1996 World Monuments Watch
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1996 World Monuments Watch

The World Monuments Watch is a flagship advocacy program of the New York-based private non-profit organization World Monuments Fund (WMF) and American Express aimed at identifying and preserving the world's most important endangered cultural landmarks.[1] It targets selected sites for immediate action, to call attention to the need for innovative approaches to protect threatened sites throughout the world.[1]

Selection process

Every two years, the program publishes a select list known as the Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites that is in urgent need of preservation funding and protection. The sites are nominated by governments, private organizations active in the field of heritage conservation, and concerned individuals.[1] An independent panel of international experts then convene to evaluate and select 100 candidates from these entries to be part of the Watch List, based on the significance of the urgency of its situation, the viability of proposed remedies, and the site's overall significance.[1] WMF and American Express award grants to sites included on the Watch List through the WMF Fund, which is composed of donations from corporate, individual and foundation sponsors.[1] These grants are meant to support activities such as strategic planning, emergency and technical assistance, educational and local fund raising programs, and conservation treatment.[1]

1996 Watch List

The 1996 World Monuments Watch List of 100 Most Endangered Sites was launched on August 4, 1995.[1]

List by country/territory

Brazil's Serra da Capivara National Park has the largest concentration of prehistoric small farms on the continent.
The Churches of Chiloé in Chile are a unique architectural phenomenon in the Americas and one of the most prominent buildings of Chilota architecture.
The temples of the Angkor area in Cambodia comprise the most significant site of Khmer architecture.
The historic center of Split, centered on Diocletian's splendid palace, is today the cultural heart of the Croatian city.[2]
India's Taj Mahal is considered the finest example of Mughal architecture.[3][4]
Borobudur, a shrine to the Lord Buddha and a place for Buddhist pilgrimage, is Indonesia's single most visited tourist attraction.[5][6][7]
In 2003, UNESCO proclaimed the White City in Tel Aviv, Israel a World Heritage Site, as "an outstanding example of new town planning and architecture in the early 20th century."[8]
The Ibn Danan synagogue contains perhaps the only complete set of Moroccan synagogue fittings in existence.[2]
Typhoon Nadia in 1994 and an influx of refugees escaping civil war on the mainland have strained the already stressed architectural environment of Mozambique Island.[2]
Russia's Alexander Palace is primarily known as the favoured residence of the last Russian Emperor, Nicholas II, and his family.
The Church of the Holy Ascension played a significant role in evangelizing the indigenous people in then Russian Alaska.
Number[A] Country/Territory Site[B] Location[C] Period[C]
1 Albania Butrint Archaeological Site Sarande 8th century BC–18th century AD
2 Argentina San Ignacio Mini San Ignacio 17th century
3 Austria Belvedere Gardens Vienna 1700–1721
4 Austria Franciscan Church Vienna 1603–1742
5 Barbados Morgan Lewis Sugar Mill St. Andrew 18th century
6 Belgium Tour and Taxis (transport hub) Brussels 1897–1907
7 Belize El Pilar Archaeological Reserve Belize River Area 5th century BC–10th century AD
8 Benin Royal Palaces of Abomey Abomey 1645–1906
9 Bosnia and Herzegovina Village of Po?itelj Po?itelj 1444–Present
10 Brazil Serra da Capivara National Park Sao Raimundo Nonato, Piaui Stone Age
11 Bulgaria Madara Horseman Kaspichan 8th–9th century
12 Cambodia Angkor Archaeological District Siem Reap 9th–13th century
13 Chile Churches of Chiloe Chiloe Archipelago 17th–20th century
14 Chile Elevators of Valparaiso Valparaiso 1883–1915
15 Chile Orongo Easter Island 15th–18th century
16 China Liao Dynasty Site Chi Feng City, Inner Mongolia 916–1125
17 China Namseling Manor Drachi, Tibet 14th century
18 China San Xing Dui Site Guang Han City, Sichuan Province 5th–3rd millennium BC
19 Croatia Lopud Franciscan Monastery Dubrovnik-Neretva County 1400–1430
20 Croatia Old City Harbor Dubrovnik 13th–19th century
21 Croatia Split Historic Center Split AD 295–Present
22 Croatia Village of Tvr?a Osijek 1730–Present
23 Cuba Convent of Santa Clara of Assisi Santa Clara 1638–1644
24 Czech Republic ?eský Krumlov Garden ?eský Krumlov 1550–1575
25 Czech Republic Kladruby Benedictine Monastery Tachov District 1115–1775
26 Ecuador Church of the Compañia Quito 1605–1765
27 Egypt Qa'itbay Sebil (Fountain House) Cairo 1477–1478
28 France Chateau Aqueduct Castelnau-Pegayrolles 11th century
29 France Saint-Emilion Monolithic Church Saint-Emilion 11th–15th century
30 Georgia Pitareti Monastic Complex Tetritskaro District 1216–1222
31 Germany Festspielhaus Hellerau Dresden Hellerau 1911
32 Greece Etz Hayim Synagogue Hania, Crete 15th–19th century
33 Guyana Moruka-Waini Cultural Landscape Warao Settlements 5th millennium BC
34 Hungary Royal Garden Pavilions Budapest 1875–1882
35 India Jaisalmer Fort Rajasthan 12th century
36 India Taj Mahal Agra 1632–1643
37 Indonesia Borobudur Central Java 9th century
38 Ireland Clonmacnoise New Graveyard County Offaly 6th–13th century
39 Israel Gemeindehaus German Colony, Haifa 1869
40 Israel The White City Tel Aviv 1930–1939
41 Italy Ancient Pompeii Naples 1st century BC–AD 79
42 Italy Bartolomeo Colleoni Monument Venice 1488–1496
43 Italy Garden of Villa Medici at Castello Florence 1500–1799
44 Italy Grottos of San Michele Salerno 8th–9th century
45 Italy Neopitagorica Basilica Rome 1st century
46 Italy Nero's Palace (Domus Aurea) Rome AD 64
47 Italy Ruins on the River Centa Albenga (Savona) 1st century BC–1st century AD
48 Italy San Giacomo Maggiore Portico Bologna 1477–1481
49 Italy Santa Maria in Stelle Verona 2nd–5th century
50 Italy Sts. Ambrogio and Carlo al Corso Rome 1612–1685
51 Italy Temple of Hercules Forum Boarium, Rome 179–142 BC
52 Jordan Petra Archaeological Site Wadi Mousa 1st–6th century
53 Jordan Southern Temple Petra, Wadi Mousa, Petra 100–599
54 Laos Vat Sisaket Vientiane 1819–25
55 Latvia Abava Valley Cultural Landscape Kurzeme 13th–19th century
56 Lebanon Ancient Tyre Tyre 3rd millennium BC–Present
57 Mali Djenne-Djeno Archaeological Site Djenne 3rd century BC–13th century AD
58 Mexico Church of Jesus Nazareno Atotonilco, Guanajuato 1740–1776
59 Mexico Modern Mural Paintings various cities 1920–1950
60 Mexico San Juan de Ulua Fort Veracruz 1535–1786
61 Mexico Yucatan Indian Chapels Yucatan Peninsula 16th–18th century
62 Mongolia Bogd Khaan Palace Museum Ulaanbaatar 1893–1903
63 Morocco Medieval Sijilmassa Rissani 757–1393
64 Morocco Rabbi Shlomo Ibn Danan and Mansano Synagogues Fez 17th century
65 Mozambique Mozambique Island Nampula Province 16th century–Present
66 Nepal Gombas of Upper Mustang Lo Manthang, Mustang 15th century
67 Nepal Teku Thapatali Monument Zone Kathmandu 18th–19th century
68 Norway Vaga Old Church Vagamo, Oppland County 12th century, 1625–1630
69 Pakistan Tamba Wari Indus River Delta, Sindh 11th century
70 Peru Cusco Historic Center Cusco 13th–17th century
71 Peru Murals of Allauca Church Rapaz 17th century
72 Philippines Angono Petroglyphs Rizal 3rd millennium BC
73 Poland Debno Parish Church Nowy Targ 15th century
74 Poland Our Lady's Assumption Basilica Cracow 13th–14th century
75 Poland Prozna Street Warsaw 1881–1912
76 Portugal Coa Valley Petroglyphs Villa Nova de Foz Coa Stone Age
77 Romania Constantin Brâncu?i's Endless Column Târgu Jiu 1937–1938
78 Romania Roman Catholic Church Ghelin?a 13th century
79 Russia Alexander Palace Tsarskoje Selo, St. Petersburg 1792–1796
80 Russia Kizhi Pogost Kizhi Island, Lake Onega 18th century
81 Russia Paanajarvi Village Kemi Province 14th century–Present
82 Spain Moorish Houses of Granada Granada 14th–16th century
83 Suriname Jodensavanne Archaeological Site Redi Doti 1660–1830
84 Tanzania Kilwa Kisiwani Portuguese Fort Lindi Region 13th–15th century
85 Thailand Ayuttaya and other flooded sites along Chao Praya River Central Thailand 14th–18th century
86 Turkey Ani Archaeological Site Ocarli Koyu, Kars 3rd–14th century
87 Turkey Çatalhöyük Cumra, Konya 10th millennium BC
88 Turkey Hagia Sophia Istanbul AD 532–563
89 Ukraine Ancient Chersonesos Sevastopol, Crimea 5th century BC–15th century AD
90 United States of America Adobe Missions of New Mexico New Mexico 17th–20th century
91 United States of America Chaco Culture National Historic Park McKinley County, New Mexico 900–1150
92 United States of America Eastern State Penitentiary Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 1822–1836
93 United States of America Ellis Island New York, New York 1892–1954
94 United States of America Golden Gate Park Conservatory San Francisco, California 1876–1878
95 United States of America Holy Ascension Church Unalaska, Alaska 1826–1896
96 United States of America Lafayette Cemetery No. 1 New Orleans, Louisiana 1833–Present
97 Vietnam Minh Mang Tomb Hue City 1840
98 Vietnam My Son Temple District Duy Xuyen District 3rd–12th century
99 Yugoslavia Subotica Synagogue Subotica 1902
100 Zimbabwe Khami National Monument Bulawayo Mid–15th century–mid–17th century

Statistics by country/territory

The following countries/territories have multiple sites entered on the 1996 Watch List, listed by the number of sites:

Number of sites Country/Territory
11 Italy
7 United States of America
4 Croatia and Mexico
3 Chile, China, Poland, Russia and Turkey
2 Austria, Czech Republic, France, India, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Nepal, Peru, Romania and Vietnam


^ A. Numbers list only meant as a guide on this article. No official reference numbers have been designated for the sites on the Watch List.
^ B. Names and spellings used for the sites were based on the official 1996 Watch List as published.
^ C. The references to the sites' locations were based on the official 1996 Watch List as published.


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "American Express Company Gift Launches International Program to List and Protect Sites" (PDF). World Monuments Fund. Retrieved 2009.[dead link]
  2. ^ a b c "World Monuments Watch". World Monuments Fund. Archived from the original on 30 August 2009. Retrieved 2009.
  3. ^ Hasan, Parween (November 1994). "Review of Mughal Architecture: Its outline and its history". The Journal of Asian Studies. 53 (4): 1301. doi:10.2307/2059304.
  4. ^ Lesley A. DuTemple (March 2003). The Taj Mahal. Lerner Publishing Group. p. 26.
  5. ^ Mark Elliott (November 2003). Indonesia. Melbourne: Lonely Planet Publications Pty Ltd. pp. 211-215. ISBN 1-74059-154-2.
  6. ^ Mark P. Hampton (2005). "Heritage, Local Communities and Economic Development". Annals of Tourism Research. 32 (3): 735-759. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2004.10.010.
  7. ^ E. Sedyawati (1997). "Potential and Challenges of Tourism: Managing the National Cultural Heritage of Indonesia". In W. Nuryanti (ed.). Tourism and Heritage Management. Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada University Press. pp. 25-35.
  8. ^ "White City of Tel Aviv - the Modern Movement". World Heritage Center. Retrieved 2009.

External links

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.



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