2014 Brazilian General Election
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2014 Brazilian General Election
2014 Brazilian general election

← 2010 5 October 2014 (first round)
26 October 2014 (second round)
2018 →
Turnout78.90%
Presidential election
  Dilma Rousseff 2011.jpg Aécio Neves em 23 de outubro de 2014-2.jpg
Nominee Dilma Rousseff Aécio Neves
Party PT PSDB
Alliance Change Brazil
Home state Minas Gerais Minas Gerais
Running mate Michel Temer Aloysio Nunes
States carried 15 11 + DF
Popular vote 54,501,119 51,041,155
Percentage 51.64% 48.36%

2014 Brazilian presidential election map (Round 2).svg

President before election

Dilma Rousseff
PT

Elected President

Dilma Rousseff
PT

Parliamentary election

Chamber of Deputies
PT Vicentinho 13.93% 68 -20
PSDB Antônio Imbassahy 11.38% 54 +1
PMDB Eduardo Cunha 11.09% 66 -13
PP Eduardo da Fonte 6.61% 38 -5
PR Bernardo Santana 6.63% 34 -7
PRB George Hilton 4.55% 21 +13
DEM Mendonça Filho 4.09% 21 -21
PTB Jovair Arantes 4.02% 25 +4
PDT Félix Mendonça Jr. 3.57% 19 -9
PSC André Moura 2.59% 13 -5
PV Sarney Filho 2.06% 8 -7
PPS Rubens Bueno 2.01% 10 -2
PCdoB Jandira Feghali 1.97% 10 -5
PSOL Ivan Valente 1.79% 5 +2
PHS None 0.97% 5 +3
Federal Senate
PSDB Aloysio Nunes 26.73% 10 -1
PT Humberto Costa 16.96% 12 -2
PSB Rodrigo Rollemberg 13.60% 7 +4
PMDB Eunício Oliveira 13.58% 18 -2
PDT Acir Gurgacz 4.04% 8 +4
DEM José Agripino 3.93% 4 -1
PTB Gim Argello 3.14% 3 -3
PSOL Randolfe Rodrigues 1.17% 1 -1
PCdoB Vanessa Grazziotin 0.90% 1 -1

General elections were held in Brazil on 5 October 2014 to elect the President, the National Congress, state governors and state legislatures.[1] As no candidate in the presidential and several gubernatorial elections received more than 50% of the vote, a second-round runoff was held on 26 October.[1]

In the first round of voting Dilma Rousseff won 41.6% of the vote, ahead of Aécio Neves with 33.6% and Marina Silva with 21.3%.[2] Rousseff and Neves contested the runoff on 26 October and Rousseff won re-election by a narrow margin, 51.6% to Neves' 48.4%.[3]

Presidential election

Incumbent President Dilma Rousseff of the Workers' Party (PT), Brazil's first female president, was challenged by 11 other candidates. Minas Gerais Senator Aécio Neves from the Brazilian Social Democracy Party (PSDB) and Marina Silva from the Brazilian Socialist Party (PSB) were her main rivals. Since none of the candidates obtained over 50% of the valid votes in the 5 October election, a second-round election was held on 26 October between Rousseff and Neves, who had finished first and second respectively in the 5 October vote.

In Brazil's closest presidential election results since 1989, Rousseff narrowly defeated Neves in the second round, taking 51.6% of the vote to Neves' 48.4%.

The original PSB candidate had been Eduardo Campos. However, he died in a plane crash in Santos on 13 August 2014,[4] after which the party chose Silva, who had been his running mate, to replace him as the presidential candidate.[5]

Campaign Issues

Economy

Dilma Rousseff

Defended the significant economic gains and improvements in living standards of her own administration and that of her predecessor, Lula da Silva.

Aécio Neves

Proposed sweeping reductions in the welfare state and state intervention in the economy.

Allegations of corruption

Shortly before the election a former executive of the state-run oil company Petrobras accused a minister, three state governors, six senators and dozens of congressmen from President Dilma Rousseff's Workers' Party (PT) and several coalition allies of having accepted kickbacks from contracts.[6]

Candidates

# Presidential candidate Vice-Presidential candidate Party/coalition
13 Dilma Rousseff - foto oficial 2011-01-09.jpg Dilma Rousseff (PT) Michel Temer (foto 2).jpg Michel Temer (PMDB)
With the Strength of the People
PT, PMDB, PSD, PP, PR, PDT, PRB, PROS, PCdoB
16 (2015-06-04) 2º Congresso Nacional da CSP-Conlutas Dia1 152 Romerito Pontes (18687750336).jpg José Maria de Almeida (PSTU) Cláudia Durans (PSTU)
Unified Workers' Socialist Party (PSTU)
20 Everaldo Dias Pereira.jpg Everaldo Pereira (PSC) Leonardo Gadelha (PSC)
Social Christian Party (PSC)
21 Mauro Iasi no Senado.png Mauro Iasi (PCB) Sofia Manzano (PCB)
Brazilian Communist Party (PCB)
27 José Maria Eymael (4764807212).jpg José Maria Eymael (PSDC) Roberto Lopes (PSDC)
Social Democratic Christian Party (PSDC)
28 Levy Fidelix tv brasil (cropped).jpg Levy Fidelix (PRTB) José Alves de Oliveira (PRTB)
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party (PRTB)
29 Rui Costa Pimenta PCO ABr.jpg Rui Costa Pimenta (PCO) Ricardo Machado (PCO)
Labour Cause's Party (PCO)
40 MarinaSilva2010.jpg Marina Silva (PSB) Beto Albuquerque.jpg Beto Albuquerque (PSB)
United for Brazil
PSB, PPS, PSL, PHS, PPL, PRP
43 Eduardojorge pv abr.jpg Eduardo Jorge (PV) Célia Sacramento.jpg Célia Sacramento (PV)
Green Party (PV)
45 Aécio Neves em 23 de outubro de 2014-2.jpg Aécio Neves (PSDB) Aloysio nunes 2011.jpg Aloysio Nunes (PSDB)
Change Brazil
PSDB, SD, PMN, PEN, PTN, PTC, DEM, PTdoB, PTB
50 Luciana Genro no Rio de Janeiro em 2014 (cropped).jpg Luciana Genro (PSOL) Jorge Paz em 2014.jpg Jorge Paz (PSOL)
Socialism and Liberty Party (PSOL)

Debates

First round

Date Host Moderator Dilma Rousseff (PT) Aécio Neves (PSDB) Marina Silva (PSB) Luciana Genro (PSOL) Eduardo Jorge (PV) Everaldo Pereira (PSC) Levy Fidelix (PRTB) José Maria Eymael (PSDC) Zé Maria (PSTU) Mauro Iasi (PCB) Rui Costa Pimenta (PCO)
26 August 2014 Rede Bandeirantes Ricardo Boechat Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited
1 September 2014 SBT, Folha, Jovem Pan, UOL Carlos Nascimento Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited
16 September 2014 TV Aparecida, CNBB Rodolpho Gamberini Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited
28 September 2014 Rede Record, R7 Celso Freitas, Adriana Araújo Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited
2 October 2014 Rede Globo, G1 William Bonner Present Present Present Present Present Present Present Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited Not Invited

Second round

Date Host Moderator Dilma Rousseff (PT) Aécio Neves (PSDB)
14 October 2014 Rede Bandeirantes Ricardo Boechat Present Present
16 October 2014 SBT, Folha, Jovem Pan, UOL Carlos Nascimento Present Present
19 October 2014 Rede Record, R7 Celso Freitas, Adriana Araújo Present Present
24 October 2014 Rede Globo William Bonner Present Present

Opinion polls

First Round

Pollster/client(s) Date(s)
conducted
Sample
size
Rousseff
PT
Lula
PT
Neves
PSDB
Serra
PSDB
Silva
PSB/PV
Campos
PSB
Genro
PSOL
Rodrigues
PSOL
Sampaio
PSOL
Pereira
PSC
Jorge
PV
Others Abst.
Undec.
Lead
2014 election 5 Oct - 41.59% - 33.55% - 21.32% - 1.55% - - 0.75% 0.61% 0.64% 9.64% 8.04
Datafolha 3-4 Oct 18,116 40% - 24% - 22% - 1% - - 1% 1% <1% 10% 16%
Datafolha 29-30 Sep 7,520 40% - 20% - 25% - 1% - - 1% <1% <1% 10% 15%
Ibope 27-29 Sep 3,010 39% - 19% - 25% - 1% - - 1% <1% <1% 14% 14%
Ibope 20-22 Sep 3,010 38% - 19% - 29% - <1% - - 1% <1% <1% 12% 9%
Vox Populi 20-21 Sep 2,000 40% - 17% - 22% - 1% - - 1% 0% 0% 18% 18%
Datafolha 17-18 Sep 5,340 37% - 17% - 30% - 1% - - 1% <1% <1% 13% 7%
Ibope 13-15 Sep 3,010 36% - 19% - 30% - <1% - - 1% <1% <1% 13% 6%
Vox Populi 13-14 Sep 2,000 36% - 15% - 27% - 1% - - 1% 1% <1% 20% 9%
Datafolha 8-9 Sep 10,568 36% - 15% - 33% - 1% - - 1% 1% <1% 13% 3%
CNI/Ibope 5-8 Sep 2,002 39% - 15% - 31% - <1% - - 1% <1% <1% 13% 8%
Datafolha 1-3 Sep 10,054 35% - 14% - 34% - 1% - - 1% 1% 1% 13% 1%
Ibope 31 Aug-2 Sep 2,506 37% - 15% - 33% - <1% - - 1% <1% <1% 12% 4%
Datafolha 28-29 Aug 2,874 34% - 15% - 34% - <1% - - 2% <1% <1% 14% Tie
CNT/MDA 21-24 Aug 2,202 36.2% - 16.0% - 28.2% - 0.3% - - 1.3% 0.4% 0.5% 19.1% 8.0%
Ibope 23-25 Aug 2,506 34% - 19% - 29% - 1% - - 1% <1% <1% 15% 5%
Datafolha 14-15 Aug 2,843 36% - 20% - 21% - <1% - - 3% 1% <1% 17% 15%
41% - 25% - - - <1% - - 4% 1% 2% 25% 16%
13 Aug Eduardo Campos dies in a plane crash; Marina Silva is nominated the new PSB candidate
Ibope 3-6 Aug 2,506 38% - 23% - - 9% 1% - - 3% 1% 1% 24% 15%
Ibope 18-21 Jul 2,002 38% - 22% - - 8% 1% - - 3% 1% 1% 25% 16%
Datafolha 15-16 Jul 5,377 36% - 20% - - 8% 1% - - 3% 1% 3% 27% 16%
Datafolha 1-2 Jul 2,857 38% - 20% - - 9% 1% - - 4% 1% 3% 24% 18%
Ibope 13-15 Jun 2,002 39% - 21% - - 10% - - - 3% - 6% 21% 18%
Ibope 4-7 Jun 2,002 38% - 22% - - 13% - - - 3% 1% 3% 20% 16%
Datafolha 3-5 Jun 4,337 34% - 19% - - 7% - - - - - - 30% 15%
Vox Populi 31 May-1 Jun 2,200 40% - 21% - - 8% - <1% - 2% <1% <1% 28% 19%
Ibope 15-19 May 2,002 40% - 20% - - 11% - - - 3% 1% 1% 24% 20%
Datafolha 7-8 May 2,844 37% - 20% - - 11% - 1% - 3% 1% 2% 24% 17%
41% - 22% - - 14% - - - - - - 23% 19%
- 52% 19% - - 11% - - - - - - 18% 33%
- 49% 17% - - 9% - 1% - 2% 1% 2% 19% 32%
Ibope 10-14 Apr 2,002 37% - 14% - - 6% - 1% - 2% 0% 1% 37% 23%
37% - 14% - 10% - - 1% - 2% - 0% 33% 23%
Vox Populi 6-8 Apr 2,200 40% - 16% - - 10% - 0% - 2% 1% 3% 29% 22%
Datafolha 2-3 Apr 2,637 38% - 16% - - 10% - 0% - 2% 1% 3% 29% 22%
43% - 18% - - 14% - - - - - - 25% 25%
39% - 16% - 27% - - - - - - - 19% 12%
- 52% 16% - - 11% - - - - - - 21% 36%
- 48% 14% - 23% - - - - - - - 15% 25%
Ibope 13-17 Mar 2,002 40% - 13% - - 6% - 1% - 3% - 0% 36% 27%
40% - 13% - 9% - - 1% - 2% - 0% 34% 27%
Datafolha 19-20 Feb 2,614 47% - 17% - - 12% - - - - - - 24% 30%
43% - 15% - 23% - - - - - - - 24% 28%
42% - 15% - - 8% - - - - - 16% 20% 22%
41% - 12% - 17% - - - - - - 14% 16% 24%
44% - 16% - - 9% - <1% - 3% 1% 1% 26% 28%
- 54% 15% - - 9% - - - - - - 21% 39%
- 51% 14% - 19% - - - - - - - 16% 32%
Vox Populi 13-15 Feb 2,201 41% - 17% - - 6% - <1% - <1% - <1% 35% 24%
2010 election 3 Oct 2010 - 46.91% - - 32.61% 19.33% - - - 0.87% - - 0.28 8.64% 14.30

Second round

Pollster/client(s) Date(s)
conducted
Sample
size
Rousseff
PT
Neves
PSDB
Serra
PSDB
Abst.
Undec.
Lead
2014 election 26 Oct - 51.64% 48.36% - 6.34% 3.28%
Ibope 20-22 Oct 3,010 49% 41% - 10% 8%
CNT/MDA 18-19 Oct 2,002 45.5% 44.5% - 10% 1%
Datafolha 14-15 Oct 9,081 43% 45% - 12% 2%
Ibope 12-14 Oct 3,010 43% 45% - 12% 2%
Vox Populi 11-12 Oct 2,000 45% 44% - 10% 1%
Isto É/Sensus 7-10 Oct 2,000 36.7% 52.4% - 11% 15.7%
Datafolha 8-9 Oct 2,879 44% 46% - 10% 2%
Ibope 7-8 Oct 3,010 44% 46% - 10% 2%
2010 election 31 Oct 2010 - 56.05% - 43.95% 6.70 12.1%

Results

President

Second Round results
Municipalities won by Dilma Rousseff:      
Municipalities won by Aécio Neves:      
Candidate Party Running mate Party First round Second round
Votes % Votes %
Dilma Rousseff PT Michel Temer PMDB 43,267,668 41.59 54,501,118 51.64
Aécio Neves PSDB Aloysio Nunes PSDB 34,897,211 33.55 51,041,155 48.36
Marina Silva PSB Beto Albuquerque PSB 22,176,619 21.32
Luciana Genro PSOL Jorge Paz PSOL 1,612,186 1.55
Everaldo Pereira PSC Leonardo Gadelha PSC 780,513 0.75
Eduardo Jorge PV Célia Sacramento PV 630,099 0.61
Levy Fidelix PRTB José Alves de Oliveira PRTB 446,878 0.43
José Maria de Almeida PSTU Cláudia Durans PSTU 91,209 0.09
José Maria Eymael PSDC Roberto Lopes PSDC 61,250 0.06
Mauro Iasi PCB Sofia Manzano PCB 47,845 0.05
Rui Costa Pimenta PCO Ricardo Machado PCO 12,324 0.01
Invalid/blank votes 11,099,068 - 7,141,606 -
Total 115,122,611 100 112,683,879 100
Registered voters/turnout 142,822,046 80.61 142,822,046 78.90
Source: Tribunal Superior Eleitoral
Popular vote (first round)
Rousseff
41.59%
Neves
33.55%
Silva
21.32%
Genro
1.55%
Pereira
0.75%
Jorge
0.61%
Fidelix
0.43%
Others
0.21%
Popular vote (second round)
Rousseff
51.64%
Neves
48.36%

Congress

Party Chamber of Deputies Senate
Votes % Seats +/- Votes % Elected Total +/-
Workers' Party 13,554,166 13.93 68 Decrease20 15,155,818 16.96 2 12 Decrease2
Brazilian Social Democracy Party 11,073,631 11.38 54 Increase1 23,880,078 26.73 4 10 Decrease1
Brazilian Democratic Movement Party 10,791,949 11.09 66 Decrease13 12,129,969 13.58 5 18 Decrease2
Progressive Party 6,426,791 6.61 38 Decrease5 1,931,738 2.16 1 5 Steady
Brazilian Socialist Party 6,267,878 6.44 34 Steady 12,123,194 13.60 3 7 Increase4
Social Democratic Party 5,967,953 6.13 36 New 7,147,245 8.00 2 3 New
Party of the Republic 5,635,519 5.79 34 Decrease7 696,462 0.78 1 4 Steady
Brazilian Republican Party 4,424,824 4.55 21 Increase13 301,162 0.34 0 1 Steady
Democrats 4,085,487 4.20 21 Decrease21 3,515,426 3.93 3 5 Decrease1
Brazilian Labour Party 3,914,193 1.02 25 Increase4 2,803,999 3.14 2 3 Decrease3
Democratic Labour Party 3,472,175 3.57 19 Decrease9 3,609,643 4.04 4 8 Increase4
Solidariedade 2,689,701 2.76 15 New 370,507 0.41 0 1 New
Social Christian 2,520,421 2.59 13 Decrease5 19,286 0.02 0 0 Decrease1
Green Party 2,004,464 2.06 8 Decrease7 723,576 0.81 0 1 Increase1
Republican Party of the Social Order 1,977,117 2.03 11 New 2,234,132 2.50 0 1 New
Popular Socialist Party 1,955,689 2.01 10 Decrease2 0 0.00 0 0 Decrease1
Communist Party of Brazil 1,913,015 1.97 10 Decrease5 803,144 0.90 0 1 Decrease1
Socialism and Liberty Party 1,745,470 1.79 5 Increase2 1,045,275 1.17 0 1 Decrease1
Humanist Party of Solidarity 943,068 0.97 5 Increase3 0 0.00 0 0 Steady
Labour Party of Brazil 828,876 0.85 2 Decrease1 11,300 0.01 0 0 Steady
Social Liberal Party 808,710 0.83 1 Steady 0 0.00 0 0 Steady
Progressive Republican Party 724,825 0.75 3 Increase1 170,257 0.19 0 0 Steady
National Labour Party 723,182 0.74 4 Increase4 2,741 0.00 0 0 Steady
National Ecologic Party 667,983 0.63 2 New 65,597 0.07 0 0 New
Christian Social Democratic Party 509,936 0.52 2 Increase2 31,011 0.03 0 0 Steady
Party of National Mobilization 468,473 0.48 3 Decrease1 57,911 0.06 0 0 Decrease1
Brazilian Labour Renewal Party 454,190 0.47 1 Decrease1 38,429 0.04 0 0 Steady
Christian Labour Party 338,117 0.35 2 Increase1 21,993 0.02 0 0 Steady
Unified Workers' Socialist Party 118,473 0.19 0 Steady 355,585 0.40 0 0 Steady
Free Fatherland Party 141,254 0.15 0 New 29,366 0.03 0 0 New
Brazilian Communist Party 66,979 0.07 0 Steady 68,199 0.08 0 0 Steady
Labour Cause's Party 12,969 0.01 0 Steady 8,561 0.01 0 0 Steady
Invalid/blank votes 17,643,419 - - - 25,554,978 - - - -
Total 114,906,580 100.00 513 - 114,906,582 100.00 27 81 -
Registered voters/turnout 142,384,193 80.70 - - 142,384,193 80.70 - - -
Source: Election Resources

Aftermath

The small difference between the votes of both candidates, around 3.5 million, made this election to be the most disputed of Brazil since the redemocratization.[7] Dilma was sworn in as 36th President of Brazil on 1 January 2015 in a ceremony conducted by Renan Calheiros in the floor of the Chamber of Deputies.[8]

International reaction

Swearing-in ceremony of Dilma Rousseff, in 2015.

Presidents and representatives of different countries saluted the victory of Dilma Rousseff on 26 October over Aécio Neves.[9]

  •  Argentina - President of Argentina Cristina Kirchner used her social media to salute Dilma. In a letter directed to Dilma and published in her Facebook page, Kirchner celebrated the results of the election in Brazil which, according to her, "shows the Brazilian society reaffirming their unshakable commitment with a political project that guarantees economic growth with social inclusion". Also stated that the mutual cooperation between Brazil and Argentina would increase from this moment.[10]
  •  Bolivia - Bolivian president Evo Morales highlighted president Dilma's victory and stated that it "represents the model of change" in Brazil and in the Latin America. "Bolivia salutes the triumph of partner Dilma. We greet the continuity of the model of change in Brazil and the region", declared the leader in Shinahota, according to the state agency ABI.[11]
  •  El Salvador - Salvadoran president Salvador Sánchez Cerén congratulated Dilma for her victory through his Twitter account.[12]
  •  Ecuador - Ecuatorian president Rafael Correa celebrated, in his Twitter account, the "amazing victory of Dilma in Brazil". "We salute the president of Brazil, Dilma Rousseff, for her today's electoral victory", commented the Ecuatorial chancellor, Ricardo Patiño, also using the social network.[12]
  •  France - The French government greeted president Rousseff for her reelection. "France wishes to work in strict cooperation with the Brazilian government to boost the strategic partnership between both countries in all areas", declared the French Ministry of Foreign Affairs. The French government also remembered that the relationship with Brazil was centered in three priorities: reinforce the political dialogue about climate changes, increase commercial and investment connections, and dynamize the cooperation of university exchange programs.[13]
  •  Germany - German Chancellor Angela Merkel sent a telegram congratulating Dilma Rousseff for her reelection, expressing in text the possibility to keep the ties between both countries. "I congratulate you for the reelection as president of Brazil. I am glad that we can keep our political and economic cooperation. In face of the challenges that both nations are facing, only together and as partners, we can overcome them", stated Merkel.[14]
  •  Russia - Russian president Vladimir Putin also congratulated Dilma for her reelection and stated "the victory in the polls is a proof of the popular support for her politics". In his telegram, Putin expressed that "the results of the voting showed that the people supports Dilma Rousseff's politics and looks for the economic development of the country and the strengthening of its international positions". The Russian president also rated as very good the attention Dilma gives to the "strengthening of the Russian-Brazilian strategic association".[15]
  •  United States - American president Barack Obama congratulated Dilma and requested that the ties with Brazil should be strengthened, which, according to Obama, it was "an important ally of the United States". The American president also expressed interest to schedule a meeting to discuss the possibility to "reinforce the collaboration for the world security and the respect to human rights, as well as deepen the bilateral cooperation in areas like education, energy and, mostly, trade".[16]
  •  Venezuela - Venezuelan president Nicolás Maduro highlighted Dilma's victory in his official Twitter account, shortly after the announce of the first results. "Victory of Dilma in Brazil. Victory of the People. Victory of Lula and his legacy. Victory of the people of Latin America and Caribbean", stated in his account.[17]

Besides chiefs of state, the international press also reverberated Dilma's victory. The New York Times in the United States highlighted the reelection on the front page of the newspaper and states that the victory "endosses a leftist leader who has achieved important gains in reducing poverty and keeping unemployment low";[18] Argentine El Clarín highlighted on the front page that Dilma won by a narrow margin "at the end of a tough campaign, full of denounced and mutual accusations";[19] for the United Kingdom Financial Times, "Dilma now faces the task of uniting a country divided by the most aggressive campaign of recent times, to resurrect a creeping economy and pacify hostile markets";[20]Venezuelan El Universal highlighted on its first page Aécio Neves' reaction, who acknowledged his defeated and highlighted in his speech that "the priority now is to unite Brazil";[21] French Le Monde mentioned the defeat in São Paulo, main electoral college of the country, but "compensated by the victory in Minas Gerais, the second largest electoral college and Aécio Neves' political fief";[22] Spanish El País brings as a highlight an article signed by journalist Juan Arais, from Rio de Janeiro, entitled "The political change in Brazil will have to wait".[23]

Crisis

Percentage change of Brazil's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), according to Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics.[24] It is notice the low growth in 2014 and severe drops in the following years.

From 2014 and on, right after the results of the elections, an economic crisis began in Brazil, having as a consequence the strong economic recession, succeeded by a retreat of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for 2 consecutive years.[25][26] The economy reduced in around 3.8% in 2015 and 3.6% in 2016. The crisis also brought a high level of unemployment, which reached its peak in March 2017, with a rate of 13.7%, representing more than 14 million Brazilians unemployed.[27]

In 2016, the effects of the economic crisis were widely felt by the population, who needed to adapt their bills to the financial reality. According to a research made by the Industry National Confederation (CNI) in that year, almost half of the interviewed (48%) began to use more public transportation and 34% don't have a health insurance anymore.[28] The deepening of the crisis made 14% of the families to change their childrens' schools, from private to public, with a percentage higher than the one verified in 2012 and 2013, before the crisis. Besides that, consumers change products to the cheaper ones (78%), waited for sales to buy higher value goods (80%) and saved more money for emergencies (78%).[29]

In the first quarter of 2017, GDP rose 1%, being the first growth after 8 consecutive quarter drops.[30]Minister of Finance Henrique Meirelles said that, in that moment, the country "left the largest recession of the century".[31]

Protests in the Ministries Terrace of groups in favor and against the Impeachment of Dilma Rousseff.

Yet in 2014 also began a political crisis. The match of this crisis happened on 17 March 2014, when the Federal Police of Brazil began a series of investigations and would be known as Operation Car Wash, initially investigating a corruption scheme and money laundry of billions of reais involving many politicians of the largest parties of the country.[32] The operation had direct impact in the country politics, contributing for the impopularity of Dilma's administration, just as, posteriorly, for Temer's administration, as long as many of their ministers and allies were targeted of the operation, such as Geddel Vieira Lima and Romero Jucá.[33][34] The operation is still ongoing with 51 operational phases and splits.[35]

The protests against Dilma Rousseff government, due to the results of Operation Car Wash, occurred in many regions of Brazil, having as one of the main goals the impeachment of the president.[36][37] The movement brought together millions of people on 15 March, 12 April, 16 August and 13 December 2015 and, according to some estimates, were the largest popular mobilizations in the country.[38][39] The protest of 13 March 2016 was considered the largest political act in the history of Brazil and occurred over all the country, overcoming also Diretas Já, which occurred during the transition period from the Military Dictatorship to the redemocratization.[40][41]

Rousseff's impeachment

Dilma gives her defence speech during the session which determinated her removal from office.

On 2 December 2015, president of Chamber of Deputies, Eduardo Cunha, accepted one of the seven impeachment requests against Dilma, which was registered by jurists Hélio Bicudo, Miguel Reale Júnior and Janaína Paschoal, and delivered to Cunha 2 months before.[42] In the original request, were included denounces of decrees signed by the president in 2015, to release R$ 2.5 billions (US$ 0.75 billion), without Congress approval, nor prevision on budget.[43] This operation is known as fiscal pedaling (Pedalada fiscal), and it's characterized as administrative misconduct.[44]

The acceptance of the impeachment request was considered by part of the press as a retaliation against the president's party, which deputies announced on that same day that they would vote against Cunha in the Chamber's Ethics Committee, where he was investigated for a supposed participation in the scheme denounced in Operation Car Wash. Cunha denied any "bargain" relation with the government, stating that "the decision to accept the impeachment is factual, is concrete, has clear tipification",[45] but kept attributing to president Rousseff responsibilities about the investigations against him.[46] According to Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva, Dilma didn't have "the will of doing politics" and didn't had any meeting with party caucuses' to try to repeal the impeachment.[47]

Result of the voting of the acceptance of the impeachment process in the Chamber of Deputies, which took the process to the Federal Senate.

Due to the parliamentary recess and the sues filed in the Supreme Federal Court with the objective to decide formally the rite of the process only on 17 March 2016, the Chamber elected, with open voting, the 65 members of the Special Committee which analyzed the impeachment request against Dilma Rousseff. There were 433 votes in favor of the committee membership and 1 against.[48] On 11 April, the Special Committee, with 38 votes in favor and 27 against, approved the report, which defended the admissibility of the process.[49] The report, made by deputy Jovair Arantes (PTB-GO), went for voting in the floor of the Chamber.[50] On 17 April 2016, a Sunday, the Chamber of Deputies, with 367 votes in favor, 137 against, besides 7 abstentions and 2 absences, impeached Rousseff and authorized the Federal Senate to install the process against the president.[51]

On 6 May 2016, the Senate Impeachment Special Committee approved, with 15 votes in favor and 5 against, the report of senator Antônio Anastasia (PSDB-MG), in favor of the impeachment.[52] On 11 May, Justice Teori Zavascki denied a government request to null the process. With the decision, the Senate kept the voting that would decide the suspension of Rousseff from office.[53][54]

On 12 May 2016, with 55 favorable votes, 22 contrary and 2 absences, the Federal Senate authorized the opening of the impeachment process, and determined her suspension from the Presidency of the Republic for up to 180 days.[55] On 31 August, the Federal Senate, with a voting of 61 to 20, removed Rousseff from office of President, but kept her political rights.[56] With the impeachment, Michel Temer, who was Vice President of Brazil and Acting President until that moment, took office as President until the end of the term.[57]

See also

Notes

References

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