1985 Portuguese Legislative Election
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1985 Portuguese Legislative Election
1985 Portuguese legislative election

← 1983 6 October 1985 1987 →

250 seats to the Portuguese Assembly
125 seats needed for a majority
Registered7,818,981 Increase6.6%
Turnout5,798,929 (74.2%)
Decrease3.6 pp
  First party Second party Third party
  Cavaco Silva 2007.jpg Almeida Santos (cropped).png Noimage.png
Leader Aníbal Cavaco Silva Almeida Santos Hermínio Martinho
Party PSD PS PRD
Leader since 2 June 1985 13 June 1985 (interim) 10 July 1985
Leader's seat Lisbon[1] Porto[2] Santarem
Last election 75 seats, 27.2% 101 seats, 36.1% New party
Seats won 88 57 45
Seat change Increase 13 Decrease 44 N/A
Popular vote 1,732,288 1,204,321 1,038,893
Percentage 29.9% 20.8% 17.9%
Swing Increase 2.7 pp Decrease 15.3 pp N/A

  Fourth party Fifth party
  Alvaro Cunhal 1980 (cropped).jpg Noimage.png
Leader Álvaro Cunhal Lucas Pires
Party PCP CDS
Alliance APU
Leader since 1979 20 February 1983
Leader's seat Lisbon Lisbon
Last election 44 seats, 18.1% 30 seats, 12.6%
Seats won 38 22
Seat change Decrease 6 Decrease 8
Popular vote 898,281 577,580
Percentage 15.5% 10.0%
Swing Decrease 2.6 pp Decrease 2.6 pp

1985 Portuguese legislative election - Results.svg

The Portuguese legislative election of 1985 took place on 6 October. In June of the same year, the former Prime-Minister, Mário Soares, had resigned from the job due to the lack of parliamentary support, the government was composed by a coalition of the two major parties, the center-right Social Democratic and the center-left Socialist, in what was called the Central Bloc, however this was an unstable balance of forces and several members of each party opposed such alliance.

The new leader of the Social Democratic Party, Cavaco Silva, elected in May, was among those that never supported such alliance, and short after being elected leader of the party made the coalition fall in July.

A new election was called by the President and the Social Democrats won with a short majority and Cavaco became the Prime-Minister. The election was the first of three consecutive election victories for the Social Democratic Party. Meanwhile, a new party had been founded by supporters of the President Ramalho Eanes, the Democratic Renewal Party, led by Hermínio Martinho that surprisingly gained 45 MPs in the election and became the parliamentary support of the Cavaco's government until 1987, when it removed its support, making Cavaco fall.

The Communists and the Socialists lost votes and MPs, and the left would only return to the government ten years later, in 1995.

Electoral system

The Assembly of the Republic has 250 members elected to four-year terms. Governments do not require absolute majority support of the Assembly to hold office, as even if the number of opposers of government is larger than that of the supporters, the number of opposers still needs to be equal or greater than 126 (absolute majority) for both the Government's Programme to be rejected or for a motion of no confidence to be approved.[3]

The number of seats assigned to each district depends on the district magnitude.[4] The use of the d'Hondt method makes for a higher effective threshold than certain other allocation methods such as the Hare quota or Sainte-Laguë method, which are more generous to small parties.[5]

Parties

The major parties involved and the respective leaders:

Aníbal Cavaco Silva, leader of the Social Democratic Party, was nominated Prime Minister for the first time.

Opinion polling

The following table shows the opinion polls of voting intention of the Portuguese voters before the election. Those parties that are listed are currently represented in parliament. Included is also the result of the Portuguese general elections in 1983 and 1985 for reference.

Date Released Polling Firm PS PSD CDU CDS PRD Others Lead
6 Oct 1985 Leg. Election 20.8
57 seats
29.9
88 seats
15.5
38 seats
10.0
22 seats
17.9
45 seats
5.9
0 seats
9.1
6 Oct (22:50) RTP1 22.0-26.9 26.8-29.7 15.0-18.1 9.3-10.8 14.5-16.5 - 2.8-4.8
6 Oct (21:10) RTP1 23.8-26.9 28.0-29.8 17.3-18.1 9.8-10.7 11.1-14.9 - 2.9-6.0
6 Oct Rádio Comercial 19.0-22.0 29.0-31.0 14.0-16.0 8.0-16.0 18.0-22.0 - 9.0-10.0
Exit polls
4 Oct Expresso 28.0-32.0 27.0-31.0 15.0-17.0 9.0-12.0 8.0-11.0 - 1.0
1985
25 Apr 1983 Leg. Election 36.1
101 seats
27.2
75 seats
18.1
44 seats
12.6
30 seats
Did not exist 6.0
0 seats
8.9

National summary of votes and seats

e o d Summary of the 6 October 1985 Assembly of the Republic elections results
AR Eleicoes 1985.svg
Parties Votes % ± MPs MPs %/
votes %
1983 1985 ± % ±
Social Democratic 1,732,288 29.87 Increase2.7 75 88 Increase13 35.20 Increase5.2 1.18
Socialist 1,204,321 20.77 Decrease15.3 101 57 Decrease44 22.80 Decrease17.6 1.10
Democratic Renewal 1,038,893 17.92 N/A N/A 45 N/A 18.00 N/A 1.00
United People Alliance[A] 898,281 15.49 Decrease2.6 44 38 Decrease6 15.20 Decrease2.4 0.98
Democratic and Social Centre 577,580 9.96 Decrease2.6 30 22 Decrease8 8.80 Decrease3.2 0.88
People's Democratic Union 73,401 1.27 Increase0.8 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Christian Democratic 41,831 0.72 Increase0.0 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Revolutionary Socialist 35,238 0.61 Increase0.4 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Portuguese Workers' Communist 19,943 0.34 Decrease0.1 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Workers Party of Socialist Unity 19,085 0.33 Decrease0.0 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Communist Party (Reconstructed) 12,749 0.22 Increase0.2 0 0 Steady0 0.00 Steady0.0 0.0
Total valid 5,653,610 97.49 Increase0.1 250 250 Steady0 100.00 Steady0.0 --
Blank ballots 48,709 0.84 Increase0.1
Invalid ballots 96,610 1.67 Decrease0.1
Total (turnout 74.16%) 5,798,929 100.00 Decrease3.6
A Portuguese Communist Party (35 MPs) and Portuguese Democratic Movement (3 MPs) ran in coalition.[6]
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições
Vote share
PSD
29.87%
PS
20.77%
PRD
17.92%
APU
15.49%
CDS
9.96%
UDP
1.27%
PDC
0.72%
PSR
0.61%
Others
0.89%
Blank/Invalid
2.51%
Parliamentary seats
PSD
35.20%
PS
22.80%
PRD
18.00%
APU
15.20%
CDS
8.80%

Distribution by constituency

e o d Results of the 1985 election of the Portuguese Assembly of the Republic
by constituency
Constituency % S % S % S % S % S Total
S
PSD PS PRD APU CDS
Azores 48.3 3 20.1 1 15.2 1 4.4 - 6.5 - 5
Aveiro 38.4 6 23.0 4 13.4 2 6.5 1 13.5 2 15
Beja 13.7 1 20.1 1 11.6 - 44.9 3 2.2 - 5
Braga 32.8 6 21.8 4 16.8 3 8.5 1 14.0 2 16
Bragança 39.2 2 22.7 1 6.9 - 5.3 - 17.1 1 4
Castelo Branco 31.2 3 18.5 1 24.4 2 8.9 - 9.6 - 6
Coimbra 29.5 4 28.5 3 16.9 2 10.1 1 8.6 1 11
EvoraÉvora 19.1 1 14.3 1 15.8 1 41.2 2 3.3 - 5
Faro 28.4 3 22.3 2 20.5 2 15.4 2 6.1 - 9
Guarda 33.6 2 23.3 2 10.9 - 5.2 - 19.5 1 5
Leiria 38.6 5 19.6 2 15.3 2 7.9 1 12.2 1 11
Lisbon 25.6 15 19.8 12 21.3 13 20.1 12 8.1 4 56
Madeira 56.8 4 13.2 1 9.7 - 3.2 - 7.8 - 5
Portalegre 20.9 1 23.7 1 18.9 - 25.2 1 4.9 - 3
Porto 29.3 12 23.6 10 20.5 8 12.1 5 9.8 4 39
Santarém 27.8 4 18.6 2 23.8 3 16.4 2 7.7 1 12
Setúbal 15.4 3 16.5 3 20.4 4 38.2 7 3.8 - 17
Viana do Castelo 33.5 3 18.4 1 16.2 1 8.2 - 16.6 1 6
Vila Real 42.2 3 23.0 2 8.6 - 5.9 - 12.5 1 6
Viseu 37.7 5 20.0 2 10.9 1 5.0 - 19.9 2 10
zEurope 24.3 1 24.2 1 7.1 - 18.8 - 17.3 - 2
zRest of the World 40.5 1 7.8 - 3.3 - 2.6 - 37.9 1 2
Total 29.9 88 20.8 57 17.9 45 15.5 38 10.0 22 250
Source: Comissão Nacional de Eleições

Maps

References

  1. ^ Assembleia da República - Deputados e Grupos Parlamentares
  2. ^ Assembleia da República - Deputados e Grupos Parlamentares
  3. ^ "Constitution of the Portuguese Republic" (PDF).
  4. ^ "Effective threshold in electoral systems". Trinity College, Dublin. Retrieved .
  5. ^ Gallaher, Michael (1992). "Comparing Proportional Representation Electoral Systems: Quotas, Thresholds, Paradoxes and Majorities"
  6. ^ Electoral results - Assembly of the Republic

External links

See also


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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