%C3%99 (cuneiform)
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%C3%99 Cuneiform
Approximate shape, and size of "compacted" Ù-(must add horizontal stroke, B001ellst.png, after "left vertical").
(relatively ancient form of ù)
Use of ù at start of Line 3-(directly below LUGAL-(king) of line 2).
Early 2nd millennium BC clay tablet of King Zimri-Lim of Mari.

The cuneiform ù sign ('u, no. 3'), is found in both the 14th century BC Amarna letters and the Epic of Gilgamesh. Its use is as a conjunction, (translated as for example: and, but, else, until, etc.), but rarely it is substituted for alphabetic u, but that vowel u is typically represented by 'u, no. 2', (u prime), ú; occasionally 'u, no. 1', (u (cuneiform)), C+B-Persia-Cuneiform10.PNG, (mostly used for a conjunction, and numeral 10), is also substituted for the "alphabetic u".

The use of ù is often as a "stand-alone" conjunction, for example between two listed items, but it is used especially as a segue in text, (example Amarna letters), when changing topics, or when inserting segue-pausing positions. In the Amarna letters, it is also commonly immediately followed by a preposition: a-na, or i-na, used as "...And, to....", or "...And, in...."; also "...But, for....", etc. This usage with a preposition is also a better example of the segue usage.

Of the three u's, by graphemic analysis (Buccellati, 1979), the commonness is as follows:[1]

ù (cuneiform), conjunction only (but also rare, for alphabetic "u")
ú (cuneiform), alphabetic 'u'
u (cuneiform), alphabetic (minor), 10, conjunction (highest use)

Both "ù (cuneiform)" and ú are in the top 25 most used signs,[2] but E (cuneiform) and "u (cuneiform)" are not; other vowels (or combination) in the 25 are: a (cuneiform), i (cuneiform), and ia (cuneiform), (ia which has a secondary use as suffix, "-mine", or "my", thus in top 25 most used signs). Suffix "iYa" is used in the Middle East\Southwest Asia at present day to end placenames, or other names: "My Xxxxx".

Usage numbers of ù in the Epic of Gilgamesh is as follows: ù-(84);[3] Buccellati's usage numbers (330 Amarna letters) is (1848).[4]

Amarna letter varieties

Scribal variants of ù exist, and especially in the Amarna letters. At least one Amarna letter, EA 367, (Pharaoh to Endaruta), has an atypical variant, but the entire letter has somewhat unusual cuneiform signs. (gáb(káp)-(4 uses), tá, and a variant form of um) ("um" also =?up, also in the letter, for "clay tablet"-(tuppu), etc.)

  • Cuneiform-Ù--(EA 367-scribe variant)---C+B-Babylonia-CuneiformImage15.PNG-(plus added-C+B-Persia-Cuneiform10.PNG, covering up the (2)-3 horizontals, (and one added horizontal), as a complete replacement, instead of the horizontals!). The resultant is: wedge+Vertical+wedge+Vertical! (takes up same amount of clay tablet line-space)

Partial list of signs beginning with wedge (u)

Partial list of signs beginning with u-(wedge), from the Epic of Gilgamesh (Parpola, 1971), and the Amarna letters:

  • Cuneiform-u--Sign No. 1---C+B-Persia-Cuneiform10.PNG-(conjunction use, and "10"; occasionally for u)
  • Cuneiform-AMAR, ?ur, zur--Sign No. 2---Cuneiform UL.png; sumerogram: See!-(AMAR) (Akkadian language, "am?ru", to see, behold)[5]-(Note: minus the vertical stroke)
  • Cuneiform-di--Sign No. 3---C+B-Babylonia-CuneiformImage15.PNG
  • Cuneiform-ki--Sign No. 4---C+B-Assyria-CuneiformImage5.PNG
  • Cuneiform-mi-(Sign 5)
  • Cuneiform-?i--Sign No. 6---C+B-Persia-Cuneiform10.PNGC+B-Persia-Cuneiform1.PNGC+B-Babylonia-CuneiformImage2.PNG
  • Cuneiform-?i, lim, or IGI ("in 'face' of", "before" sumerogram)--Sign No. 6---Abdi-Ashirta written in cuneiform.PNG--(Abdi-Ashirta), Abdi-A-?i-iR-Ta, (wedge-sign, 4th sign)
  • Cuneiform-u--Sign No. u-1---C+B-Persia-Cuneiform10.PNG
  • Cuneiform-ú--Sign No. u-2---E-bitu Cuneiform.svg-(approximate: only 3 verticals for ú, (the common alphabetic u))
  • Cuneiform-ù-(u-3)--Sign No. 7---C+B-Assyria-CuneiformImage5.PNG
    • (With an added horizontal, B001ellst.png, after the left vertical)

Also:

References

  1. ^ Buccellati, Giorgio, (Ugarit-Forschungen 11, 1979). Comparative Graphemic Analysis of Old Babylonian and Western Akkadian, pp. 95-100, Graph, p. 96.
  2. ^ Buccellati, (Ugarit-Forschungen 11, 1979). Comparative Graphemic Analysis of Old Babylonian and Western Akkadian, pp. 95-100, Graph, p. 96.
  3. ^ Parpola, 197l. The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, Sign List, pp. 155-165, no. 455, p. 163.
  4. ^ Buccellati, Giorgio, 1979, (Ugarit-Forschungen 11, 1979). Comparative Graphemic Analysis of Old Babylonian and Western Akkadian, pp. 95-100, Graph, p. 99.
  5. ^ Parpola, 197l. The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, Glossary, pp. 119-145, am?ru, p. 120.
  • Buccellati, Giorgio, (Ugarit-Forschungen 11, 1979). Comparative Graphemic Analysis of Old Babylonian and Western Akkadian, pp. 95-100.
  • Moran, William L. 1987, 1992. The Amarna Letters. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1987, 1992. 393 pages.(softcover, ISBN 0-8018-6715-0)
  • Parpola, 197l. The Standard Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh, Parpola, Simo, Neo-Assyrian Text Corpus Project, c 1997, Tablet I thru Tablet XII, Index of Names, Sign List, and Glossary-(pp. 119-145), 165 pages.
  • Ugarit Forschungen (Neukirchen-Vluyn). UF-11 (1979) honors Claude Schaeffer, with about 100 articles in 900 pages. pp 95, ff, "Comparative Graphemic Analysis of Old Babylonian and Western Akkadian", author Giorgio Buccellati, ( i.e. Ugarit and Amarna (letters), three others, Mari, OB,Royal, OB,non-Royal letters).


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