In the early 1980s Yugoslav Railways ordered several passenger electric multiple-unit trains for Belgrade, Novi Sad, Skopje and Titograd sections (?TP). At half the price offered by a domestic Yugoslav competitor, J? series 410 EMU built by Go?a, the Soviet ER31 (Russian: 31) built by R?gas Vagonb?ves R?pn?ca (RVR) was chosen. The first unit was introduced in traffic at September 25, 1980. EMU was designated as J? 412/416.
From 1980 to 1990 and with the breakup of Yugoslavia, 50 EMU train sets were delivered from the Soviet Union to Yugoslav railways. ?TP Belgrade and ?TP Novi Sad received 43 sets, ?TP Titograd received six, and ?TP Skopje received four sets of 412/416 EMU.
During the 1990s nine more sets were ordered, but due the sanctions on FR Yugoslavia, only three were delivered while six were sold to Bulgarian State Railways (BD?). EMU for BD? was designated by RVR as ER33 (33), in Bulgaria - BD? class 33; these items were more simple in design. The last two train sets 412/416 for Serbia had more powerful traction motors and was designated by RVR as ER35 (35).
The EMU train set consists from four sections: two cab-motor cars (412) and two trailer cars (416). The trains could be controlled and operated only from cab cars (412).
This train set utilises 25 kV/50 Hz AC.
After the dissolution of Yugoslavia, class 412/416 EMU train sets continued service with the railways of Serbia, Montenegro and the Republic of Macedonia.
Today Serbian Railways are the biggest operator of 412 class of all Yugoslav successor states. The main depot for this class is at Zemun.
In 2019 there are 24 EMU train sets operational. Nine sets were overhauled with help of Belgrade city, being used with BG Voz - urban rail system that is operated by the public transit system of Belgrade. The rest of EMU train sets traffic on inter-city lines toward Prijepolje, ?id, Para?in and Zaje?ar.
Montenegro Railways have received six class 412/416 EMU train sets which have been purchased by Yugoslav Railways for ?TP Titograd in 1985. In 2015, there are five operational train sets, with two recently overhauled. Main depot is at Podgorica. One train set was destroyed in the Bio?e disaster in 2006.