Empire of i Vi?t
i Vi?t Qu?c ()
i Vi?t during Lý Dynasty in 1100
i Vi?t (Annam) during the Later Lê Dynasty in 1757
|Capital||Hoa L??ông KinhThanh Hóa|
|Religion||Buddhism (State religion from 968 to 1400)|
Confucianism (State ideolody from 1428 to 1883)
Vietnamese folk religion
|King or Emperor|
|?inh B? L?nh|
o End of Third Chinese domination of Vietnam
|17 February 1804|
|1000||117,000 km2 (45,000 sq mi)|
|1492||620,000 km2 (240,000 sq mi)|
|1770||430,000 km2 (170,000 sq mi)|
|Currency||Vietnamese v?n, banknote|
|Today part of|
|History of Vietnam
i Vi?t (, IPA: [?âj? vì?t]; literally Great Viet) was a Vietnamese kingdom in Southeast Asia from the 10th century AD to the early 19th century. Its early name, i C? Vi?t () , was established in 968 by Vietnamese ruler ?inh B? L?nh () after he ended the Anarchy of the 12 Warlords, until the beginning of the reign of Lý Thánh Tông () (r. 1054-1072), the third emperor of the Lý dynasty. i Vi?t lasted until the reign of Gia Long () (r. 1802-1820), the first emperor of the Nguy?n dynasty, when he changed the name to Vi?t Nam. i Vi?t is the second-longest used name for Vietnam after "V?n Lang" (). Its history is divided into successive reigns by eight royal dynasties: ?inh (?) (968-980), Early Lê () (980-1009), Lý (?) (1009-1226), Tr?n (?) (1226-1400), H? (?) (1400-1407), Later Lê () (1428-1789), the coup d'état M?c (?) (1527-1677) and the peasant-rebellion Tây S?n ().
For a thousand years, the area of what is now Northern Vietnam (Jiaozhi, ) was ruled by a succession of Chinese regimes. In the late 9th century, the collapsing Tang dynasty was unable to retain control of the area, then known as Jinghai Jun. It lost control in 880 due to a series of military mutinies, local rebellions, and invasion by Nanzhao caused by tension between the local Vietnamese, aboriginals and Chinese political practices, influence, and customs. In 905, the indigenous Viet people centered around the Red River Delta became de facto independent under the rule of the local Khúc clan, and then the kingdom of the Ngô family. However, the royal power remained weak, resulting in a period of civil war between 12 war lords. In 968, ?inh B? L?nh reunited the country under the name of i C? Vi?t and claimed the title Hoàng (emperor). In 1010, King Lý Thái T? relocated the Vietnamese capital from Hoa L? to Th?ng Long (modern-day Hanoi) and ushered in an era of flourishing Vietnamese Buddhism, peace and prosperity until the rise of the Neo-Confucian scholar class and administrative bureaucracy in the late 14th century. During 13th century, i Vi?t successful repelled multiple Mongol invasions. It was briefly conquered by the Chinese Ming dynasty in the early 15th century, but eventually regained independence in 1427 under the leadership of Lê L?i, the peasant rebel who liberated i Vi?t from Ming rule.
During the reign of Lê Thánh Tông, i Vi?t reached its golden age. However, after his death in 1497, the kingdom swiftly declined, entered a period of destabilization known as the Southern and Northern courts which began in 1533 and ended in 1592. i Vi?t was again divided from 1627 to 1775 when two rival families, Tr?nh and Nguy?n fought and competed against each other to contest control of the court. The Tây S?n uprising eventually took control of the country in late 18th century, but was overthrown by Gia Long in 1802.
Throughout its long existence from 968 to 1804, i Vi?t flourished and acquired significant power in the region. The kingdom slowly annexed Champa's and Cambodia's territories, expanded Vietnamese territories to the south and west. Traditional beliefs, Confucian study, literature, trade and commerce flourished in i Vi?t and the capital in modern-day Hanoi was a center of trade and industry, its ruins, Imperial Citadel of Th?ng Long is the major UNESCO World Heritage Site in Vietnam. The kingdom created great achievements in Vietnamese art and culture, it has left a substantial legacy to modern Vietnam; much of modern Vietnamese culture, language, customs, social norms and nationalism.
The indigenous inhabitants in Northern Vietnam of ancient kingdom of Nanyue (c. 204 - 111 BC) were known as the L?c Vi?t (Luoyue). In 111 BC, Western Han dynasty (c. 202 BC - 9 AD) conquered Nanyue and incorporated the kingdom into Chinese rules, as known as Giao Ch? (). However until the 7th century, the Jiao region's population were largely still un-Sinicized indigenous people. In 679, the Tang dynasty created Protectorate General to Pacify the South and a military government. In late 9th century, local Viet chieftains and highland people in central Vietnam, in a attempt to overthrow the Tang Chinese influences in the region, allied with Nanzhao. Repeated Nanzhao attack and local rebels from 854 to 866 in Annan ousted the Chinese until Gao Pian recaptured it in 866. In 880, the army in Annan mutinied, took the city of i La, and forced the military commissioner Zeng Gun to flee, ending de facto Chinese control in Vietnam.
In 905, a local Vietnamese chieftain Khúc Th?a D? was elected as jiedushi (military governor) of T?nh H?i circuit amid the collapsing of Tang Empire. This notable event was widely regarded by Vietnamese historians as the reclaim of Vietnamese Independence after a thousand years of Imperial Chinese rules. This independence was more secured by the naval battle on B?ch ng river in 938 and the kingdom of T?nh H?i under Ngô monarchs (939-965). However, the royal rule remained weak. From 948 to 968, Vietnamese warlords began fighting each other to take control the country, as known as Anarchy of the 12 Warlords period.
In 968, Duke ?inh B? L?nh (r. 968-979) defeated all warlords, reunited the country and claim himself emperor. He renamed the country to officially as i C? Vi?t (); c? (?) in the name of Gautama Buddha (·). The term "Vi?t" is the same as the Chinese word "Yue, a name in ancient times of various non-Chinese groups who lived in what is now northern/southern China and northern Vietnam; so it means "Great Buddhist Viet". In 1010 Lý Thái T?, founder of the Lý Dynasty, issued the "Edict on the Transfer of the Capital" and moved the capital of i C? Vi?t to Th?ng Long (Hanoi) and built the Imperial Citadel of Th?ng Long where the Hanoi Citadel would later stand.
i Vi?t is a strategic location. By invading i Vi?t, the Mongols would be able to bypass the Himalaya and drive deep into South East Asia. However, the Mongolians of the Yuan Dynasty invaded i Vi?t three times and were defeated. The last battle, the Battle of B?ch ng (1288), was a decisive defeat for the Mongolians. i Vi?t's perseverance thwarted Mongolian attempts to conquer South East Asia and prevented the third Mongolian invasion of Japan, as the Mongol navy was completely destroyed during B?ch ng. This became one the greatest victories in Vietnamese military history.
In 1400, the founder of the H? dynasty, H? Quý Ly usurped the throne and changed the country's name to "i Ng?u" (), but his dynasty was overthrown by the invading Ming Empire who annexed i Ngu in 1407 for 20 years until 1427. The Ming renamed the area "Giao Ch? (or Jiaozhi)". In 1428, Lê L?i, the founder of the Lê dynasty, liberated Giao Ch? and restored the kingdom of i Vi?t. During the reign of Lê Thánh Tông (r. 1460-1497), he expanded i Vi?t's border and influences from Ava (Myanmar) to the Mekong Delta.
Since 16th century, the name "Vi?t Nam" gradually became more common and popular in literature and government's officials. The name "i Vi?t" came to end when the Nguy?n dynasty took power. The country's name was officially changed yet again, in 1804, this time to "Vi?t Nam" () by Gia Long.
Started in 968 and ended in 1804.