2001 Italian General Election
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2001 Italian General Election
2001 Italian general election

← 1996 13 May 2001 2006 →

All 630 seats in the Chamber of Deputies
315 seats in the Senate
Turnout81.4%
  Silvio Berlusconi 2001.jpg Francesco Rutelli 2001 crop.jpg
Leader Silvio Berlusconi Francesco Rutelli
Alliance House of Freedoms The Olive Tree
Leader's seat Milan Centre Rome Praenestine
Seats won 368 C / 176 S 241 C / 128 S
Seat change Increase96 C / Increase33 S Decrease82 C / Decrease29 S
Coalition vote 18,398,246 C
14,406,519 S
13,023,651 C
13,106,860 S
Percentage 49.6% (C)
42.5% (S)
35.1% (C)
38.7% (S)

Italian 2001 elections.png
Election results maps for the Chamber of Deputies (on the left) and for the Senate (on the right). On the left, the color identifies the coalition which received the most votes in each province. On the right, the color identifies the coalition which won the most seats in respect to each Region. Blue denotes the Centre-right coalition, Red the Centre-left coalition and Gray regional parties.

A national general election was held in Italy on 13 May 2001 to elect members of the Chamber of Deputies and the Senate of the Republic. The 14th Parliament of the Italian republic was chosen.

The election was won by the centre-right coalition House of Freedoms led by Silvio Berlusconi, defeating Francesco Rutelli, former Mayor of Rome, and Prime Ministerial candidate of the centre-left coalition The Olive Tree, and rising back to power after Berlusconi's first victory, in the 1994 general election.

Electoral system

The intricate electoral system, called scorporo, provided 75% of the seats on the Chamber of Deputies (the Lower House) as elected by first-past-the-post system, whereas the remaining 25% was assigned on a proportional way with a minimum threshold of 4%.

The method used for the Senate was even more complicated: 75% of seats by uninominal method, and 25% by a special proportional method that assigned the remaining seats to minority parties. Formally, these were examples of additional member systems.

General election

Campaign

For this election Berlusconi again ran as leader of the centre-right coalition the House of Freedoms (Italian: La Casa delle Libertà), which included the Union of Christian and Centre Democrats, the Northern League, the National Alliance and other parties.

On the television interviews programme Porta a Porta, during the last days of the electoral campaign, Berlusconi created a powerful impression on the public by undertaking to sign a so-called Contratto con gli Italiani (English: Contract with the Italians), an idea copied outright by his advisor Luigi Crespi from the Newt Gingrich's Contract with America introduced six weeks before the 1994 US Congressional election,[1] which was widely considered to be a creative masterstroke in his 2001 campaign bid for prime ministership. In this solemn agreement, Berlusconi claimed his commitment on improving several aspects of the Italian economy and life. Firstly, he undertook to simplify the complex tax system by introducing just two tax rates (33% for those earning over 100,000 euros, and 23% for anyone earning less than that figure: anyone earning less than 11,000 euros a year would not be taxed); secondly, he promised to halve the unemployment rate; thirdly, he undertook to finance and develop a massive new public works programme. Fourthly, he promised to raise the minimum monthly pension rate to 516 euros; and fifthly, he would suppress the crime wave by introducing police officers to patrol all local zones and areas in Italy's major cities.[2] Berlusconi undertook to refrain from putting himself up for re-election in 2006 if he failed to honour at least four of these five promises.

Main coalitions and parties

Coalitions' leaders

Portrait Name Most recent position Refs
Silvio Berlusconi 2001.jpg
Prime Minister of Italy
(1994-1995)

[3][4]
Francesco Rutelli 2001 crop.jpg
Mayor of Rome
(1993-2001)

[5][6]
Fausto Bertinotti 2001.jpg
Secretary of the Communist
Refoundation Party

(1994-incumbent)

[7][8]
Antonio Di Pietro 2006.jpg
Minister of Public Works
(1996-1996)

[9][10]
Sergio D'Antoni.jpg
General Secretary of CISL
(1991-2000)

[11][12]
Emma Bonino 2006.jpg
European Commissioner for Health
and Consumer Protection

(1995-1999)

[13][14]

Results

Chamber of Deputies

Italian Chamber of Deputies, 2001.svg
Coalition Party Proportional First-past-the-post Total
seats
+/-
Votes % Seats Votes % Seats
House of Freedoms Forza Italia (FI) 10,923,431 29.43 62 16,915,513 45.57 132 194[15] +71
National Alliance (AN) 4,463,205 12.02 24 75 99 +6
Northern League (LN) 1,464,301 3.94 0 30 30 -29
1,194,040 3.22 0 40 40 +10
New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) 353,269 0.95 0 3 3 New
Sardinian Reformers (RS) N/A N/A 0 1 1 +1
New Sicily (NS) N/A N/A 0 1 1 New
Total seats 86 282 368 -
The Olive Tree Democrats of the Left (DS) 6,151,154 16.57 31 16,019,388 43.15 105 136 -36
The Daisy (DL) 5,391,827 14.52 27 56 83 -12
The Sunflower (FdV-SDI) 805,340 2.17 0 17 17 -
Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) 620,859 1.67 0 10 10 New
) 200,059 0.54 0 3 3 ±0
With Illy for Trieste 78,284 0.21 0 1 1 New
Aosta Valley (VdA) N/A N/A 0 25,577 0.07 1 1 ±0
Total seats 58 192 251 -
Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) 1,868,659 5.03 11 N/A N/A 0 11 -24
Total 630 -

Proportional

In 2001 the proportional list exhausted before all the deputies - which the winning party was entitled to - were declared elected.[16]

Party Votes % Seats
Forza Italia (FI) 10,923,431 29.43 62
Democrats of the Left (DS) 6,151,154 16.57 31
Democracy is Freedom - The Daisy (DL) 5,391,827 14.52 27
National Alliance (AN) 4,463,205 12.02 24
Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) 1,868,659 5.03 11
Northern League (LN) 1,464,301 3.94 0
Italy of Values 1,443,725 3.89 0
White Flower (CCD-CDU) 1,194,040 3.22 0
European Democracy (DE) 888,269 2.39 0
Bonino List (LB) 832,213 2.24 0
The Sunflower (FdV-SDI) 805,340 2.17 0
Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) 620,859 1.67 0
New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) 353,269 0.95 0
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 200,059 0.54 0
Tricolour Flame (FT) 143,963 0.39 0
Venetian Front League (LFV) 74,353 0.20 0
Pensioners' Party (PP) 68,349 0.18 0
Sardinian Action Party-Sardinia Nation (PSd'Az-SN) 34,412 0.09 0
New Country 34,193 0.09 0
Abolizione Scorporo 26,917 0.07 0
Southern Action League (LAM) 23,779 0.06 0
National Social Front (FSN) 22,985 0.06 0
Greens Greens (VV) 18,262 0.05 0
New Force (FN) 13,622 0.04 0
Amadu List 11,517 0.03 0
European Republicans Movement (MRE) 7,997 0.02 0
We the Sicilians 7,637 0.02 0
Movement of Freedoms 6,754 0.02 0
Free and Strong 6,722 0.02 0
Autonomous Socialists 6,492 0.02 0
Stop! 6,332 0.02 0
Communism 5,244 0.01 0
Third Pole for Autonomy 2,915 0.01 0
Total 37,122,776 100.00 155
Invalid/blank/unassigned votes 2,962,621 - -
Total 40,085,397 - -
Registered voters/turnout 49,256,295 81.38 -
Source: Ministry of the Interior
Popular vote (Proportional)
FI
29.43%
DS
16.57%
DL
14.52%
AN
12.02%
PRC
5.03%
LN
3.94%
IdV
3.89%
CCD-CDU
3.22%
DE
2.39%
Bonino
2.24%
FdV-SDI
2.17%
PdCI
1.67%
Others
2.90%

First-past-the-post

Parties and coalitions Votes % Seats
House of Freedoms (CdL) 16,915,513 45.57 282
The Olive Tree (Ulivo) 16,019,388 43.15 183
Italy of Values (IdV) 1,487,287 4.01 0
European Democracy (DE) 1,310,119 3.53 0
Bonino List (LB) 457,117 1.23 0
South Tyrolean People's Party-The Olive Tree (SVP-Ulivo) 190,556 0.51 5
South Tyrolean People's Party (SVP) 173,735 0.47 3
Venetian Front League (LFV) 173,618 0.47 0
Tricolour Flame (FT) 121,527 0.33 0
With Illy for Trieste 78,284 0.21 1
La Bassa in Parliament 26,151 0.07 0
Aosta Valley (VdA) 25,577 0.07 1
Autonomous Socialists 24,341 0.07 0
Democrats of the Left (Aosta Valley) 20,452 0.06 0
Southern Action League (LAM) 19,366 0.05 0
Buonanno 19,046 0.05 0
National Social Front (FSN) 16,202 0.04 0
Forza Italia-Northern League (Aosta Valley) 16,049 0.04 0
European Republicans Movement (MRE) 15,600 0.04 0
European Populars 13,447 0.04 0
Greens Greens (VV) 13,220 0.04 0
Amadu List 12,233 0.03 0
New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) 9,663 0.03 0
Freedom Movement 9,006 0.02 0
Camonica Valley-Liberal Democrats 8,257 0.02 0
People's List 8,091 0.02 0
Communism 6,777 0.02 0
Alternative List 6,612 0.02 0
New Force (FN) 6,294 0.02 0
We the Sicilians 6,121 0.02 0
National Alliance (Aosta Valley) 4,464 0.01 0
Third Pole for Autonomy 3,491 0.01 0
Alto Milanese People 1,409 0.00 0
Total 37,259,705 100.00 475
Popular vote (First-past-the-post)
CdL
45.57%
Olive Tree
43.15%
IdV
4.01%
DE
3.53%
Bonino
1.23%
Others
2.89%

Senate of the Republic

Italian Senate, 2001.svg
Coalition Party First-past-the-post Proportional
(Seats)
Total
seats
+/-
Votes % Seats
House of Freedoms Forza Italia (FI) 16,915,513 45.57 152 24 82 +40
National Alliance (AN) 45 +2
29 +4
Northern League (LN) 17 -10
Italian Republican Party (PRI) 1 +1
New Italian Socialist Party (NPSI) 1 New
Tricolour Flame (FT) 340,221 1.00 0 1 ±0
Total seats 176 -
The Olive Tree[17] Democrats of the Left (DS) 13,408,672[18] 39.59[19] 74 51 64 -38
The Daisy (DL) 43 -5
Federation of the Greens (FdV) 8 -6
Italian Democratic Socialists (SDI) 6 -
3 +1
Party of Italian Communists (PdCI) 2 New
Independent candidates 4 -
Aosta Valley (VdA) 32,429 0.10 0 1 1 ±0
Total seats 131 -
Communist Refoundation Party (PRC) 1,708,707 5.04 0 4 4 -6
European Democracy (DE) 1,066,908 3.15 0 2 2 New
Italy of Values (IdV) 1,140,489 3.37 0 1 1 New
308,559 0.91 0 1 1 +1
Bonino List (LB) 677,725 2.00 0 0 0 -1
Venetian Front League (LFV) 138,134 0.41 0 0 0 New
Va' pensiero Padania 119,058 0.35 0 0 0 New
National Social Front (FSN) 98,132 0.29 0 0 0 New
European Democracy-Autonomist Socialists (DE-SA) 79,002 0.23 0 0 0 New
Pensioners' Party (PP) 39,545 0.12 0 0 0 ±0
New Force (FN) 78,572 0.23 0 0 0 New
Greens Greens (VV) 35,743 0.11 0 0 0 ±0
Sardinian Action Party-Sardinia Nation (PSd'Az-SN) 32,822 0.10 0 0 0 -1
Others 160,025 0.46 0 0 0 -
Total 33,871,262 100.00 232 83 315 -
Popular vote
CdL
42.53%
Olive Tree
38.70%
PRC
5.04%
IdV
3.37%
DE
3.15%
Bonino
2.00%
Others
5.21%

Leaders' races

2001 Italian general election (C): Milan Centre
Candidate Coalition Party Votes %
Silvio Berlusconi House of Freedoms FI 42,098 53.66
Gianni Rivera The Olive Tree Dem 28,651 36.52
Benedetto Della Vedova LB 4,874 6.21
Adriano Ciccioni IdV 2,835 3.61
Total 78,458 100.0
Turnout 81,412 80.39
Centre-right hold
Source: Ministry of the Interior
2001 Italian general election (C): Rome - Praenestine
Candidate Coalition Party Votes %
Francesco Rutelli The Olive Tree DL 36,457 56.73
Elio Vito House of Freedoms FI 25,463 39.62
Pietro Tagliatesta IdV 2,348 3.65
Total 64,268 100.0
Turnout 66,479 77.44
Centre-left hold
Source: Ministry of the Interior

References

  1. ^ Gingrich, Newt; Armey, Dick (1994). Contract With America: The Bold Plan.
  2. ^ Ricolfi, Luca (2005). Dossier Italia: a che punto è il 'contratto con gli italiani. Il mulino.
  3. ^ I manifesti elettorali di Silvio Berlusconi dal 1994 ad oggi
  4. ^ Berlusconi: il contratto del 2001
  5. ^ Rutelli ammette la sconfitta. "Ora opposizione dura"
  6. ^ Politiche 2001: manifestazione di chiusura della campagna elettorale per il nord Italia con Francesco Rutelli
  7. ^ Rutelli non convince Bertinotti. "Da soli alle elezioni"
  8. ^ Elezioni, Bertinotti: "Non ci sarà desistenza con l'Ulivo"
  9. ^ Elezioni 2001, navigando tra i siti della politica
  10. ^ Ministero dell'Interno - Archivio Storico Elezioni
  11. ^ Sergio D'Antoni - Enciclopedia Treccani
  12. ^ Il centrodestra dilaga in Sicilia: 61 collegi su 61
  13. ^ Radicali nelle istituzioni
  14. ^ Emma Bonino - Biografia
  15. ^ Including one deputy of the Italian Republican Party
  16. ^ Buonomo, Giampiero (2001). "Cercansi candidati per 14 seggi. La speranza della (lista) civetta". Diritto&Giustizia edizione online.  - via Questia (subscription required)
  17. ^ Including the results of SVP and SVP-Olive Tree
  18. ^ 13,106,860 votes for The Olive Tree, 175,635 votes for the SVP-Olive Tree and 126,177 votes for the SVP
  19. ^ 38.70% of the votes for The Olive Tree, 0.52% of the votes for the SVP-Olive Tree and 0.37% of the votes for the SVP

External links


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