Subjunctive Mood
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Subjunctive Mood

English

Etymology

From subjunctive (from Latin subjunctivus, from sub- ("under") + junctus ("joined"), perfect passive participle of jungere ("to join") + adjective suffix -ivus) + mood (from Latin modus).

Noun

subjunctive mood (plural subjunctive moods)

  1. (grammar) Mood expressing an action or state which is hypothetical or anticipated rather than actual, including wishes and commands.
    Synonyms: conjunctive, conjunctive mode, conjunctive mood, subjunctive, subjunctive mode

Usage notes

Subjunctive mood is used much more in some other languages, such as Spanish and Latin, than it is in English. Apart from the third-person singular form without the suffix -(e)s (I want that he go), modern English has only one verb that has mutually distinguishable indicative and subjunctive forms — be.

  • be (subjunctive present, all persons except for archaic second-person singular)
I suggest that that measure be taken.
It is important that we all be at the meeting.
  • beest (archaic second-person singular, subjunctive present)
1610-1611, William Shakespeare, "The Tempest", in Mr. William Shakespeares Comedies, Histories, & Tragedies: Published According to the True Originall Copies (First Folio), London: Printed by Isaac Iaggard, and Ed[ward] Blount, published 1623, OCLC 606515358, [Act III, scene ii]:
Stephano!--If thou beest Stephano, touch me, and speak to me; for I am Trinculo:--be not afeared--thy good friend Trinculo.
  • wert (archaic second-person singular, subjunctive past)
The Holy Bible, [...] (King James Version), imprinted at London: By Robert Barker, [...], 1611, OCLC 964384981, Job 8:6: "If thou wert pure and upright; surely now he would awake for thee, [...] ".
The Holy Bible, [...] (King James Version), imprinted at London: By Robert Barker, [...], 1611, OCLC 964384981, Revelation 3:15: "I know thy works, that thou art neither cold nor hot: I would thou wert cold or hot.".
  • were (subjunctive present, all persons except for archaic second-person singular)
If John were here, he would know what to do.
If they were in trouble, I would help them.

See also the conjugation at be.

Translations

Further reading


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