12-hour Clock
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12-hour Clock

Clock system
12-hour 24-hour
Midnight (start of day)
12 midnight
12:00 a.m.[a]
00:00
12:01 a.m. 00:01
  1:00 a.m. 01:00
11:00 a.m. 11:00
11:59 a.m. 11:59
Noon
12 noon
12:00 p.m.[a]
12:00
12:01 p.m. 12:01
  1:00 p.m. 13:00
11:00 p.m. 23:00
11:59 p.m. 23:59
Midnight (end of day)
shown as start of next day
24:00

The 12-hour clock is a time convention in which the 24 hours of the day are divided into two periods: a.m. (from Latin ante meridiem, translates to, before midday) and p.m. (from Latin post meridiem translates to, past midday).[1][2] Each period consists of 12 hours numbered: 12 (acting as zero),[3]1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 11. The 24 hour/day cycle starts at 12 midnight (may be indicated as 12 a.m.), runs through 12 noon (may be indicated as 12 p.m.), and continues to the midnight at the end of the day. The 12-hour clock has been developed from the middle of the second millennium BC to the 16th century AD.

The 12-hour time convention is common in several English-speaking nations and former British colonies, as well as a few other countries.

History and use

Exeter Cathedral Astronomical Clock, showing the double-XII numbering scheme

The natural day-and-night division of a calendar day forms the fundamental basis as to why each day is split into two cycles. Originally there were two cycles; one cycle which could be tracked by the position of the Sun (day) followed by one cycle which could be tracked by the Moon and stars (night). This would eventually evolve into the two 12-hour periods that started at midnight (a.m.) and noon (p.m.) which are used today. Noon itself is rarely abbreviated today, but if it is, it is denoted M.[1]

The 12-hour clock can be traced back as far as Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt.[4] Both an Egyptian sundial for daytime use[5] and an Egyptian water clock for night-time use were found in the tomb of Pharaoh Amenhotep I.[6] Dating to c. 1500 BC, these clocks divided their respective times of use into 12 hours each.

The Romans also used a 12-hour clock: daylight was divided into 12 equal hours (thus hours having varying length throughout the year) and the night was divided into four watches.

The first mechanical clocks in the 14th century, if they had dials at all, showed all 24 hours, used the 24-hour analog dial, influenced by astronomers' familiarity with the astrolabe and sundial, and their desire to model the Earth's apparent motion around the Sun. In Northern Europe these dials generally used the 12-hour numbering scheme in Roman numerals, but showed both a.m. and p.m. periods in sequence. This is known as the double-XII system, and can be seen on many surviving clock faces, such as those at Wells and Exeter.

Elsewhere in Europe, particularly in Italy, numbering was more likely to be based on the 24-hour system (I to XXIV), reflecting the Italian style of counting the hours. The 12-hour clock was used throughout the British empire.

During the 15th and 16th centuries, the 12-hour analog dial and time system gradually became established as standard throughout Northern Europe for general public use. The 24-hour analog dial was reserved for more specialized applications, such as astronomical clocks and chronometers.

Most analog clocks and watches today use the 12-hour dial, on which the shorter hour hand rotates once every 12 hours and twice in one day. Some analog clock dials have an inner ring of numbers along with the standard 1-to-12 numbered ring. The number 12 is paired either with a 00 or a 24, while the numbers 1 through 11 are paired with the numbers 13 through 23, respectively. This modification allows the clock to be read also in the 24-hour notation. This kind of 12-hour clock can be found in countries where the 24-hour clock is preferred.

Use by country

In several countries the 12-hour clock is the dominant written and spoken system of time, predominantly in nations that were part of the former British Empire, for example, the United Kingdom, Republic of Ireland, the United States, Australia, New Zealand, India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Malaysia and others follow this convention as well such as Egypt, Mexico and the former American colony of the Philippines. In most countries, however, the 24-hour clock is the standard system used, especially in writing. Some nations in Europe and Latin America use a combination of the two, preferring the 12-hour system in colloquial speech but using the 24-hour system in written form and in formal contexts.

The 12-hour clock in speech often uses phrases such as ... in the morning, ... in the afternoon, ... in the evening, and ...at night. In the United Kingdom, these descriptive phrases are still used. Rider's British Merlin almanac for 1795 and a similar almanac for 1773 published in London used them.[7]. Other than English-speaking countries, the terms a.m. and p.m. are seldom used and often unknown.

Computer support

In most countries, computers by default show the time in 24-hour notation. Most operating systems, including Microsoft Windows and Unix-like systems such as Linux and macOS, activate the 12-hour notation by default for a limited number of language and region settings. This behavior can be changed by the user, such as with the Windows operating system "Region and Language" settings.[8]

Abbreviations

Typical digital 12-hour alarm clock indicating p.m. with a dot to the left of the hour

The Latin abbreviations a.m. and p.m. (often written "am" and "pm", "AM" and "PM", or "A.M." and "P.M.") are used in English and Spanish.[9] The equivalents in Greek are ?.?. and ?.?., respectively, and in Sinhala .?. (pe.va.) for (peravaru, pera - fore, pre) and ?.?. (pa.va.) for (pasvaru, pass? - after, post). However, noon is rarely abbreviated in any of these languages, noon normally being written in full. In Portuguese, there are two official options and many other used, for example, using 21:45 pm: 21h45 or 21h45min (official ones) or 21:45 or 9:45 p.m. In Irish, a.m. and i.n. are used, standing for ar maidin ("in the morning") and iarnóin ("afternoon") respectively.

Most other languages lack formal abbreviations for "before noon" and "after noon", and their users use the 12-hour clock only orally and informally.[] However, in many languages, such as Russian and Hebrew, informal designations are used, such as "9 in the morning" or "3 in the night".

When abbreviations and phrases are omitted, one may rely on sentence context and societal norms to reduce ambiguity. For example, if one commutes to work at "9:00", 9:00 a.m. may be implied, but if a social dance is scheduled to begin at "9:00", it may begin at 9:00 p.m.

Related conventions

Typography

The terms "a.m." and "p.m." are abbreviations of the Latin ante meridiem (before midday) and post meridiem (after midday). Depending on the style guide referenced, the abbreviations "a.m." and "p.m." are variously written in small capitals ("am" and "pm"), uppercase letters without a period ("AM" and "PM"), uppercase letters with periods, or lowercase letters ("am" and "pm" or, more commonly, "a.m." and "p.m.").

Some stylebooks suggest the use of a space between the number and the a.m. or p.m. abbreviation.[] Style guides recommend not using a.m. and p.m. without a time preceding it,[10] although doing so can be advantageous when describing an event that always happens before or after noon.

The hour/minute separator varies between countries: some use a colon, others use a period (full stop), and still others use the letter h. In many instances using the 24-hour clock, there is no separator between hours and minutes (0800, read as written, i.e. "oh-eight-hundred").

Encoding

In Unicode, there exist symbols for:

"a.m." (HTML ㏂) and
"p.m." (HTML ㏘).

They are meant to be used only with Chinese-Japanese-Korean character sets, as they take up exactly the same space as one Chinese character.

Informal speech and rounding off

It is common to round the time to the nearest five minutes and express the time as so many minutes past an hour, for example, "five past five" or "five to five".15 minutes is often expressed as "a quarter" such as "a quarter past five" and 30 minutes as "half past five" or merely "half five"). The time would be spoken as 8:45, and "(a) quarter to nine".[11] Moreover, in situations where the relevant hour is obvious or has been recently mentioned, speakers can use terms "quarter to" and "half past" to avoid elaborate sentences in particularly informal conversations. These forms are often commonly used in television and radio broadcasts that cover multiple time zones at one-hour intervals.[12]

Instead of meaning 5:30, the "half five" expression is sometimes used to mean 4:30, or "half-way to five", especially for regions such as the American Midwest and other areas that have been particularly influenced by German culture. This meaning follows the pattern choices of many Germanic and Slavic languages, including Dutch, Danish, Russian and Swedish, as well as Hungarian and Finnish.

Formal speech and times to the minute

Minutes may be expressed as an exact number of minutes past the hour specifying the time of day (e.g., 6:32 p.m. is "six thirty-two"). Additionally, when expressing the time using the "past (after)" or "to (before)" formula, it is conventional to choose the number of minutes below 30 (e.g., 6.32 pm is conventionally "twenty-eight minutes to seven" rather than "thirty-two minutes past six").

In spoken English, full hours are often represented by the numbered hour followed by o'clock (10:00 as ten o'clock, 2:00 as two o'clock). This may be followed by the "a.m." or "p.m." designator, though phrases such as in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening, or at night more commonly follow analog-style terms such as o'clock, half past three, and quarter to four. O'clock itself may be omitted, telling a time as four a.m. or four p.m. Minutes ":01" to ":09" are usually pronounced as oh one to oh nine (nought or zero can also be used instead of oh). Minutes ":10" to ":59" are pronounced as their usual number-words. For instance, 6:02 a.m. can be pronounced six oh two a.m. whereas 6:32 a.m. could be told as six thirty-two a.m.

Confusion at noon and midnight

Time according to various conventions
Device or style Midnight
Start of day
Noon Midnight
End of day
Written 24-hour time,
ISO 8601
00:00 12:00 24:00
U.S. Government Printing Office (1953)[13] midnight[a] noon
12 o'clock noon
12 m.
midnight
12:00 p.m.
U.S. Government Printing Office (2000)[14]  
midnight[a]
12 a.m.
noon
12 p.m.
midnight[a]
U.S. Government Printing Office (2008)[15] 12 a.m.
12 midnight[a]
12 p.m.
12 noon
 
12 midnight[a]
Japanese legal convention[dubious ][16] 0:00 a.m. 12:00 a.m. 12:00 p.m.
Chicago Manual of Style[17] noon
12:00 m.
Canadian Press,[18] UK standard[19] Midnight Noon Midnight
Associated Press style[20] -- noon midnight
NIST[2] midnight[b]
12:01 a.m.
noon midnight[b]
11:59 p.m.
  1. ^ a b c d e These styles are ambiguous with respect to whether midnight is at the start or end of each day.
  2. ^ a b NIST recommends using 11:59 p.m. and 12:01 a.m. to disambiguate when needed.

It is not always clear what times "12:00 a.m." and "12:00 p.m." denote. From the Latin words meridies (midday), ante (before) and post (after), the term ante meridiem (a.m.) means before midday and post meridiem (p.m.) means after midday. Since "noon" (midday - meridies (m.)) is neither before nor after itself, the terms a.m. and p.m. do not apply.[2] Although "12 m." was suggested as a way to indicate noon, this is seldom done[17] and also does not resolve the question of how to indicate midnight.

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language states "By convention, 12 AM denotes midnight and 12 PM denotes noon. Because of the potential for confusion, it is advisable to use 12 noon and 12 midnight."[21]

E. G. Richards in his book Mapping Time provided a diagram in which 12 a.m. means noon and 12 p.m. means midnight.[22] The style manual of the United States Government Printing Office used 12 a.m. for noon and 12 p.m. for midnight until its 2008 edition, when it reversed these designations,[14][15] later maintained in its 2016 revision.[23]

Many U.S. style guides, and NIST's "Frequently asked questions (FAQ)" web page,[2] recommend that it is clearest if one refers to "noon" or "12:00 noon" and "midnight" or "12:00 midnight" (rather than to "12:00 p.m." and "12:00 a.m."). The NIST website states that "12 a.m. and 12 p.m. are ambiguous and should not be used."

The Associated Press Stylebook specifies that midnight "is part of the day that is ending, not the one that is beginning."[20] Thus, according to AP style, "midnight Friday" occurs one minute after 11:59 p.m. Friday, not one minute before 12:01 a.m. Friday.

The Canadian Press Stylebook[18] says, "write noon or midnight, not 12 noon or 12 midnight." Phrases such as "12 a.m." and "12 p.m." are not mentioned at all. Britain's National Physical Laboratory "FAQ-Time" web page[19] states "In cases where the context cannot be relied upon to place a particular event, the pair of days straddling midnight can be quoted"; also "the terms 12 a.m. and 12 p.m. should be avoided."

Likewise, some U.S. style guides recommend either clarifying "midnight" with other context clues, such as specifying the two dates between which it falls, or not referring to midnight at all. For an example of the latter method, "midnight" is replaced with "11:59 p.m." for the end of a day or "12:01 a.m." for the start of a day. That has become common in the United States in legal contracts and for airplane, bus, or train schedules, though some schedules use other conventions. Occasionally, when trains run at regular intervals, the pattern may be broken at midnight by displacing the midnight departure one or more minutes, such as to 11:59 p.m. or 12:01 a.m.[24]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Time". The New Encyclopædia Britannica. 28. 1986. pp. 660 2a.
    "Time". Encyclopædia Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Library Edition. Retrieved 2013.(subscription required)
    "The use of AM or PM to designate either noon or midnight can cause ambiguity. To designate noon, either the word noon or 1200 or 12 M should be used. To designate midnight without causing ambiguity, the two dates between which it falls should be given unless the 24-hour notation is used. Thus, midnight may be written: May 15-16 or 2400 May 15 or 0000 May 16."
  2. ^ a b c d "Times of Day FAQs". National Institute of Standards and Technology. 21 September 2016. Retrieved 2018.
  3. ^ Susan Addington (25 August 2016). "Modular Arithmetic". Archived from the original on 4 July 2008. Retrieved 2008.
  4. ^ "The History of Clocks". 13 October 2008. Retrieved 2017.
  5. ^ "Berlin instruments of the old Eg.time of day destination". members.aon.at.
  6. ^ A Walk through Time - Water Clocks Archived 31 May 2008 at the Wayback Machine.
  7. ^ National Library of Australia catalogue entry for Rider's British merlin: for the year of Our Lord God 1795
  8. ^ Lawrence Abrams (13 December 2012). "How to customize how the time is displayed in Windows". Bleeping Computer. Retrieved 2013.
  9. ^ Diccionario panhispánico de dudas, HORA (in Spanish)
  10. ^ Hacker, Diana, A Writer's Reference, six edition, Bedford, St Martin's, Boston, 2007, section M4-c, p.308.
  11. ^ American Heritage Dictionary, 3rd ed. (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1992). s.v. usage note at end of "quarter" entry.
  12. ^ "TVTimes". 21-27 May 1983. Retrieved 2012.
  13. ^ "United States Government Printing Office Style Manual". January 1953. pp. 152 and 267.
  14. ^ a b "U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual" (PDF). page 156.
  15. ^ a b "U.S. Government Printing Office Style Manual - Chapter 12 - Numerals". www.gpo.gov.
  16. ^ "12 0" [12 AM? or 0 PM?]. National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (in Japanese). 15 February 1989. Retrieved 2017.
  17. ^ a b Chicago Manual of Style (17th ed.). University of Chicago Press. 2017. paragraph 9.38. ISBN 978-0-226-28705-8. Although noon can be expressed as 12:00 m. (m = meridies), very few use that form.
  18. ^ a b The Canadian Press Stylebook (11th ed.). 1999. page 288.
  19. ^ a b National Physical Laboratory, FAQ-Time
  20. ^ a b Ed. Norm Goldstein, The Associated Press Stylebook and Briefing on Media Law: with Internet Guide and Glossary, P.161, 177, Perseus Publishing, 2002, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States, LCCN 2002105974, ISBN, 0-7382-0740-3
  21. ^ AM at the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition (2011)
  22. ^ Richards, E. G., Mapping Time: the Calendar and its History (Oxford University Press, 1999), 289.
  23. ^ "New Edition of the GPO Style Manual - govinfo". www.govinfo.gov.
  24. ^ Interim train timetables Archived 26 May 2015 at the Wayback Machine., Abellio Greater Anglia, London, 17 May 2015, pages 7 and 8.

External links


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