? (upper case) or ? (lower case), usually referred to in English as A-breve, is a letter used in standard Romanian, Vietnamese and Chuvash orthographies. In Romanian, it is used to represent the mid-central unrounded vowel, while in Vietnamese it represents the short a sound. It is the second letter of both the Romanian, Vietnamese, and the pre-1972 Malaysian alphabets, after A.
The sound represented in Romanian by ? is a mid-central vowel , i.e. schwa. Unlike in English, Catalan and French but like in Indonesian (using ? (a with macron) rather than ?), Bulgarian, Albanian and Afrikaans, the vowel can be stressed. There are words in which it is the only vowel, such as "m?r" /m?r/ (apple) or "v?d" /v?d/ (I see). Additionally, some words that also contain other vowels can have the stress on ? like "c?r?ile" /'k?rt?sile/ (the books) and "od?i" /o'd?j/ (rooms).
? is the 2nd letter of the Vietnamese alphabet and represents /a/. Because Vietnamese is a tonal language this letter may have any one of the 5 tonal symbols above or below it (or even no accent at all, since the Vietnamese first tone is identified by the lack of accent marks). See Vietnamese phonology.
The sound represented in pre-1972 Malaysian orthography by ? is a vowel. It occurred in the middle and final syllable of the root word such "mat?" /mat?/ (eye) and "di?m" /di?m/ (quiet) The letter was replaced in 1972 with a in the New Rumi Spelling.
? used in Khmer romanization, e.g. pre?h ri?ci?naacak kampuci? (Kingdom of Cambodia).
|Unicode name||LATIN SMALL LETTER A WITH BREVE||LATIN CAPITAL LETTER A WITH BREVE|
|UTF-8||196 131||C4 83||196 130||C4 82|
|Numeric character reference||ă
|Named character reference||ă||Ă|
|ISO 8859-1, 2, 3, 4, 9, 10, 14, 15, 16||259||103||258||102|