1,000,000,000
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1,000,000,000
1000000000
CardinalOne billion (short scale)
One thousand million, or one milliard (long scale)
OrdinalOne billionth (short scale)
Factorization29 · 59
Greek numeral
Roman numeralM
Binary1110111001101011001010000000002
Ternary21202002000210100013
Quaternary3232122302200004
Quinary40220000000005
Senary2431212453446
Octal73465450008
Duodecimal23AA9385412
Hexadecimal3B9ACA0016
VigesimalFCA000020
Base 36GJDGXS36

1,000,000,000 (one billion, short scale; one thousand million or milliard, yard,[1] long scale) is the natural number following 999,999,999 and preceding 1,000,000,001. One billion can also be written as b or bn.[2][3]

In scientific notation, it is written as 1 × 109. The metric prefix giga indicates 1,000,000,000 times the base unit. Its symbol is G.

One billion years may be called an eon/aeon in astronomy or geology.

Previously in British English (but not in American English), the word "billion" referred exclusively to a million millions (1,000,000,000,000). However, this is no longer common, and the word has been used to mean one thousand million (1,000,000,000) for several decades.[4]

The term milliard can also be used to refer to 1,000,000,000; whereas "milliard" is rarely used in English,[5] variations on this name often appear in other languages.

In the South Asian numbering system, it is known as 100 crore or 1 arab.

Visualization of powers of ten from one to 1 billion

Sense of scale

The facts below give a sense of how large 1,000,000,000 (109) is in the context of time according to current scientific evidence:

Time

  • 109 seconds (1 gigasecond) is approximately 31.7 years
  • About 109 minutes ago, the Roman Empire was flourishing and Christianity was emerging. (109 minutes is roughly 1,901 years.)
  • About 109 hours ago, modern human beings and their ancestors were living in the Stone Age (more precisely, the Middle Paleolithic). (109 hours is roughly 114,080 years.)
  • About 109 days ago, Australopithecus, an ape-like creature related to an ancestor of modern humans, roamed the African savannas. (109 days is roughly years.)
  • About 109 months ago, dinosaurs walked the Earth during the late Cretaceous. (109 months is roughly years.)
  • About 109 years—a gigaannus—ago, the first multicellular eukaryotes appeared on Earth.
  • About 109 decades ago, galaxies began to appear in the early Universe which was then 3.799 billion years old. (109 decades is exactly years.)
  • The universe is thought to be about 13.8 × 109 years old.[6]

Distance

  • 109 inches is 15,783 miles (25,400 km), more than halfway around the world and thus sufficient to reach any point on the globe from any other point.
  • 109metres (called a gigametre) is almost three times the distance from the Earth to the Moon.
  • 109kilometres (called a terameter) is over six times the distance from the Earth to the Sun.

Area

  • A billion square inches would be a square about one half mile on a side.
  • A piece of finely woven bed sheet cloth that contained a billion holes would measure about 500 square feet (46 m2), large enough to cover a moderate sized apartment.

Volume

  • There are a billion cubic millimetres in a cubic metre and there are a billion cubic metres in a cubic kilometre.
  • A billion grains of table salt or granulated sugar would occupy a volume of about 2.5 cubic feet (0.071 m3).
  • A billion cubic inches would be a volume comparable to a large commercial building slightly larger than a typical supermarket.

Weight

  • Any object that weighs one billion kilograms (2.2×109 lb) would weigh about as much as 5,525 empty Boeing 747-400s.
  • A cube of iron that weighs one billion pounds (450,000,000 kg) would be 1,521 feet 4 inches (0.28813 mi; 463.70 m) on each side.

Products

Nature

  • A small mountain, slightly larger than Stone Mountain in Georgia, United States, would weigh (have a mass of) a billion tons.
  • There are billions of worker ants in the largest ant colony in the world,[9] which covers almost 4,000 miles (6,400 km) of the Mediterranean coast.
  • In 1804, the world population was one billion.

Count

A is a cube; B consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube A, C consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube B; and D consists of 1000 cubes the size of cube C. Thus there are A-sized cubes in C; and 1,000,000,000 A-sized cubes in D.

Billion-cubes-new.svg

Selected 10-digit numbers (1,000,000,001-9,999,999,999)

1,000,000,001 to 1,999,999,999

2,000,000,000 to 2,999,999,999

  • 2,038,074,743 - 100,000,000th prime number
  • 2,147,483,647 - 8th Mersenne prime and the largest signed 32-bit integer.
  • 2,147,483,648 - 231
  • 2,176,782,336 - 612
  • 2,214,502,422 - 6th primary pseudoperfect number.[18]
  • 2,357,947,691 - 119
  • 2,562,890,625 - 158
  • 2,971,215,073 - 11th Fibonacci prime (47th Fibonacci number).

3,000,000,000 to 3,999,999,999

  • 3,166,815,962 - 26th Pell number.[14]
  • 3,192,727,797 - 24th Motzkin number.[13]
  • 3,323,236,238 - 31st Wedderburn-Etherington number.[16]
  • 3,405,691,582 - hexadecimal CAFEBABE; used as a placeholder in programming.
  • 3,405,697,037 - hexadecimal CAFED00D; used as a placeholder in programming.
  • 3,486,784,401 - 320
  • 3,735,928,559 - hexadecimal DEADBEEF; used as a placeholder in programming.

4,000,000,000 to 4,999,999,999

  • 4,294,836,223 - 16th Carol number.[11]
  • 4,294,967,291 - Largest prime 32-bit unsigned integer.
  • 4,294,967,295 - Maximum 32-bit unsigned integer (FFFFFFFF16), perfect totient number, product of the five prime Fermat numbers through .
  • 4,294,967,296 - 232
  • 4,294,967,297 - , the first composite Fermat number.
  • 4,295,098,367 - 15th Kynea number.[12]
  • 4,807,526,976 - 48th Fibonacci number.

5,000,000,000 to 5,999,999,999

  • 5,159,780,352 - 129
  • 5,354,228,880 - superior highly composite number, smallest number divisible by all the numbers 1 through 24
  • 5,784,634,181 - 13th alternating factorial.[19]

6,000,000,000 to 6,999,999,999

7,000,000,000 to 7,999,999,999

  • 7,645,370,045 - 27th Pell number.[14]
  • 7,778,742,049 - 49th Fibonacci number.
  • 7,862,958,391 - 32nd Wedderburn-Etherington number.[16]

8,000,000,000 to 8,999,999,999

9,000,000,000 to 9,999,999,999

References

  1. ^ "Yard". Investopedia. Retrieved 2017.
  2. ^ "figures". The Economist Style Guide (11th ed.). The Economist. 2015.
  3. ^ "6.5 Abbreviating 'million' and 'billion'". English Style Guide: A handbook for authors and translators in the European Commission (PDF) (8th ed.). European Commission. 3 November 2017. p. 32.
  4. ^ "How many is a billion?". OxfordDictionaries.com. Retrieved 2017.
  5. ^ "billion,thousand million,milliard". Google Ngram Viewer. Retrieved 2017.
  6. ^ "Cosmic Detectives". European Space Agency. 2 April 2013.
  7. ^ Panken, Eli (27 July 2016). "Apple Announces It Has Sold One Billion iPhones". NBCNews.com. Retrieved 2017.
  8. ^ Seethamaram, Deep (27 July 2016). "Facebook Posts Strong Profit and Revenue Growth". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2017.
  9. ^ Burke, Jeremy (16 June 2015). "How the World Became A Giant Ant Colony". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 2017.
  10. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A003617 (Smallest n-digit prime)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
  11. ^ a b Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A093112 (a(n) = (2^n-1)^2 - 2)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
  12. ^ a b Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A093069 (a(n) = (2^n + 1)^2 -)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
  13. ^ a b c Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A001006 (Motzkin numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
  14. ^ a b c Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A000129 (Pell numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
  15. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A000110 (Bell or exponential numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
  16. ^ a b c Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A001190 (Wedderburn-Etherington numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
  17. ^ a b Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A003226 (Automorphic numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation. Retrieved .
  18. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A054377 (Primary pseudoperfect numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
  19. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A005165 (Alternating factorials)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
  20. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A004490 (Colossally abundant numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
  21. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A002201 (Superior highly composite numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
  22. ^ Sloane, N. J. A. (ed.). "Sequence A000396 (Perfect numbers)". The On-Line Encyclopedia of Integer Sequences. OEIS Foundation.
  23. ^ "Greatest prime number with 10 digits". Wolfram Alpha. Retrieved 2017.

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