Style
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Style
See also: stylé and -style

English

Etymology

The noun is derived from Middle English stile, stel, stele, stiel, stiele, stil, still, stille, styele, style, styill, styll, styyl ("writing tool, stylus; piece of written work; characteristic mode of expression, particularly one regarded as high quality; demeanour, manner, way of life; person's designation or title; stem of a plant; period of time"),[1] from Old French style, estile, stil, stile (modern French style), or from Medieval Latin stylus, both from Latin stilus ("pointed instrument, pale, spike, stake; writing tool, stylus; act of setting down in writing, composition; characteristic mode of expression, style; stem of a plant"), from Proto-Indo-European *steyg- ("to be sharp; to pierce, prick, puncture, stab; to goad").[2][3]

The English word is cognate with Catalan estil ("engraving tool, stylus; gnomon; manner of doing something, style; fashionable skill, grace"), German Stiel ("handle; stalk"), Italian stilo ("needle, stylus; fountain pen; beam; gnomon; part of pistil, style"), Occitan estil, Portuguese estilo ("writing tool, stylus; manner of doing something, style"), Spanish estilo ("writing tool, stylus; manner of doing something, style; fashionable skill, grace; part of pistil, style").[2]

The verb is derived from the noun.[4]

Pronunciation

Noun

style (countable and uncountable, plural styles)

  1. Senses relating to a thin, pointed object.
    1. (historical) A sharp stick used for writing on clay tablets or other surfaces; a stylus; (by extension, obsolete) an instrument used to write with ink; a pen.
    2. A tool with a sharp point used in engraving; a burin, a graver, a stylet, a stylus.
      • 1821, James Townley, chapter I, in Illustrations of Biblical Literature, Exhibiting the History and Fate of the Sacred Writings, from the Earliest Period to the Present Century; [...], volume I, London: Printed [by B. Crompton] for Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, [...], OCLC 498430079, part I (From the Giving of the Law to the Birth of Christ), page 27:
        From Job xix. 24. it appears to have been usual in his day, to write or engrave upon Plates of Lead, which might easily be done with a Pen, or Graver, or Style of Iron, or other hard metal.
    3. The gnomon or pin of a sundial, the shadow of which indicates the hour.
      • 1697, Joseph Moxon, "Operat[ioni] II. To Describe a Dyal upon a Horizontal Plane.", in Mechanick Dyalling: Teaching any Man, though of an Ordinary Capacity and Unlearned in Mathematicks, to Draw a True Sun-dial on any Given Plane, [...], 3rd edition, London: Printed for James Moxon, [...], OCLC 57050730, page 17:
        Last of all fit a Triangular Iron, whose angular point being laid to the Center of the Dyal Plane, one side must agree with the Substilar Line, and its other side with the Stilar Line; so is the Stile made. And this Stile you must erect perpendicularly over the Substilar Line on the Dyal Plane, and there fix it. Then is your Dyal finished.
    4. (botany) The stalk that connects the stigma(s) to the ovary in a pistil of a flower.
      Synonym: stylet
      • 1751, John Hill, A General Natural History: Or, New and Accurate Descriptions of the Animals, Vegetables, and Minerals of the Different Parts of the World; [...], London: Printed for Thomas Osborne, [...], OCLC 955791592, page 268:
        The calyx of Theophrasta is a small, permanent perianthium, divided into five obtuse segments, making obtuse angles also with one another: [...] the style is subulated, and shorter than the corolla: the stigma is acute.
    5. (surgery) A kind of surgical instrument with a blunt point, used for exploration.
      Synonym: stylet
    6. (zoology) A small, thin, pointed body part.
      Synonym: stylet
      1. (entomology) A long, slender, bristle-like process near the anal region.
        the anal styles of insects
  2. (by extension from sense 1.1) A particular manner of expression in writing or speech, especially one regarded as good.
    • 1678, John Bunyan, "The Author's Apology for His Book", in The Pilgrim's Progress from This World, to That which is to Come: [...], London: Printed for Nath[aniel] Ponder [...], OCLC 228725984; reprinted in The Pilgrim's Progress (The Noel Douglas Replicas), London: Noel Douglas, [...], 1928, OCLC 5190338:
      May I not write in such a stile as this? / In such a method too, and yet not miss / Mine end, thy good? why may it not be done?
    • 1752 January 21 (indicated as 1751 Old Style), Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield, "Letter CCVIII", in Letters Written by the Late Right Honourable Philip Dormer Stanhope, Earl of Chesterfield, to His Son, Philip Stanhope, Esq; [...] In Four Volumes, volume III, 6th edition, London: Published by Mrs. Eugenia Stanhope, [...]; printed for J[ames] Dodsley, [...], published 1775, OCLC 1098843824, page 113:
      Read Lord Bolingbroke's [book] with great attention, as well as to the style as to the matter. I wish you could form yourself such a style in every language. Style is the dress of thoughts, and a well-dressed thought, like a well-dressed man, appears to great advantage.
    • 1790, Conyers Middleton, "To the Right Honorable John Lord Hervey, Lord Keeper of His Majesty's Privy Seal", in The History of the Life of M. Tullius Cicero, volume I, new edition, Basel: Printed for J. J. Tourneisen [i.e., Johann Jakob Thurneysen]; and J. L. Legrand, OCLC 938165873, page iii:
      The public will naturally expect, that in chusing a Patron for the Life of Cicero, I should address myself to some person of illustrious rank, distinguished by his parts and eloquence, and bearing a principal share in the great affairs of the Nation; who, according to the usual style of Dedications, might be the proper subject of a comparison with the Hero of my piece.
    • 1806 February, Isaac D'Israeli, "Remarks on Style", in The Literary Magazine, and American Register, volume V, number XXIX, Philadelphia, Pa.: Published by J[ohn] Conrad & Co. [et al.], OCLC 699536048, page 105, column 1:
      After all, it is style alone by which posterity will judge of a great work, for an author can have nothing truly his own but his style; facts, scientific discoveries, and every kind of information, may be seized by all; but an author's diction cannot be taken from him.
    • 1995, "Perspectives", in Henning Bergenholtz and Sven Tarp, editor, Manual of Specialised Lexicography: The Preparation of Specialised Dictionaries (Benjamins Translation Library; 12), Amsterdam; Philadelphia, Pa.: John Benjamins Publishing Company, ->ISBN, ISSN 0929-7316, page 236:
      Methods for more "intelligent" spellchecking as well as for automatic checking of grammar and style are on the way, but they will require the support of electronic dictionaries.
    1. A legal or traditional term or formula of words used to address or refer to a person, especially a monarch or a person holding a post or having a title.
      Monarchs are often addressed with the style of Majesty.
      • 1683, Joseph Moxon, "§ 25. The Office of the Warehouse-keeper. [(As an Appendix.) Ancient Customs Used in a Printing-house.]", in Mechanick Exercises: Or, The Doctrine of Handy-books. Applied to the Art of Printing, volume II, London: Printed for Joseph Moxon [...], OCLC 427106359, number XXII, page 356:
        Every Printing-house is by the Custom of Time out of mind, called a Chappel; and all the Workmen that belong to it are Members of the Chappel: and the Oldest Freeman is the Father of the Chappel. I suppose the stile was originally conferred upon it by the courtesie of some great Churchman, or men, (doubtless when Chappels were in more veneration than of late years they have been here in England) who for the Books of Divinity that proceeded from a Printing-house, gave it the Reverend Title of Chappel.
      • 1796, Edmund Burke, A Letter from the Right Honourable Edmund Burke to a Noble Lord [William Fitzwilliam, 4th Earl Fitzwilliam], on the Attacks Made upon Him and His Pension, in the House of Lords, by the Duke of Bedford and the Earl of Lauderdale, Early in the Present Sessions of Parliament, London: Printed for J. Owen, [...], and F[rancis] and C[harles] Rivington, [...], OCLC 1108680674, page 10:
        One style to a gracious benefactor, another to a proud, insulting foe.
      • 1821 May 26, "Annals of the Coinage of Britain and Its Dependencies, from the Earliest Period of Authentic History to the End of the Fiftieth Year of the Reign of His Majesty King George III. By the Rev. Rogers Ruding, [...] The Second Edition, Corrected, Enlarged, and Continued to the Close of the Year 1818. 5 vols. 8vo. With a 4to. vol. of Plates. London, 1819. [book review]", in The Literary Chronicle and Weekly Review; [...], volume III, number 106, London: Printed by Davidson, [...], published by [John] Limbird, [...], sold also by Souter [et al.], OCLC 70747075, page 327:
        During the whole of the reign of George I., the money was of the same species and value as that of Queen Anne, but to his style upon the reverse, were added his German titles, with Fidei Defensor [Defender of the Faith], which then, for the first time, appeared upon the coins, although it had been constantly used in the style of our monarchs from Henry VIII., on whom it was conferred by Pope Leo X., in the year 1521.
  3. A particular manner of creating, doing, or presenting something, especially a work of architecture or art.
    • 1825, Joshua Reynolds, "Discourse IV. Delivered at the Royal Academy.", in Discourses on Painting and the Fine Arts, Delivered at the Royal Academy, London: Printed for Jones and Co., [...], OCLC 1063550111, page 23, column 1:
      [T]here are two distinct styles in history painting; the grand, and the splendid or ornamental. The great style stands alone, and does not require, perhaps does not so well admit, any addition from inferior beauties. The ornamental style also possesses its own peculiar merit. However, though the union of the two may make a sort of composite style, yet that style is likely to be more imperfect than either of those which goes to its composition.
    • 1843, Allan Cunningham, chapter XI, in The Life of Sir David Wilkie; [...] In Three Volumes, volume II, London: John Murray, [...], OCLC 297154957, page 472:
      To our English tastes it is unnecessary to advocate the style of [Diego] Velazquez. [...] Sir Joshua [Reynolds], [George] Romney, and [Henry] Raeburn, whether from imitation or instinct, seem powerfully imbued with his style, and some of our own time, even to our landscape painters, seem to possess the same affinity.
    • 1863 April 4, "Italian Architecture and Its Various European Offshoots", in George Godwin, editor, The Builder. An Illustrated Weekly Magazine for the Architect, Engineer, Archæologist, Constructor, & Art-lover, volume XXI, number 1052, London: Publishing office, York Street, Covent Garden, W.C. [printed by Cox and Wyman], OCLC 317999157, page 239, column 1:
      This style was sometimes called Palladian from the fact of [Andrea] Palladio having fully developed and absorbed into his own system the styles of his great predecessors of the [Florentine] school, [...]
    • 2004, Ethan Mordden, "Big Deals", in The Happiest Corpse I've Ever Seen: The Last Twenty-Five Years of the Broadway Musical, New York, N.Y.: St. Martin's Press, ->ISBN, page 108:
      His style is slow-build rave-up soul; the music, not the lyrics, relates the message.
    1. A particular manner of acting or behaving; (specifically) one regarded as fashionable or skilful; flair, grace.
      As a dancer, he has a lot of style.
      Backstabbing people is not my style.
      • 2015, Zachary Brown, The Darkside War (The Icarus Corps; book 1), London; New York, N.Y.: Saga Press, ->ISBN, pages 197-198:
        Running would feel better than hiding and waiting. It was not her style to hole up in the shadows.
    2. A particular way in which one grooms, adorns, dresses, or carries oneself; (specifically) a way thought to be attractive or fashionable.
    3. (computing) A visual or other modification to text or other elements of a document, such as boldface or italics.
      applying styles to text in a wordprocessor  Cascading Style Sheets
      • 2001, Dee L. Fabry; Sally A. Seier, "Speaking, Technology, Analysis, and Reading through Research", in Opening Doors to Reading: Building School-to-work Skills, Englewood, Colo.: Teacher Ideas Press, Libraries Unlimited, ->ISBN, page 64:
        In today's assignment, you need to: [...] Right justify your heading in 12 point Helvetica font and plain text style.
      • 2011, Janine Warner, "Cascading Style Sheets", in Dreamweaver CS3 for Dummies, New York, N.Y.: John Wiley & Sons, ->ISBN:
        The concept of creating styles has been around since long before the Web. Desktop publishing programs, such as Adobe InDesign, and even word processing programs, such as Microsoft Word, have long used styles to manage the formatting and editing of text on printed pages.
    4. (printing, publishing) A set of rules regarding the presentation of text (spelling, typography, the citation of references, etc.) and illustrations that is applied by a publisher to the works it produces.
      the house style of the journal
      • 2002, Evelyn Hunt Ogden, "Spending Money and Using the 20th Century to Your Advantage", in Completing Your Doctoral Dissertation or Master's Thesis in Two Semesters or Less, 2nd edition, Lanham, Md.; Toronto, Ont.: ScarecrowEducation, Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group, ->ISBN Invalid ISBN, page 60:
        If you have to settle for an expert typist who has not completed recent dissertations for your school, buy two copies of the style manual, one for you and one for the typist.
      • 2012, Larry A. Pace, "Preface and Acknowledgments", in Using Microsoft Word to Write Research Papers in APA Style, Anderson, S.C.: TwoPaces.com, ->ISBN, page 5:
        There are many excellent style manuals, and every good writer should have one or more of these at hand, along with the appropriate formatting instructions for the particular standard beng followed. This book is a how-to survival manual for students, researchers, and family members who need to learn and use APA [American Psychological Association] style and who would like to use some of the tools provided by Microsoft Word.

Alternative forms

Derived terms

Descendants

  • -> Japanese: ?
  • -> Korean: (seutail)

Related terms

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

See also

Verb

style (third-person singular simple present styles, present participle styling, simple past and past participle styled)

  1. (transitive) To call or give a name or title to.
    Synonyms: designate, dub, name; see also Thesaurus:denominate
    • 1623, Iohn Speed [i.e., John Speed], "Elizabeth Qveene of England, France, and Ireland, Defender of the Faith, &c. the Sixtie One Monarch of the English Crowne, [...]", in The Historie of Great Britaine vnder the Conqvests of the Romans, Saxons, Danes and Normans. [...], 2nd revised and enlarged edition, London: Printed by Iohn Beale, for George Hvmble, [...], OCLC 150671135, book 9, paragraph 37, page 1161, column 2:
      [...] Douenald O-Neale, rowsed out of his lurking holes, in his missiue letters vnto the Pope, styleth himselfe King of Vlster, and in right of inheritance, the vndoubted Heire of all Ireland.
    • 1749, Henry Fielding, "Jones Arrives at Gloucester, and Goes to the Bell; the Character of that House, and of a Petty-fogger, which He there Meets with", in The History of Tom Jones, a Foundling. In Six Volumes, volume III, London: Printed by A[ndrew] Millar, [...], OCLC 928184292, book VIII, page 200:
      This Fellow, I say, stiled himself a Lawyer, but was indeed a most vile Petty-fogger, without Sense or Knowledge of any Kind; one of those who may be termed Train-bearers to the Law; [...]
    • 1776, "Of the Martyrs at Smyrna", in [David Dalrymple, Lord Hailes], editor, Account of the Martyrs at Smyrna and Lyons, in the Second Century. With Explanatory Notes, Edinburgh: Printed by A. Murray and J. Cochran, OCLC 16105172, pages 12-13:
      But when the proconsul persisted in requiring him to swear by the fortune of Cæsar, Polycarp said, "Since thou ostentatiously requirest me to swear by what thou stylest the fortune of Cæsar, as if thou wert ignorant of what I am, hear me boldly speak. I am a Christian; and if thou wouldst learn what is the doctrine of Christianity, appoint a day, and hear."
    • 1782 December, "Elements of the Theory and Practice of Physic and Surgery. By John Aitken, M.D. 2 vols. 8vo. 14s. in Boards. Cadell. [book review]", in The Critical Review: Or, Annals of Literature (Series the Fifth), volume LIV, London: Printed for A. Hamilton, [...], OCLC 1015384402, page 438:
      Dr. Aitken's language is generally exact, though there is a quaintness, and an attempt at novelty, which is sometimes disagreeable. [...] He styles 'recover a pleasing evidence of the operation of the medicines.'
    • 1811, [Jane Austen], chapter X, in Sense and Sensibility: A Novel. In Three Volumes, volume I, London: Printed for the author, by C[harles] Roworth, [...], and published by T[homas] Egerton, [...], OCLC 20599507, page 106:
      Marianne's preserver, as Margaret, with more elegance than precision, stiled Willoughby, called at the cottage early the next morning to make his personal inquiries.
    • 1821 April 14, "Annals of the Coinage of Britain and Its Dependencies, from the Earliest Period of Authentic History to the End of the Fiftieth Year of the Reign of His Majesty King George III. By the Rev. Rogers Ruding, [...] The Second Edition, Corrected, Enlarged, and Continued to the Close of the Year 1818. 5 vols. 8vo. With a 4to. vol. of Plates. London, 1819. [book review]", in The Literary Chronicle and Weekly Review; [...], volume III, number 100, London: Printed by Davidson, [...], published by [John] Limbird, [...], sold also by Souter [et al.], OCLC 70747075, page 246, column 3:
      Edward the Black Prince had the principality of Aquitain and Gascony conferred on him, with the privilege of coining monies. Under the authority of this grant, he struck various coins of gold and silver. On these coins he invariably styles himself, Primogenitus Regis Angliæ, et Princeps Aquitaniæ [First King of England, and Prince of Aquitaine].
  2. (transitive) To create for, or give to, someone a style, fashion, or image, particularly one which is regarded as attractive, tasteful, or trendy.
  3. (intransitive, US, informal) To act in a way which seeks to show that one possesses style.

Conjugation

Alternative forms

Derived terms

Translations

References

Further reading

Anagrams


French

Alternative forms

Etymology

Borrowed from Latin stilus.

Pronunciation

Noun

style m (plural styles)

  1. style (manner of doing something)
  2. (botany) style (of a flower)
  3. fashion, trend, style
  4. (colloquial) style (personal comportment)
  5. flair
  6. (art) style; method characteristic of an artist; artistic manner or characteristic by which an artistic movement may be defined
  7. gnomon, style (needle of a sundial)
  8. (dated, historical) stylus, style (implement for writing on tablets)
  9. complement of jargon particular to a field; style (manner of writing specific to a field or discipline)
  10. sort, type; category of things

Synonyms

Further reading


Middle English

Etymology 1

From Old English sti?el.

Noun

style

  1. Alternative form of stile ("stile")

Etymology 2

From Medieval Latin stylus.

Noun

style

  1. Alternative form of stile ("style")

Polish

Pronunciation

Noun

style

  1. plural of styl
  2. accusative plural of styl
  3. vocative plural of styl

Portuguese

Etymology

Borrowed from English style.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /is.'taj.li/, /'staj.li/, /i?.'taj.li/

Adjective

style (invariable, comparable)

  1. (Brazil, slang) stylish
    Com este calçado você fica style!
    With this shoe you become stylish!

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