lowest census response rate for fifty years, has been blamed on a 'digital-first' policy for the census. An independent inquiry on the issue was convened by Stats NZ and reported in August 2019; it agreed that too little attention had been paid to the non-digital aspects of the census, but also blamed operational complexity and flaws in management.[8][9][10] In November 2018, Statistics NZ announced that release of the census results would be pushed back to at least April 2019 due to "the complex nature of the task".[11]

In early April 2019, the Government Statistician was facing possible charges of contempt of parliament. She had twice refused, on 13 February and in early April, to disclose the number of partially and fully completed responses.[12] On 9 April, she reported that one in seven New Zealanders, 700,000 people, failed to complete the census.[13]

In August 2019, an independent review of the 2018 census criticised the Chief Statistician Liz MacPherson's leadership of Statistics New Zealand. Due to a decision to conduct the census primarily online, the census attracted only an 83% response rate, even lower than the 90% earlier reported, well short of the 94% census percent target and a nine percent drop from the previous 2013 New Zealand census. In response to the report, MacPherson resigned as chief statistician on 13 August 2019.[14][15][16]

Topics

The 2018 census collected data on the following topics:[17]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Required to be included under the Statistics Act 1975 or the Electoral Act 1993.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i Topic not included in 2013 census.

Projections

Statistics New Zealand annually conducts population projections for New Zealand as a whole, which are based on data from the previous census (in this case, the 2013 census) and calculated using a cohort-component method. Population projections also take into consideration births, deaths, and net migration.

In 2016, New Zealand's population at the time of the 2018 census was projected to be between 4,807,000 and 4,944,000.[18]

Results

Data uses fixed random rounding to protect confidentiality;[19] each data point is rounded either to the nearest multiple of 3 (​ chance) or the next-nearest multiple of 3 (​ chance).[20]

The census usually-resident population count of New Zealand is a count of all people who usually live in and were present in the country on census night (6 March 2018), and excludes overseas visitors and New Zealand residents who are temporarily overseas.[21]

Due to the high rate of non-response in the census, the published results combine answers from census forms with data from the 2013 Census and from government administrative data. Reports from an External Data Quality Review Panel include quality ratings for each variable, taking the added data into account[22]

Population and dwellings

Population counts for regions of New Zealand.[23] All figures are for the census usually-resident population count.

Region Population %
Northland 179,076 3.81
Auckland 1,571,718 33.44
Waikato 458,202 9.75
Bay of Plenty 308,499 6.56
Gisborne 47,517 1.01
Taranaki 117,561 2.50
Manawatu 238,797 5.08
Hawke's Bay 166,368 3.54
Wellington 506,814 10.78
North Island 3,594,552 76.48
Nelson 50,880 1.08
Tasman 52,389 1.11
Marlborough 47,340 1.01
Canterbury 599,694 12.76
West Coast 31,575 0.67
Otago 225,186 4.79
Southland 97,467 2.07
South Island 1,104,537 23.50
Total, regional council areas 4,699,089 99.99
Area outside region 669 0.01
New Zealand New Zealand 4,699,755 100
  • Resident population count was 4,699,755, up 457,707 from the 2013 Census.[3]
    • There are 2,319,558 males in New Zealand (49.35% of the population) and 2,380,197 females (50.65% of the population).[19]
  • On average, the population grew by around 2.1% per year since the 2013 Census - significantly higher than the annual average growth between 2006 and 2013, which was 0.7%.[3]
    • The higher growth rate is consistent with higher net migration of 259,000 in the five years ended 30 June 2018 compared with 59,000 in the seven years ended 30 June 2013.[3]
  • Among children (under 15 years), males outnumbered females, with around 105 males for every 100 females. The ratio declined with age: there were 104 males for every 100 females in the age group of 15-29, 95 males for every 100 females at ages 30-64 years, and 87 males for every 100 females at age 65 or above.[3]
  • There was a total of 1,855,962 occupied and unoccupied private dwellings, 108,558 more than in 2013.[3]
    • Ten percent of private dwellings were unoccupied.[3]

Birthplace

In 2018, 3,370,122 people (71.7%) were born in New Zealand, with 1,329,633 (28.3%) born overseas.

Data is for the census's usually-resident population.[19]

Birthplace Responses
Number % Number pp
New Zealand 3,370,122 71.71 Increase 389,298 Decrease 1.44
Overseas 1,329,633 28.29 Increase 327,846 Increase 4.68
England 210,915 4.49 Decrease 4,674 Decrease 0.92
China, People's Republic of[a] 132,906 2.83 Increase 43,785 Increase 0.73
India 117,348 2.50 Increase 50,172 Increase 0.91
Australia 75,696 1.61 Increase 12,984 Increase 0.04
South Africa 71,382 1.52 Increase 17,104 Increase 0.61
Philippines 67,632 1.44 Increase 30,333 Increase 0.50
Fiji 62,310 1.33 Increase 9,555 Decrease 0.01
Samoa 55,512 1.18 Increase 4,851 Decrease 0.09
Korea, Republic of 30,975 0.66 Increase 4,374 Decrease 0.01
United States 27,678 0.59 Increase 6,216 Increase 0.05
Tonga 26,856 0.57 Increase 4,443 Increase 0.04
Scotland 26,136 0.56 Increase 183 Decrease 0.09
Total people stated 4,641,897 98.77 - -
Inadequately described 432 0.01 - -
Not stated 57,426 1.22 - -
Total 4,699,755 100 Increase 457,707 Increase 9.74
  1. ^ Does not include Hong Kong SAR and Macau SAR.

Ethnicity

There was no change in the top five ethnicities between the 2013 and 2018 censuses, which are New Zealand European (64.1%), M?ori (16.5%), Chinese (4.9%), Indian (4.7%), and Samoan (3.9%).[21]

Data is for the census usually-resident population count.[19]

Ethnic group Population %
European 3,372,708 71.76
 New Zealand European 3,013,440 64.12
 English 72,204 1.54
 South African European 37,155 0.79
 Australian 29,349 0.62
 European nfd 34,632 0.74
 Dutch 29,820 0.63
 Scottish 18,627 0.40
 Irish 17,835 0.38
 German 16,818 0.36
 American European 16,245 0.35
 Other European 86,583 1.84
M?ori 775,836 16.51
Pacific Islander 423,036 9.00
 Samoan 182,721 3.89
 Tongan 82,389 1.75
 Cook Islands Maori 80,532 1.71
 Niuean 30,867 0.66
 Fijian 19,722 0.42
Asian 718,995 15.30
 Chinese nfd 231,387 4.92
 Indian nfd 221,916 4.72
 Filipino 72,612 1.55
 Korean 35,664 0.76
 Japanese 18,141 0.39
 Fijian Indian 15,132 0.32
 Asian nfd 11,811 0.25
 Thai 10,623 0.23
 Vietnamese 10,086 0.21
 Other Asian 91,623 1.95
MELAA 72,231 1.54
 Latin American 27,756 0.59
 Asian Middle Eastern 28,626 0.61
 African 15,849 0.34
Other 58,104 1.24
 New Zealander nfd 45,330 0.96
 Other 8,757 0.19
 Not listed 4,017 0.09
Total 4,699,755 100

Religion

Most New Zealanders, 48.5% of the population, identify as being irreligious. Data is for the census usually-resident population count.[19]

Religious affiliation Population %
Irreligious 2,278,185 48.47
 No Religion nfd 2,264,601 48.19
Atheism 7,068 0.15
Agnosticism 6,516 0.14
Christian 1,738,638 37.00
Anglican 314,913 6.70
 Christian nfd 307,926 6.55
Roman Catholic 295,743 6.29
Presbyterian 221,199 4.71
 Catholicism nfd 173,016 3.68
Latter-day Saints 54,123 1.15
Methodist nfd 52,734 1.12
Baptist nfd 35,967 0.77
Born Again 33,486 0.71
Pentecostal nfd 22,296 0.47
Jehovah's Witnesses 20,061 0.43
Christian Fellowship 18,042 0.38
Seventh-day Adventist 17,799 0.38
Assemblies of God 14,883 0.32
 Tongan Methodist 11,169 0.24
 Other Christian 145,281 3.09
Hinduism 123,504 2.63
 Hinduism nfd 121,644 2.59
 Other Hinduism 1,890 0.04
Islam 61,455 1.31
 Islam nfd 57,276 1.22
Sunni 2,961 0.06
 Other Islam 1,218 0.03
Buddhism 52,779 1.12
 Buddhism nfd 44,355 0.94
Theravada Buddhism 4,851 0.10
Zen Buddhism 1,401 0.03
Mahayana Buddhism 1,026 0.02
 Other Buddhism 1,144 0.02
Judaism 5,274 0.11
 Judaism nfd 3,348 0.07
 Other Judaism 1,926 0.04
M?ori Religions 62,634 1.33
Ratana 43,821 0.93
Ringat? 12,336 0.26
 M?ori Religions, Beliefs and Philosophies nfd/nec 5,283 0.11
 Paimarire 1,194 0.03
New Age 19,011 0.40
Spiritualist 8,262 0.18
Pagan 2,730 0.06
Rastafarianism 1,707 0.04
Wiccan 1,482 0.03
 Other New Age Religions nec 1,311 0.03
Satanism 1,149 0.02
Other 91,239 1.94
Sikhism 40,908 0.87
Jedi 20,409 0.43
Church of the Flying Spaghetti Monster 4,248 0.09
Baha'i 2,925 0.06
Taoism 1,098 0.02
Zoroastrian 1,068 0.02
 Other 20,583 0.44
Object to answering 312,795 6.66
Total people stated 4,699,755 100
Total responses 4,732,641 N/A

Language

The vast majority of New Zealanders, 95.4%, speak English; in second place is M?ori, with 4.0% of the population being able to speak it. Data is for the census usually-resident population count.[19]

Language Population %
English 4,482,135 95.37
M?ori 185,955 3.96
Samoan 101,937 2.17
No language (e.g., too young to talk) 101,751 2.17
Northern Chinese 95,253 2.03
Hindi 69,471 1.48
French 55,116 1.17
Yue 52,767 1.12
Sinitic (not further defined) 51,501 1.10
Tagalog 43,278 0.92
German 41,385 0.88
Spanish 38,823 0.83
Afrikaans 36,966 0.79
Tongan 35,820 0.76
Panjabi 34,227 0.73
Korean 31,323 0.67
Fiji Hindi 26,805 0.57
Japanese 24,885 0.53
Dutch 23,343 0.50
New Zealand Sign Language 22,986 0.49
Gujarati 22,200 0.47
Other 256,275 5.45
Total people 4,699,755 100
Total responses 5,834,166 N/A

M?ori descent

Only 18.5% of New Zealanders have at least some M?ori descent. Data is for the census usually-resident population count.[19]

M?ori descent indicator Population %
M?ori descent 869,850 18.51
No M?ori descent 3,715,050 79.04
Do not know 114,855 2.44
Total 4,699,755 100

Age

The largest age group is people in their 20s, who comprise 14.1% of the population. Data is the census usually-resident population count.[19]

Ages Population %
0-9 617,553 13.14
10-19 607,668 12.93
20-29 661,866 14.08
30-39 612,429 13.03
40-49 612,828 13.04
50-59 611,340 13.01
60-69 489,993 10.43
70-79 272,619 5.80
80-89 139,341 2.96
90-99 29,727 0.63
100-109 645 0.01
110+ 0 0.00
Minors (0-17) 1,104,240 23.50
Working-age adults (18-64) 2,880,345 61.29
Seniors (65+) 715,173 15.22
Total 4,699,755 100

Income

Data is for the census usually-resident population count of people aged 15 years and over.[19]

Income (NZD) Population %
Loss 20,625 0.55
Zero income 257,310 6.81
$1-$5,000 210,705 5.58
$5,001-$10,000 177,423 4.70
$10,001-$15,000 262,197 6.94
$15,001-$20,000 375,282 9.94
$20,001-$25,000 306,639 8.12
$25,001-$30,000 210,132 5.56
$30,001-$35,000 186,087 4.93
$35,001-$40,000 212,724 5.63
$40,001-$50,000 364,719 9.66
$50,001-$60,000 309,375 8.19
$60,001-$70,000 234,606 6.21
$70,001-$100,000 361,317 9.57
$100,001-$150,000 176,310 4.67
$150,001 or more 110,910 2.94
Total 3,776,355 100

Home ownership

Data is for the census usually-resident population count of people aged 15 years and over.[19]

Individual home ownership Population %
Hold in a family trust 350,136 9.27
Own or partly own 1,310,925 34.71
Do not own and do not hold in a family trust 1,548,078 40.99
Other 567,213 15.02
Total 3,776,355 100

Marriage status

Data is for the census usually-resident population count of people aged 15 years and over.[19]

Legally-registered relationship status Population %
Married (not separated) 1,515,261 40.12
Separated 93,408 2.47
Divorced or dissolved 244,857 6.48
Widowed or surviving civil union partner 166,869 4.42
Never married and never in a civil union 1,099,722 29.12
Other 656,234 17.38
Total 3,776,355 100

References

  1. ^ a b c "NZ population nears 5 million after fastest growth in 50 years". NZ Herald. 23 September 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  2. ^ "2018 Census". Stats NZ. Retrieved 2019.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g "2018 Census population and dwelling counts". Stats NZ. 23 September 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  4. ^ "$16m for census improvements and catch-up". Newsroom. 29 April 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  5. ^ Future New Zealand censuses: Archived 2013-02-14 at the Wayback Machine Implications of changing census frequency or adopting other models
  6. ^ "2018 Census". Stats NZ. Retrieved 2019.
  7. ^ "Update on release of 2018 Census data". Statistics New Zealand. 10 July 2018. Retrieved 2019. Stats NZ's interim calculations show that full or partial information for at least 90 percent of individuals was received, compared with 94.5 percent for the 2013 Census.
  8. ^ "Report of the Independent Review of New Zealand's 2018 Census". Statistics New Zealand. 13 August 2019. Retrieved 2020.
  9. ^ Huffadine, Leith (11 October 2018). "2018 Census - what happened?". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 2019. The 2018 Census had the lowest response in more than 50 years - now a team is looking for answers.
  10. ^ Cooke, Henry (12 July 2018). "Census response rate drops as survey moves to online focus". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 2019.
  11. ^ "2018 Census data release delayed". Stats NZ. 27 November 2018.
  12. ^ "Government Statistician Liz MacPherson faces complaint to Speaker Trevor Mallard over 2018 Census data". The New Zealand Herald. 7 April 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  13. ^ "One in seven failed to complete Census 2018, a back down from Govt Statistician reveals". Stuff.co.nz. 10 April 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  14. ^ "Head of Stats NZ Liz MacPherson resigns over botched census". Radio New Zealand. 13 August 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  15. ^ Manch, Thomas (13 August 2019). "Census 2018: Chief Statistician Liz MacPherson has resigned". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 2019.
  16. ^ Whyte, Anna (13 August 2019). "Government's top statistician resigns in wake of Census 2018 debacle". 1 News Now. Retrieved 2019.
  17. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2017-08-06. Retrieved .CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  18. ^ "National Population Projections: 2016(base)-2068 (spreadsheet)". Stats NZ. 19 October 2016. Retrieved 2019.
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "2018 Census totals by topic" (Microsoft Excel spreadsheet). Statistics New Zealand. Retrieved 2019.
  20. ^ "Data confidentiality principles and methods report - data.govt.nz". data.govt.nz. Retrieved 2019.
  21. ^ a b "2018 Census totals by topic - national highlights". Stats NZ. 23 September 2019. Retrieved 2019.
  22. ^ "2018 Census External Data Quality Panel: Assessment of variables". stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 2019.
  23. ^ "2018 Census population and dwelling counts - amended". stats.govt.nz. Retrieved 2019.

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