%C4%80ytam
Get %C4%80ytam essential facts below. View Videos or join the %C4%80ytam discussion. Add %C4%80ytam to your PopFlock.com topic list for future reference or share this resource on social media.
%C4%80ytam
?
Visarga
Diacritics in Latin & Greek
accent
acute´
double acute?
grave`
double grave ?
circumflex^
caron, há?ek?
breve?
inverted breve  ̑  
cedilla¸
diaeresis, umlaut¨
dot·
palatal hook  ?
retroflex hook  ?
hook above, d?u h?i ?
horn ?
iota subscript ͅ 
macron?
ogonek, nosin??
perispomene ͂ 
overring?
underring?
rough breathing?
smooth breathing?
Marks sometimes used as diacritics
apostrophe'
bar
colon:
comma,
full stop/period.
hyphen?
prime?
tilde~
Diacritical marks in other scripts
Arabic diacritics
Early Cyrillic diacritics
kamora ҄
pokrytie ?
titlo ?
Gurmukh? diacritics
Hebrew diacritics
Indic diacritics
anusvara? ? ?
chandrabindu? ?
nuqta?
virama? ? ? ? ?
visarga? ?
IPA diacritics
Japanese diacritics
dakuten ?
handakuten ?
Khmer diacritics
Syriac diacritics
Thai diacritics
Related
Dotted circle?
Punctuation marks
Logic symbols

Visarga (IAST: visarga) (Sanskrit: ?) means "sending forth, discharge". In Sanskrit phonology (?ik), visarga (also called, equivalently, visarjan?ya by earlier grammarians) is the name of a phone, [h], written as:

Transliteration Symbol
ISO 15919 / IAST ?
Harvard-Kyoto ⟨H⟩

Visarga is an allophone of /r/ and /s/ in pausa (at the end of an utterance). Since /-s/ is a common inflectional suffix (of nominative singular, second person singular, etc.), visarga appears frequently in Sanskrit texts. In the traditional order of Sanskrit sounds, visarga and anusv?ra appear between vowels and stop consonants.

The precise pronunciation of visarga in Vedic texts may vary between kh?s. Some pronounce a slight echo of the preceding vowel after the aspiration: a? will be pronounced [?h?], and i? will be pronounced [ih?]. Visarga is not to be confused with colon.

Types

The visarga is commonly found in writing, resembling the punctuation mark of colon or as two tiny circles one above the other. This form is retained by most Indian scripts.

According to Sanskrit phonologists, the visarga has two optional allophones, namely (jihv?m?l?ya or the guttural visarga) and (upadhm?n?ya or the fricative visarga). The former may be pronounced before ⟨?⟩, ⟨?⟩, and the latter before ⟨?⟩, and ⟨?⟩, as in ? (tava pit?maha? ka, 'who is your grandfather?'), ? (pak?i?a? khe uayante, 'birds fly in the sky'), ? (bho? p?hi, 'sir, save me'), and ? (tapa?phalam, 'result of penances'). They were written with various symbols, e.g. X-like symbol vs sideways 3-like symbol above flipped sideways one, or both as two crescent-shaped semi-circles one above the other, facing the top and bottom respectively.[1] Distinct signs for jihavamul?ya and upadhman?ya exists in Kannada, Tibetan, Sharada, Brahmi and Lantsa scripts.

Other Indic scripts

Burmese

In the Burmese alphabet, the visarga (variously called ? shay ga pauk, ? wizza nalone pauk, or ? shay zi and represented with two dots to the right of the letter as ), when used with joined to a letter, creates the high tone.

Japanese

The Visarga mark used by Motoori.

Motoori Norinaga invented a mark for visarga which he used in a book about Indian orthography.

Javanese

In the Javanese alphabet, the visarga (known as the wignyan (?)) is represented by a two curls to the right of a syllable as ?: the first curl is short and circular, and the second curl is long. It adds a /-h/ after a vowel.

Kannada

In the Kannada alphabet, the visarga (which is called visarga) is represented with two small circles to the right of a letter ?. It brings an "a?" sound to the end of the letter.

Khmer

In the Khmer alphabet, the visarga (known as the re?hm?kh (, "shining face")) indicates an aspirated /?/ sound added after a syllable. It is represented with two small circles at the right of a letter as ?, and it should not be confused with the similar-looking y?kôle?kp?nt? (?, "pair of dots"), which indicates a short vowel followed by a glottal stop like their equivalent visarga marks in the Thai and Lao scripts.

Lao

In the Lao alphabet, the visarga is represented with two small curled circles to the right of a letter as . As in the neighboring related Thai script, it indicates a glottal stop after the vowel.

Tamil

In the Tamil alphabet, similar to visarga (which is called ?yutha e?uttu (? ?), ?ytam (), muppaal pulli, thaninilai, aghenam), is represented with three small circles to the right of a letter as ?. It represented a now-obsolete /h/ or /x/ sound that has either become silent, or pronounced as , /(a)k-/ or /-ka/ in careful speech. Like Sanskrit, it cannot add on to any letter and add aspiration to them. It should be always placed between a single short vowel(?, ?, ?, ?, ?) and a hard consonant (, , , , , ) for example ? (ahthu), ? (ehgu).

Telugu

In the Telugu alphabet, the visarga (which is called visarga) is represented with two small circles to the right of a letter ?. It brings an "ah" sound to the end of the letter.

Thai

In the Thai alphabet, the visarga (known as the visanchani (?) or nom nang thangkhu ()) is represented with two small curled circles to the right of a letter as , or hok nuk huk (). It represents a glottal stop that follows the affected vowel.

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

%C4%80ytam
 



 



 
Music Scenes