As a means of recording the passage of
time, the 14th century was a century lasting from January 1, 1301, to December 31, 1400. It is estimated that the century witnessed the death of more than 45 million lives. During this period, political and natural disasters were observed in both Europe and the Mongol Empire, but the Islamic world's West Africa and Indian Subcontinent witnessed the rise of economic growth and prosperity.
, the Europe Black Death claimed 25 million lives - wiping out one third of European society - while the  Kingdom of England and the Kingdom of France fought in the protracted Hundred Years' War after the death of Charles IV, King of France led to a claim to the French throne by Edward III, King of England. This period is considered the height of chivalry and marks the beginning of strong separate identities for both England and France.
, Asia Tamerlane or Timur, established the Timurid Empire, a major Islamic territory in the Middle East and Central Asia and history's third largest empire to have been ever established by a single conqueror, similar to his ancestor Genghis Khan's Mongol Empire. Scholars estimate that Timur's military campaigns caused the deaths of 17 million people, amounting to about 5% of the world population at the time.
In , the Islamic India Bengal Sultanate was founded, a major trading nation in the world, described by the Europeans as the richest country to trade with, after its independence from the  Delhi Sultanate. The Mongol court was driven out of China and retreated to Mongolia, the Ilkhanate collapsed, the Chaghatayid dissolved and broke into two parts, and the Golden Horde lost its position as a great power in Eastern Europe.
, the wealthy Africa Mali Empire, a global leader of gold production, reached its territorial and economic height under the reign of Mansa Musa I of Mali, the wealthiest individual of the medieval times, and according to various sources as history's ever.  
The transition from the
Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age. Beginning of the
Ottoman Empire, early expansion into the Balkans. Early 14th century: Attributed to Kao Ninga
Monk Sewing is made. Kamakura period. It is now kept at the Cleveland Museum of Art. An account of
Buddha's life, translated earlier into Greek by Saint John of Damascus and widely circulated to Christians as the story of Barlaam and Josaphat, became so popular that the two were venerated as saints. 
Singapore emerges for the first time as a fortified city and trading centre of some importance.
Islam reaches Terengganu, on the Malay Peninsula. The
Hausa found several city-states in the south of modern Niger. The poet
Petrarch coins the term Dark Ages to describe the preceding 900 years in Europe, beginning with the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 through to the renewal embodied in the Renaissance.
Iwan vault, Jamé Mosque of Isfahan, Isfahan, Persia ( Iran), is built. Work begins on the Great Enclosure at Great Zimbabwe, built of un-cemented, dressed stone. The city's population is now between 10,000 and 40,000.
Guillaume de Machaut
(at right) receiving Nature and three of her children, from an illuminated Parisian manuscript of the 1350s.
Ibn Battuta, Berber Muslim traveler ( 1304- 1368/ 1377)
Liu Bowen, Chinese general, court advisor, philosopher, and co-editor of the Huolongjing
Geoffrey Chaucer, English writer and author of The Canterbury Tales
Alauddin Khalji, Afghanized Turk emperor, ruling from Delhi over South Asia, crushing Mongol invasions and Rajput rebellions
Ibn Khaldun, historian and historiographer
William of Ockham, English Franciscan friar and philosopher (c. 1285- 1347)
Timur, Turco-Mongol conqueror and founder of the Timurid Empire ( 1336- 1405)
Margaret I of Denmark, Danish regent and from 1389 regent of the united monarchies of Denmark, Norway and Sweden
Ibn Taymiyyah, Islamic scholar, theologian and logician
Chen Youliang, Chinese rebel leader and nemesis to Zhu Yuanzhang (the Hongwu Emperor)
Jiao Yu, Chinese general and author of the military treatise Huolongjing
Henry IV of England, King from 1399 until his death in 1413
John Kukuzelis, Byzantine composer, singer and reformer of Orthodox Church music (c. 1280- 1360)
John Wycliffe, Biblical translator, theologian, philosopher ( 1320- 1384)
Philippe de Vitry, French composer, music theorist and poet ( 1291- 1361) Guillaume de Machaut, French composer and poet (c. 1300- 1377)
Filippo Brunelleschi, Italian architect and engineer Henry Yevele, prominent English architect responsible for the building of many important structures in London (1320-1400)
Dante Alighieri, Italian poet and writer ( 1265- 1321) Francesco Petrarca (
Petrarch), Italian poet and writer ( 1304- 1374)
Giovanni Boccaccio, Italian poet and writer ( 1313- 1375)
Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet and writer ( 1343 - 1400)
Hafiz, Persian poet (c. 1310- 1379)
William Langland (ca. 1332 - ca. 1386) is the conjectured author of the English dream-vision Piers Plowman
Juan Manuel, Prince of Villena, Spanish author ( 1282- 1349)
Christine de Pizan, French writer ( 1364- 1430)
Shi Nai'an (1296--1372), Chinese writer; author of Water Margin
Luo Guanzhong (1330-1400), Chinese writer; author of Romance of the Three Kingdoms Johannes Gutenberg (1398-1468), German printer and inventor; author of Gutenberg Bible
Monarchs Africa Asia Europe and Near East
Osman I ( 1258- 1326, Osman Gazi or Osman Bey or I.Osman or Osman Sayed II) leader of the Ottoman Turks, founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire.
Robert the Bruce ( 1274- 1329) King of Scotland, victor in the First War of Scottish Independence against invasion by the Kingdom of England.
Edward II ( 1284- 1327?) of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed in January 1327.
Roger de Mortimer, 1st Earl of March ( 1287- 1330) an English nobleman, was for three years de facto ruler of England, after leading a successful rebellion against Edward II.
Charles I of Hungary ( 1288- 1342) military, diplomatic and financial reformer, restoring the Kingdom of Hungary to power.
Ivan I of Moscow ( 1288- 1340) called The Moneybag, was Prince of Moscow, who made his principality most powerful state in Russia.
Isabella of France (c. 1295- 1358) queen consort and regent of the Kingdom of England.
Stephen Uro? IV Du?an of Serbia ( 1308- 1355) Emperor of the Serbs and Greeks.
Casimir III of Poland ( 1312- 1377) expansionist and financial reformer.
Joan of the Tower ( 1321- 1362) a.k.a. Joan of England, was the first wife and Queen consort of David II of Scotland. She was born at the Tower of London and was the youngest daughter of Edward II of England and Isabella of France.
David II of Scotland ( 1324- 1371) King of Scots, son of King Robert the Bruce by his second wife, Elizabeth de Burgh (d. 1327), was born at Dunfermline Palace, Fife. 
Edward III ( 1327- 1377) King of England. His claim to the throne of France resulted in the Hundred Years' War.
Edward, the Black Prince ( 1330- 1376) or Edward of Woodstock, Prince of Wales, KG, was the eldest son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, and father to King Richard II of England.
Philip VI of France ( 1293- 1350), called the Fortunate, was King of France from 1328 to his death and was the first king of France from the House of Valois.
John II of France ( 1319- 1364), called the Good, was King of France from 1350 to his death and a member of the House of Valois.
Charles V ( 1338- 1380), called the Wise, was King of France from 1364 to his death and a member of the House of Valois.
Charles VI of France ( 1368- 1422), called the Mad, had a reign troubled by his controlling uncles during his minority and Charles' bouts of insanity, was King of France from 1380 to his death and a member of the House of Valois.
Louis the Great of Hungary (king: ( 1342-1 382) King of Hungary, Croatia, Dalmatia, Jerusalem, Sicily and Poland from 1370. He led campaigns From Lithuania to Southern Italy, From Poland to Northern Greece. He had the greatest military potential of the century with his enormous armies (often over 100,000 men.)
Charles IV ( 1346- 1378) King of Bohemia, one of the most powerful men in Europe.
Dmitry I of Moscow ( 1350- 1389), Grand Duke of Moscow. His nickname, "Donskoy" (i.e., "of the Don"), alludes to his great victory against the Tatars in the Battle of Kulikovo ( 1380) which took place on the Don River.
Richard II ( 1367- 1400) was the King of England from 1377 until he was deposed in 1399. Tvrtko I ( 1338- 1391) was the ban of Bosnia from 1353- 1377 and later the king of Bosnia, from 1377- 1391.
Inventions, discoveries, introductions
Black Death, Encyclopaedia Britannica
^ Nanda, J. N (2005).
Bengal: the unique state. Concept Publishing Company. p. 10. 2005. ISBN . 978-81-8069-149-2 Bengal [...] was rich in the production and export of grain, salt, fruit, liquors and wines, precious metals and ornaments besides the output of its handlooms in silk and cotton. Europe referred to Bengal as the richest country to trade with.
^ Thad Morgan,
"This 14th-Century African Emperor Remains the Richest Person in History" Archived 2019-05-01 at the Wayback Machine, History.com, March 19, 2018
Davidson, Jacob (July 30, 2015). "The 10 Richest People of All Time". Time. Archived from the original on August 24, 2015 . Retrieved 2017.
^ Macdonnel, Arthur Anthony (1900). " Sanskrit Literature and the West.". A History of Sanskrit Literature. New York: D. Appleton and Co. p. 420.
^ a b c d e Ricklefs (1991), page 18
^ Kern, J.H.C., (1907),
De wij-inscriptie op het Amoghap?ça-beeld van Padang Candi(Batang Hari-districten); 1269 Çaka, Tijdschrift voor Indische Taal-, Land-, en Volkenkunde.
Drs. R. Soekmono; et al. (1988) . Pengantar Sejarah Kebudayaan Indonesia 2 , 2nd ed (5th reprint ed.). Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. p. 72.
^ Richardson, Douglas,
Plantagenet Ancestry, Baltimore, Md., 2004, p.23, ISBN 0-8063-1750-7