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In 1906, the VFL competition consisted of eight teams of 18 on-the-field players each, with no "reserves", although any of the 18 players who had left the playing field for any reason could later resume their place on the field at any time during the match.
Each team played each other twice in a home-and-away season of 14 rounds. Then, based on ladder positions after those 14 rounds, three further 'sectional rounds' were played, with the teams ranked 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th playing in one section and the teams ranked 2nd, 4th, 6th and 8th playing in the other.
Once the 17 round home-and-away season had finished, the 1906 VFL Premiers were determined by the specific format and conventions of the amended "Argus system".
In Round 4, St Kilda defeated Essendon for the first time in its history after 36 winless matches (15 in the VFA for four draws and 11 losses and 21 in the VFL for one draw and 20 losses) over 20 years of competition (1878 and 1888-1906); Essendon was the last team that St Kilda had not yet beaten.
On Saturday 23 June, between Rounds 7 and 8, the VFL representative team 17.13 (115) defeated the Ballarat Football Association 10.10 (70) at the Melbourne Cricket Ground. Frank Caine kicked seven goals for Victoria. In the return game, held at the City Oval in Ballarat during the second week of Round 13 (11 August), the BFA 11.7 (73) defeated the VFL 6.7 (43); this VFL team was limited to players from Essendon, South Melbourne and Geelong, with the other five teams either playing or on interstate tours at the time. On 15 September, the weekend of the semi-finals, a VFL team selected from non-finalists defeated the Bendigo Football Association 15.14 (104) d. 2.2 (14) at the Upper Reserve in Bendigo.
In Round 8, St Kilda formally protested the result of its five point loss against Fitzroy, on the grounds that the timekeeper had rung the final bell thirty seconds prematurely. The protest was dismissed three weeks later owing to a lack of evidence.
A vacant Saturday was originally scheduled on 11 August in the fixture between Rounds 13 and 14, to accommodate the second game against Ballarat and to allow clubs to complete interstate tours. However, after South Australian club Norwood's tour was brought forward, the VFL turned Round 13 into a split round at less than two weeks notice, postponing the Carlton vs Fitzroy and St Kilda vs Melbourne games by a week.
^"Football - Last Saturday's actions". Table Talk. Melbourne, VIC. 28 June 1906. p. 27.
^"World of Sport - Football". The Herald. Melbourne, VIC. 10 August 1906. p. 4.
^"Sporting - Football". The Bendigo Advertiser. Melbourne, VIC. 17 September 1906. p. 6.
^"Victorian Football League - protests dismissed". The Argus. Melbourne, VIC. 21 July 1906. p. 15.
^"A football dispute - League and Association". The Argus. Melbourne, VIC. 2 August 1906. p. 3.
Rogers, S. & Brown, A., Every Game Ever Played: VFL/AFL Results 1897-1997 (Sixth Edition), Viking Books, (Ringwood), 1998. ISBN0-670-90809-6
Ross, J. (ed), 100 Years of Australian Football 1897-1996: The Complete Story of the AFL, All the Big Stories, All the Great Pictures, All the Champions, Every AFL Season Reported, Viking, (Ringwood), 1996. ISBN0-670-86814-0