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A with breve.svg

? (upper case) or ? (lower case), usually referred to in English as A-breve, is a letter used in standard Romanian, Vietnamese and Chuvash orthographies. In Romanian, it is used to represent the mid-central unrounded vowel, while in Vietnamese it represents the short a sound. It is the second letter of both the Romanian, Vietnamese, and the pre-1972 Malaysian alphabets, after A.

?/? is also used in several languages for transliteration of Bulgarian letter ?/?.

Romanian

The sound represented in Romanian by ? is a mid-central vowel , i.e. schwa. Unlike in English, Catalan and French but like in Indonesian (using ? (a with macron) rather than ?), Bulgarian, Albanian and Afrikaans, the vowel can be stressed. There are words in which it is the only vowel, such as "m?r" /m?r/ (apple) or "v?d" /v?d/ (I see). Additionally, some words that also contain other vowels can have the stress on ? like "c?r?ile" /'k?rt?sile/ (the books) and "od?i" /o'd?j/ (rooms).

Vietnamese

? is the 2nd letter of the Vietnamese alphabet and represents /a/. Because Vietnamese is a tonal language this letter may have any one of the 5 tonal symbols above or below it (or even no accent at all, since the Vietnamese first tone is identified by the lack of accent marks). See Vietnamese phonology.

  • ? ?
  • ? ?
  • ? ?
  • ? ?
  • ? ?

Malay

The sound represented in pre-1972 Malaysian orthography by ? is a vowel. It occurred in the middle and final syllable of the root word such "mat?" /mat?/ (eye) and "di?m" /di?m/ (quiet) The letter was replaced in 1972 with a in the New Rumi Spelling.

Khmer

? used in Khmer romanization, e.g. pre?h ri?ci?naacak kampuci? (Kingdom of Cambodia).

Pronunciation respelling for English

In some systems for Pronunciation respelling for English including American Heritage Dictionary notation, ? represents the short A sound, .

Character mappings

Character information
Preview ă Ă
Unicode name LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH BREVE LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH BREVE
Encodings decimal hex decimal hex
Unicode 259 U+0103 258 U+0102
UTF-8 196 131 C4 83 196 130 C4 82
Numeric character reference ă ă Ă Ă
Named character reference ă Ă
ISO 8859-1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16 259 103 258 102

See also

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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