2018 California Wildfires
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2018 California Wildfires

2018 California wildfires
An August 1, 2018, satellite image of the wildfires burning in Northern California and Southern Oregon; smoke can be seen trailing northeastward over Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and Idaho
Statistics[1][2][3]
Total fires8,527
Total area1,893,913 acres (766,439 ha)
Cost>$3.5 billion (2018 USD)[4][5][6][7]
Fatalities98 civilians and 6 firefighters killed[8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16]
Non-fatal injuriesAt least 80 total
Season
2017
2019 ->

The 2018 wildfire season was the deadliest and most destructive wildfire season on record in California, with a total of 8,527 fires burning an area of 1,893,913 acres (766,439 ha), the largest amount of burned acreage recorded in a fire season, according to the California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection (Cal Fire) and the National Interagency Fire Center (NIFC), as of December 21.[1][2][3] The fires have caused more than $3.5 billion (2018 USD) in damages, including $1.792 billion in fire suppression costs.[4][5][6][7] Through the end of August 2018, Cal Fire alone spent $432 million on operations.[17] The Mendocino Complex Fire burned more than 459,000 acres (186,000 ha), becoming the largest complex fire in the state's history, with the complex's Ranch Fire surpassing the Thomas Fire and the Santiago Canyon Fire of 1889 to become California's single-largest recorded wildfire.[18][19]

In mid-July to August 2018, a series of large wildfires erupted across California, mostly in the northern part of the state, including the destructive Carr Fire and the Mendocino Complex Fire. On August 4, 2018, a national disaster was declared in Northern California, due to the extensive wildfires burning there.[20]

In November 2018, strong winds aggravated conditions in another round of large, destructive fires that occurred across the state. This new batch of wildfires includes the Woolsey Fire and the Camp Fire, the latter of which killed at least 86 people[16] with 3[16] still unaccounted for as of 4 December 2018. It destroyed more than 18,000 structures, becoming both California's deadliest and most destructive wildfire on record.

Increased fire susceptibility

Many different factors led to the 2018 California wildfire season becoming so destructive. A combination of an increased amount of natural fuel and compounding atmospheric conditions linked to global warming led to a series of destructive fires. Recent research on wildfires in California, published in August 2018, predicted an increase in the number of wildfires as a consequence of climate change.[21] Humans have been recorded as the main cause of wildfires in California. Various causes, both intentional and accidental, such as arson, unattended campfires, fireworks, cigarettes, cars, and power lines have contributed to this increase in the number of fires. Updating equipment, ensuring forest maintenance is being completed, and having oversight by state and federal governments are some of the mitigating actions that can reduce the risk of wildfires.

Increase in fuel

A direct contributor to the 2018 California wildfires was an increase in dead tree fuel.[22] By December 2017, there were a record 129 million dead trees in California.[23]

Atmospheric conditions

Stanford Earth System Science Professor Noah Diffenbaugh stated that atmospheric conditions for California wildfires are expected to worsen in the future because of the effects of climate change in California and that "what we're seeing over the last few years in terms of the wildfire season in California [is] very consistent with the historical trends in terms of increasing temperatures, increasing dryness, and increasing wildfire risk." Other experts agreed, saying that global warming is to blame for these extreme weather conditions. Global warming led to higher temperatures and less rain, creating a drier landscape that gave fires more fuel to burn longer and stronger.[24]

Residential construction in the wildland-urban interface

A wildland-urban interface (or WUI) refers to the zone of transition between unoccupied land and human development. Communities that are within 0.5 miles (0.80 km) of the zone may also be included. These lands and communities adjacent to and surrounded by wildlands are at risk of wildfires.[25] Since the 1990s, over 43% of new residential buildings have been constructed in this area. In some areas, the amount of new residences in those areas is 80%.[26] In the past, when these areas burned, no residences were lost, but now residences are present, which end up being destroyed.[27]

Air quality

Air quality of California on August 7, 2018

Northern California and the Central Valley saw drastic increases in air pollutants during the height of the July and August fires, while Southern California also experienced an increase in air pollution in August.[28] Air quality in Northern and Central California remained poor until mid-September 2018, when fire activity was drastically diminished. However, during the November Camp Fire, air quality diminished again, with the majority of the Bay being subjected to air quality indexes (AQIs) of 200 and above, in the "unhealthy" region.

Wildfires

The following is a list of fires that burned more than 1,000 acres (400 ha), or produced significant structural damage or loss of life.

Name County Acres Start date Containment date Notes Ref
Pleasant Inyo 2,070 February 18, 2018 April 3, 2018 [29]
Moffat Inyo 1,265 April 19, 2018 May 21, 2018 [30]
Nees Merced 1,756 May 2, 2018 May 17, 2018 [31]
Patterson Riverside 1,261 May 17, 2018 May 21, 2018 [32]
Panoche San Benito 64 June 4, 2018 June 7, 2018 3 civilians killed [33][8]
Stone Los Angeles 1,352 June 4, 2018 June 13, 2018 [34]
Airline San Benito 1,314 June 4, 2018 June 14, 2018 [35]
Apple Tehama 2,956 June 9, 2018 June 14, 2018 3 residential structures and 2 outbuildings destroyed [36]
Chrome Glenn 2,290 June 9, 2018 June 21, 2018 1 outbuilding destroyed [37]
Lions Madera 13,347 June 11, 2018 October 1, 2018 [38][39]
Planada Merced 4,564 June 15, 2018 June 21, 2018 [40]
Yankee San Luis Obispo 1,500 June 20, 2018 July 1, 2018 [41]
Lane Tehama 3,716 June 23, 2018 July 4, 2018 1 injury [42]
Pawnee Lake 15,185 June 23, 2018 July 8, 2018 22 structures destroyed, 1 injury [43]
Creek Madera 1,678 June 24, 2018 July 5, 2018 4 residential structures and 7 minor structures destroyed [44]
Waverly San Joaquin 12,300 June 29, 2018 July 2, 2018 [45]
County Lake, Napa, Yolo 90,288 June 30, 2018 July 14, 2018 20 structures destroyed; 1 firefighter injured [46]
Klamathon Siskiyou 38,008 July 5, 2018 July 16, 2018 82 structures destroyed; 3 injuries, 1 civilian killed [47][48]
Valley San Bernardino 1,350 July 6, 2018 October 22, 2018 5 injured [49][50][4]
Holiday Santa Barbara 113 July 6, 2018 July 11, 2018 20 structures destroyed [51]
Pendleton Complex San Diego 1,800 July 6, 2018 July 11, 2018 Originated as 3 separate fires; burned in Camp Pendleton [52][53]
West San Diego 504 July 6, 2018 July 11, 2018 56 structures destroyed [54]
Georges Inyo 2,883 July 8, 2018 July 18, 2018 [55][56][4]
Ferguson Mariposa 96,901 July 13, 2018 August 18, 2018 19 firefighters injured, 2 firefighters killed; 10 structures destroyed [9][57]
Eagle Modoc 2,100 July 13, 2018 July 17, 2018 [58][4]
Natchez Del Norte, Siskiyou 38,134 July 15, 2018 October 30, 2018 [59][60]
Carr Shasta 229,651 July 23, 2018 August 30, 2018 1,079 residences, 22 commercial structures, 503 outbuildings destroyed
190 residences, 26 commercial structures, and 63 outbuildings damaged
3 firefighters and 5 civilians killed
[61]
Cranston Riverside 13,139 July 26, 2018 August 10, 2018 12 buildings destroyed [62]
Mendocino Complex Mendocino, Lake, Colusa, Glenn 459,123 July 27, 2018 September 18, 2018 The Ranch and River Fires are collectively called the Mendocino Complex Fire
157 residential buildings destroyed, 123 others destroyed
13 residential buildings and 24 other buildings damaged
1 firefighter killed, 4 firefighters injured
[63][64][19][65]
Whaleback Lassen 18,703 July 27, 2018 August 7, 2018 [66]
Butte Sutter 1,200 July 31, 2018 August 3, 2018 [67]
Donnell Tuolumne 36,450 August 1, 2018 October 1, 2018 135 structures destroyed; 9 civilians injured [68]
Tarina Kern 2,950 August 3, 2018 August 6, 2018 [69]
Pendleton San Diego 1,000 August 5, 2018 August 6, 2018 Burned in Camp Pendleton [70]
Turkey Monterey 2,225 August 6, 2018 August 6, 2018 [71]
Holy Orange, Riverside 23,136 August 6, 2018 September 13, 2018 18 structures destroyed; 3 firefighters injured[72] [73][74][75]
Five Kings 2,995 August 6, 2018 August 8, 2018 [76]
Hirz Shasta 46,150 August 9, 2018 September 12, 2018 [77]
Hat Shasta 1,900 August 9, 2018 August 16, 2018 [78]
Nelson Solano 2,162 August 10, 2018 August 12, 2018 [79]
Stone Modoc 39,387 August 15, 2018 August 29, 2018 [80]
Mill Creek 1 Humboldt 3,674 August 16, 2018 August 30, 2018 [81]
Front San Luis Obispo, Santa Barbara 1,014 August 19, 2018 August 29, 2018 [82]
North Placer 1,120 September 3, 2018 September 16, 2018 [83]
Boot Mono 6,974 September 4, 2018 September 15, 2018 [84]
Kerlin Trinity 1,751 September 4, 2018 September 17, 2018 [85]
Delta Shasta 63,311 September 5, 2018 October 7, 2018 Merged into the Hirz Fire; 20 structures destroyed [86]
Snell Napa 2,490 September 8, 2018 September 15, 2018 [87]
Charlie Los Angeles 3,380 September 22, 2018 October 1, 2018 [88][89]
Alder Tulare 4,653 October 4, 2018 December 7, 2018 [90]
Eden Tulare 1,777 October 4, 2018 December 7, 2018 [91][92]
Branscombe Solano 4,700 October 7, 2018 November 9, 2018 4 structures destroyed [93][94]
Sun Tehama 3,889 October 7, 2018 October 12, 2018 [95]
Mountaineer Tulare 1,270 October 13, 2018 December 7, 2018 [96]
Camp Butte 153,336 November 8, 2018 November 25, 2018

5 firefighters injured, 86 civilian deaths, 12 civilians injured, 3 civilians missing; 18,804 structures destroyed, 564 structures damaged

[97][98][16]
Nurse Solano 1,500 November 8, 2018 November 27, 2018 [99]
Hill Ventura 4,531 November 8, 2018 November 15, 2018 4 structures destroyed [100]
Woolsey Los Angeles, Ventura 96,949 November 8, 2018 November 22, 2018 1,643 structures destroyed, 364 damaged [101][102][103]

Fatalities

The Woolsey Fire encroaching on Malibu on November 9

On June 4, the Panoche Fire broke out, in a series of three blazes that started in the San Benito County area. While the Panoche incident was the smallest of the three fires, burning only 64 acres (26 ha), the remains of three people were found in a destroyed camping trailer in the burn area.[8][104] The remains were believed to belong to a mother, a toddler, and an infant.[8][105]

On July 14, a Cal Fire bulldozer operator was killed while fighting the Ferguson Fire, becoming the first firefighter death of the season.[9]

On July 23, the Carr Fire broke out after a vehicle malfunctioned. While the Carr Fire burned in rural areas of Shasta County for the first few days, it crossed the Sacramento River and entered the city limits of Redding, California on the evening of July 26. By the next morning, two firefighters and four civilians had been killed.[10][11][106]

On July 29, a firefighter with the National Park Service was killed after a dead tree fell and struck him, while he was fighting the Ferguson Fire. He was "treated on scene, but died before he could be taken to the hospital".[12]

On August 4, a Pacific Gas and Electric Company employee was killed in a vehicle incident while working to restore services to areas impacted by the Carr Fire.[13]

On August 9, a Cal Fire heavy equipment mechanic was killed in a traffic incident while working at the Carr Fire.[14]

On August 13, a firefighter was killed while fighting the Mendocino Complex Fire.[15]

On November 9, 2018, at least 88 civilians were killed by the Camp Fire, while three firefighters were injured, the fire also destroyed more than 10,321 structures, becoming the deadliest and most destructive fire in California history.[107] Three people also died during the Woolsey Fire near Malibu.[108] The number dead was lowered to 85 by early December when it was discovered one victim was put in several bags.[16]

Verizon Wireless data throttling

The Santa Clara County Fire Department raised claims against Verizon Wireless that their "unlimited" data service had been throttled while the fire department was attempting to contain the Mendocino Complex Fire.[when?] The Verizon contract stated that the department's plan would be throttled down to 200 kbit/s or 600 kbit/s once the department had used 25 GB in a single month. However, the contract stated that the usage related throttling would not apply in certain emergency situations, such as wildfire containment operations. The plan remained throttled, despite the department's notification to Verizon regarding the situation. [109][110]

Gallery

See also

References

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  2. ^ a b "2018 National Year-to-Date Report on Fires and Acres Burned" (PDF). NIFC. November 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  3. ^ a b "Southern Area Coordination Center". Southern Area Coordination Center. Retrieved 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e "2018 National Large Incident Year-to-Date Report" (PDF). National Interagency Fire Center. November 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  5. ^ a b Jergler, Don (August 2, 2018). "Carr Fire Losses May Reach $1.5B in Likely Another Destructive Season for California". Insurance Journal. Retrieved 2018.
  6. ^ a b Siler, Wes (August 17, 2018). "The Economic Impact of Yosemite's Ferguson Fire". Outside Online. Retrieved 2018.
  7. ^ a b Beausang, Hannah (September 6, 2018). "Mendocino Complex wildfires cause $56 million of insured losses". North Bay Business Journal. Retrieved 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d "Woman, toddler, infant found dead at Central California wildfire scene". Los Angeles Times. June 5, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  9. ^ a b c "Services set in Modesto for Cal Fire bulldozer operator killed fighting Ferguson fire". The Modesto Bee. Retrieved 2018.
  10. ^ a b "Two Missing Kids, Great-Grandmother in Redding Found Dead: Family". NBC Bay Area. Retrieved 2018.
  11. ^ a b "Carr Fire kills two firefighters near Redding, destroys 500 structures". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2018.
  12. ^ a b "Second firefighter killed fighting Ferguson Fire, officials confirm". Fresno Bee. Retrieved 2018.
  13. ^ a b "PG&E employee becomes seventh Carr Fire fatality". Redding Record Searchlight. Retrieved 2018.
  14. ^ a b Browning, Kellen (August 9, 2018). "Eighth person dies in relation to Carr Fire". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 2018.
  15. ^ a b "Mendocino Complex Press Conference" (PDF). Retrieved 2018.
  16. ^ a b c d e Nugent, Ciara (4 December 2018). "Camp Fire Death Toll Lowered After Human Remains Were Mistakenly Sorted into Separate Bags". Time. Retrieved 2018.
  17. ^ Berger, Noah; Elias, Paul (September 7, 2018). "California takes financial wallop from unrelenting wildfires". Associated Press. Retrieved 2018.
  18. ^ "California wildfire declared 'largest in state's history'". BBC News. August 7, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  19. ^ a b "Ranch Fire". CAL FIRE. August 28, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  20. ^ "Governor Brown Announces Federal Approval of Presidential Major Disaster Declaration for Shasta County". Governor Edmund G. Brown Jr. Retrieved 2018.
  21. ^ "Assessing Extreme Weather-Related Vulnerability and Identifying Resilience Options for California's Interdependent Transportation Fuel Sector" (PDF). University of California, Berkeley Center for Catastrophic Risk Management. August 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  22. ^ "Ferguson Fire: Tree mortality epidemic adding to fire crews' headaches". San Francisco Chronicle. July 26, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  23. ^ "Record 129 Million Dead Trees in California" (PDF). United States Forest Service. July 1, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  24. ^ "California wildfires will get worse in the future because of climate change, experts say". The Independent. Retrieved 2018.
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  27. ^ Phillips, Ari. "We're Building Millions of Homes in the Line of Wildfires". Gizmodo. Retrieved 2018.
  28. ^ "California Air Quality". Air Now. August 7, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  29. ^ "Pleasant Fire". CAL FIRE. Retrieved 2018.
  30. ^ "Moffat Fire". CAL FIRE. Retrieved 2018.
  31. ^ "Nees Fire". CAL FIRE. Retrieved 2018.
  32. ^ "Patterson Fire". CAL FIRE. Retrieved 2018.
  33. ^ "Panoche Fire". CAL FIRE. June 7, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  34. ^ "Apple Fire". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. June 13, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  35. ^ "Airline Fire". CAL FIRE. June 14, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  36. ^ "Apple Fire". CAL FIRE. June 14, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  37. ^ "Chrome Fire". CAL FIRE. June 21, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  38. ^ "Lions Fire". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. October 1, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  39. ^ "Lions Fire". CAL FIRE. June 26, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  40. ^ "Planada Fire". CAL FIRE. June 21, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  41. ^ "Yankee Fire". CAL FIRE. July 1, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  42. ^ "Lane Fire". CAL FIRE. June 27, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  43. ^ "Pawnee Fire". CAL FIRE. July 8, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  44. ^ "Creek Fire". CAL FIRE. July 4, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  45. ^ "Waverly Fire". CAL FIRE. July 2, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  46. ^ "County Fire". CAL FIRE. July 14, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  47. ^ "Klamathon Fire". CAL FIRE. July 14, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
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  49. ^ "Valley Fire Information". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. October 22, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
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  51. ^ "Holiday Fire". CAL FIRE. July 13, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
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  54. ^ "West Fire". CAL FIRE. July 11, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  55. ^ "Georges Fire". CAL FIRE. September 4, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
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  57. ^ "Ferguson Fire". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. September 19, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  58. ^ "Eagle Fire". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. July 15, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  59. ^ "Natchez Fire". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. October 7, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
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  62. ^ "Cranston Fire". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. July 26, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  63. ^ "Mendocino Complex Information". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. September 19, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
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  67. ^ "Butte Fire". CAL FIRE. August 3, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  68. ^ "Donnell Fire: Incident information". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. October 1, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  69. ^ "Tarina Fire". CAL FIRE. August 3, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
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  77. ^ "Hirz Fire". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. September 12, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  78. ^ "Hat Fire". CAL FIRE. August 16, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  79. ^ "Nelson Fire". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. Retrieved 2018.
  80. ^ "Stone Fire". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. August 29, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  81. ^ "Mill Creek 1 Fire". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. August 30, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  82. ^ "Front Fire". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. August 29, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  83. ^ "North Fire". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. September 16, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  84. ^ "Boot Fire". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. September 15, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  85. ^ "Kerlin Fire". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. September 17, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  86. ^ "Delta Fire". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. October 7, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  87. ^ "Snell Fire". CAL FIRE. September 15, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  88. ^ "Charlie Fire". CAL FIRE. September 25, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
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  90. ^ "Alder, Mountaineer, and Moses Fires". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. November 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  91. ^ "Two Fires Start to Grow in Remote Areas of Sequoia National Park". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. November 21, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  92. ^ "Eden Fire". National Wildfire Coordinating Group. November 24, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  93. ^ "Branscombe Fire". CAL FIRE. November 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
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  99. ^ "Nurse Fire". CAL FIRE. November 9, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
  100. ^ "Hill Fire". CAL FIRE. November 11, 2018. Retrieved 2018.
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  107. ^ "Camp Fire death toll hits 71 on eve of Trump's visit to California". November 16, 2018 – via www.sacbee .com.
  108. ^ Cain, Josh; Gonzales, Ruby (November 14, 2018). "Woolsey fire death toll increases to 3, man's body found in charred Agoura Hills home". The Mercury News. Retrieved 2018.
  109. ^ Brodkin, Jon (August 21, 2018). "Verizon throttled fire department's "unlimited" data during Calif. wildfire". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2018.
  110. ^ Brodkin, Jon (August 22, 2018). "Fire dept. rejects Verizon's 'customer support mistake' excuse for throttling". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2018.

External links


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