1919 Italian General Election
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1919 Italian General Election
1919 Italian general election

← 1913 16 November 1919 1921 →

All 508 seats in the Chamber of Deputies
Turnout56.6%
  Majority party Minority party Third party
  Nicola Bombacci.jpg Don Luigi Sturzo 1919.jpg Vittorio Emanuele Orlando.jpeg
Leader Nicola Bombacci Don Luigi Sturzo Vittorio Emanuele Orlando
Party Socialist Party People's Party Liberal Democratic
Seats won 156 101 91
Seat change Increase104 new party new party
Popular vote 1,834,792 1,167,354 904,195
Percentage 32.3% 20.5% 15.9%
Swing Increase14.7% new party new party

Italian 1919 elections Chamber of Deputies constituencies.svg

General elections were held in Italy on 16 November 1919.[1] The fragmented Liberal governing coalition lost the absolute majority in the Chamber of Deputies, due to the success of the Italian Socialist Party and the Italian People's Party.

Electoral system

The old system of using single-member constituencies with two-round majority voting was abolished and replaced with proportional representation in 58 constituencies with between 5 and 20 members.[2]

Historical background

The election took place in the middle of Biennio Rosso ("Red Biennium") a two-year period, between 1919 and 1920, of intense social conflict in Italy, following the First World War.[3] The revolutionary period was followed by the violent reaction of the Fascist blackshirts militia and eventually by the March on Rome of Benito Mussolini in 1922.

The Biennio Rosso took place in a context of economic crisis at the end of the war, with high unemployment and political instability. It was characterized by mass strikes, worker manifestations as well as self-management experiments through land and factories occupations.[3] In Turin and Milan, workers councils were formed and many factory occupations took place under the leadership of anarcho-syndicalists. The agitations also extended to the agricultural areas of the Padan plain and were accompanied by peasant strikes, rural unrests and guerrilla conflicts between left-wing and right-wing militias.

In the general election, the fragmented Liberal governing coalition lost the absolute majority in the Chamber of Deputies, due to the success of the Italian Socialist Party and the Italian People's Party. The Socialists of Nicola Bombacci received the most votes in almost every region and especially in Emilia-Romagna (60.0%), Piedmont (49.7%), Lombardy (45.9%), Tuscany (41.7%) and Umbria (46.5%), while the People's Party were the largest party in Veneto (42.6%) and came second in Lombardy (30.1%) and the Liberal lists were stronger in Southern Italy (over 50% in Abruzzo, Campania, Basilicata, Apulia, Calabria and Sicily).[4]

Parties and leaders

Coalitions

Voter turnout

Region Turnout
Abruzzi e Molise 51.3%
Apulia 54.2%
Basilicata 50.9%
Calabria 47.9%
Campania 49.9
Emilia 71.5%
Lazio 47.5%
Liguria 60.5%
Lombardy 67.4%
Marche 47.6%
Piedmont 63.0%
Sardinia 55.5%
Sicily 44.5%
Tuscany 61.3%
Umbria 56.2%
Veneto 51.5%
Total 56.6%
Source: Ministry of the Interior

Results

Italian Parliament, 1919.svg
Party Votes % Seats +/-
Italian Socialist Party 1,834,792 32.3 156 +104
Italian People's Party 1,167,354 20.5 100 New
Democratic Liberal Party 904,195 15.9 96 New
Italian Social Democratic Party 622,310 10.9 60 New
Liberal Union 490,384 8.6 41 -229
Combatants' Party 232,923 4.1 20 New
Radical Party 110,697 1.9 12 -50
Economic Party 87,450 1.5 7 New
Italian Reformist Socialist Party 82,157 1.4 6 -13
Dissident People's Party 65,421 1.2 0 New
Italian Republican Party 53,197 0.9 9 +1
Independent Socialists 33,938 0.6 1 -7
Invalid/blank votes 108,674 - - -
Total 5,793,492 100 508 ±0
Registered voters/turnout 10,239,326 56.6 - -
Popular vote
PSI
32.28%
PPI
20.53%
PLD
15.91%
PDSI
10.95%
UL
8.63%
PdC
4.10%
PR
1.95%
PE
1.54%
PSRI
1.45%
Others
2.68%
Seats
PSI
30.71%
PPI
19.69%
PLD
18.90%
PDSI
11.81%
UL
8.07%
PdC
3.94%
PR
2.36%
PE
1.38%
PSRI
1.18%
Others
1.97%

First party by Region

References

  1. ^ Dieter Nohlen & Philip Stöver (2010) Elections in Europe: A data handbook, p1047 ISBN 978-3-8329-5609-7
  2. ^ Nohlen & Stöver, p1032
  3. ^ a b Brunella Dalla Casa, Composizione di classe, rivendicazioni e professionalità nelle lotte del "biennio rosso" a Bologna, in: AA. VV, Bologna 1920; le origini del fascismo, a cura di Luciano Casali, Cappelli, Bologna 1982, p. 179.
  4. ^ Piergiorgio Corbetta; Maria Serena Piretti, Atlante storico-elettorale d'Italia, Zanichelli, Bologna 2009

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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