So
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So

English

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Etymology 1

From Middle English so, swo, zuo, swa, swe, from Old English sw?, sw?, sw? ("so, as, the same, such, that"), from Proto-Germanic *swa, *sw? ("so"), from Proto-Indo-European *sw?, *sw? (reflexive pronomial stem). Cognate with Scots sae ("so"), West Frisian sa ("so"), Low German so ("so"), Dutch zo ("so"), German so ("so"), Danish ("so"), Norwegian Nynorsk so, Swedish ("so, such that"), Old Latin suad ("so"), Albanian sa ("how much, so, as"), Ancient Greek (h?s, "as").

Pronunciation

Conjunction

so

  1. In order that.
    Eat your broccoli so you can have dessert.
  2. With the result that; for that reason; therefore.
    • 1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 1, in Mr. Pratt's Patients:
      Thinks I to myself, “Sol, you're run off your course again. This is a rich man's summer ‘cottage’ [...].” So I started to back away again into the bushes. But I hadn't backed more'n a couple of yards when I see something so amazing that I couldn't help scooching down behind the bayberries and looking at it.
    I was hungry so I asked if there was any more food.
    He ate too much cake, so he fell ill.
    He wanted a book, so he went to the library.
    "I need to go to the bathroom."
    -"So go!"
  3. (archaic) Provided that; on condition that, as long as.
    • 1594, William Shakespeare, The Two Gentlemen of Verona, Act III, Scene 1,[1]
      Speed. 'Item: She doth talk in her sleep.'
      Launce. It's no matter for that, so she sleep not in her talk.
    • 1603, Michel de Montaigne, chapter 18, in John Florio, transl., The Essayes, [...], book II, printed at London: By Val[entine] Simmes for Edward Blount [...], OCLC 946730821:
      As we cal money not onely that which is true and good, but also the false; so it be currant.
    • 1644, John Milton, Areopagitica, London, p. 35,[2]
      [...] though all the windes of doctrin were let loose play upon the earth, so Truth be in the field, we do injuriously by licencing and prohibiting to misdoubt her strength.
    • 1743, Robert Drury, The Pleasant, and Surprizing Adventures of Mr. Robert Drury, during his Fifteen Years Captivity on the Island of Madagascar, London, p. 111,[3]
      I went away very well satisfy'd, not caring where I was sent, so it was but out of his Sight; for he now became more my Aversion than ever.
Usage notes

Chiefly in North American use, a comma or pause is often used before the conjunction when used in the sense with the result that. (A similar meaning can often be achieved by using a semicolon or colon (without the so), as for example: He drank the poison; he died.)

Synonyms
Translations

Adverb

so (not comparable)

  1. To the (explicitly stated) extent that.
    It was so hot outside that all the plants died.  He was so good, they hired him on the spot.
    • 1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 1, in Mr. Pratt's Patients:
      Thinks I to myself, “Sol, you're run off your course again. This is a rich man's summer ‘cottage’ [...].” So I started to back away again into the bushes. But I hadn't backed more'n a couple of yards when I see something so amazing that I couldn't help scooching down behind the bayberries and looking at it.
    • 2013 July 20, "Old soldiers?", in The Economist, volume 408, number 8845:
      Whether modern, industrial man is less or more warlike than his hunter-gatherer ancestors is impossible to determine. The machine gun is so much more lethal than the bow and arrow that comparisons are meaningless.
  2. (informal) To the (implied) extent.
    I need a piece of cloth so long. [= this long]
    • 1898, Winston Churchill, chapter 2, in The Celebrity:
      We drove back to the office with some concern on my part at the prospect of so large a case. Sunning himself on the board steps, I saw for the first time Mr. Farquhar Fenelon Cooke.
    1. (informal) Very (positive clause).
      He is so good!
      • 1910, Emerson Hough, chapter I, in The Purchase Price: Or The Cause of Compromise, Indianapolis, Ind.: The Bobbs-Merrill Company, OCLC 639762314, page 0105:
        Captain Edward Carlisle [...] felt a curious sensation of helplessness seize upon him as he met her steady gaze, [...]; he could not tell what this prisoner might do. He cursed the fate which had assigned such a duty, cursed especially that fate which forced a gallant soldier to meet so superb a woman as this under handicap so hard.
    2. (informal) Very (negative clause).
      It's not so bad. [i.e. it's acceptable]
    3. (slang, chiefly US) Very much.
      But I so want to see the Queen when she visits our town!  That is so not true!
  3. In a particular manner.
    Place the napkin on the table just so. If that's what you mean, then say so; (or do so).
  4. In the same manner or to the same extent as aforementioned; also.
    Just as you have the right to your free speech, so I have the right to mine.  Many people say she's the world's greatest athlete, but I don't think so."I can count backwards from one hundred." "So can I."
    • 1883, Howard Pyle, The Merry Adventures of Robin Hood Chapter V
      "Good morrow to thee, jolly fellow," quoth Robin, "thou seemest happy this merry morn." ¶ "Ay, that am I," quoth the jolly Butcher, "and why should I not be so? Am I not hale in wind and limb? Have I not the bonniest lass in all Nottinghamshire? And lastly, am I not to be married to her on Thursday next in sweet Locksley Town?"
    • 2012 May 19, Paul Fletcher, "Blackpool 1-2 West Ham", in BBC Sport:
      It was a goal that meant West Ham won on their first appearance at Wembley in 31 years, in doing so becoming the first team since Leicester in 1996 to bounce straight back to the Premier League through the play-offs.
  5. (with as): To such an extent or degree; as.
    so far as;  so long as;  so much as
Usage notes
  • Use of so in the sense to the implied extent is discouraged in formal writing; spoken intonation which might render the usage clearer is not usually apparent to the reader, who might reasonably expect the extent to be made explicit. For example, the reader may expect He is so good to be followed by an explanation or consequence of how good he is. Devices such as use of underscoring and the exclamation mark may be used as a means of clarifying that the implicit usage is intended; capitalising SO is also used. The derivative subsenses very and very much are similarly more apparent with spoken exaggerated intonation.
  • The difference between so and very in implied-extent usage is that very is more descriptive or matter-of-fact, while so indicates more emotional involvement. For example, she is very clever is a simple statement of opinion; she is so clever suggests admiration. Likewise, that is very typical is a simple statement; that is SO typical of him! is an indictment. A formal (and reserved) apology may be expressed I am very sorry, but after elbowing someone in the nose during a basketball game, a man might say, Dude, I am so sorry! in order to ensure that it's understood as an accident.[1]
Synonyms
Derived terms
Translations
The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.
References
  1. ^ Mark Liberman, "Ask Language Log: So feminine?", 2012 March 26

Adjective

so (comparative more so, superlative most so)

  1. True, accurate.
    That is so.  You are responsible for this, is that not so?
    • 1908, W[illiam] B[lair] M[orton] Ferguson, chapter IV, in Zollenstein, New York, N.Y.: D. Appleton & Company, OCLC 731476803:
      "My Continental prominence is improving," I commented dryly. ¶ Von Lindowe cut at a furze bush with his silver-mounted rattan. ¶ "Quite so," he said as dryly, his hand at his mustache. "I may say if your intentions were known your life would not be worth a curse."
  2. In that state or manner; with that attribute. A proadjective that replaces the aforementioned adjective phrase.
    • 1823, Andrew Reed, Martha
      If this separation was painful to all parties, it was most so to Martha.
    • 1872, Charles Dickens, J., The Personal History of David Copperfield
      But if I had been more fit to be married, I might have made you more so too.
    • 1947, Liberty Hyde Bailey, The Standard Cyclopedia of Horticulture:
      It must be understood that while the nelumbiums are hardy, they are so only as long as the tubers are out of the reach of frost.
  3. (dated, Britain, slang) Homosexual.
    Is he so?
Synonyms
Derived terms
Translations

Interjection

so

  1. Used after a pause for thought to introduce a new topic, question or story.
    Synonyms: look, well, see, hey
    So, let's go home.
    So, what'll you have?
    So, there was this squirrel stuck in the chimney...
    • 1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 11, in Mr. Pratt's Patients:
      So, after a spell, he decided to make the best of it and shoved us into the front parlor. 'Twas a dismal sort of place, with hair wreaths, and wax fruit, and tin lambrekins, and land knows what all.
  2. Short for so what.
    "You park your car in front of my house every morning." -- "So?"
  3. Used to connect previous conversation or events to the following question.
    So how does this story end?
    So, everyone wants to know - did you win the contest or not?
  4. (archaic) Be as you are; stand still; used especially to cows; also used by sailors.
Usage notes

Though common for a long time, the "sentence-initial so" became controversial in the mid-2010s.[1]

Translations

Etymology 2

Pronoun

so

  1. Abbreviation of someone.
Synonyms
  • sb ("somebody")

Etymology 3

Shortened from sol, to make it an open syllable for uniformity with the rest of the scale.

Noun

so (plural sos)

  1. (music) A syllable used in solfège to represent the fifth note of a major scale.
Translations

Etymology 4

Borrowed from Japanese ? (so).

Noun

so (uncountable)

  1. (foods) A type of dairy product made in Japan between the seventh and 10th centuries.

See also

References

  • so at OneLook Dictionary Search
  • so in The Century Dictionary, The Century Co., New York, 1911

Anagrams


Aiwoo

Verb

so

  1. to stand (be in a standing position)

References


Asturian

Etymology 1

From Latin sub.

Preposition

so

  1. under
Derived terms

Etymology 2

From Latin suus ("his, her, its")

Adjective

so m sg (feminine singular so, neuter singular so, masculine plural sos, feminine plural sos)

  1. his, her, its
  2. your (polite)
  3. their

Pronoun

so

  1. his, hers
  2. yours (polite)

Related terms

Etymology 3

Alternative forms

Verb

so

  1. first-person singular present indicative of ser

Basque

Noun

so

  1. look

Brokskat

Pronoun

so

  1. he

Catalan

Etymology

From Old Occitan son (compare Occitan son), from Latin sonus (compare French son, Spanish son, sueno, Italian suono).

Pronunciation

Noun

so m (plural sons)

  1. sound

Related terms

Further reading


Danish

Etymology

From Old Norse sýr, from Proto-Germanic *s?z, from Proto-Indo-European *s?-.

Noun

so c (singular definite soen, plural indefinite søer)

  1. sow (female pig)
  2. (derogatory) slut

Declension

References


Elfdalian

Etymology

From Old Norse svá, from Proto-Germanic *swa, *sw?. Cognate with Swedish .

Adverb

so

  1. so, like that, in that manner
  2. so, to such a degree

Esperanto

Pronunciation

Noun

so (accusative singular so-on, plural so-oj, accusative plural so-ojn)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter S.

See also


Faroese

Etymology

From Old Norse svá, from Proto-Germanic *swa, *sw? ("so"), from Proto-Indo-European *sw?, *sw? (reflexive pronomial stem).

Pronunciation

Adverb

so (not comparable)

  1. so, thus, as
  2. then

Folopa

Alternative forms

Noun

so

  1. woman

References

  • Karl James Franklin, Pacific Linguistics (1973, ->ISBN, page 130: Polopa so/sou woman, cf. DAR sou female animal but we woman.
  • Karl J. Franklin, Comparative Wordlist 1 of the Gulf District and adjacent areas (1975), page 15: Boro, Suri, Tebera sou, Sopese ?o
  • Carol Anderson, Beginning Folopa Language Lessons and Simple Glossary (2010) (as so)

Friulian

Etymology

From Latin suus.

Pronoun

so (third-person singular possessive of masculine singular, of feminine singular , of masculine plural siei, of feminine plural sôs)

  1. (used attributively) his, her, its; of his, hers, its
  2. (used predicatively) his, hers, its
  3. (used substantively) his, hers, its; the thing belonging to him, her,it

See also


Galician

Etymology

From Old Portuguese so, su, sob, from Latin sub.

Pronunciation

Preposition

so

  1. under, beneath

References

  • "so" in Dicionario de Dicionarios do galego medieval, SLI - ILGA 2006-2012.
  • "so" in Dicionario de Dicionarios da lingua galega, SLI - ILGA 2006-2013.

German

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *swa, *sw?, compare with Old Dutch so and Dutch zo.

Pronunciation

Adverb

so

  1. so, that
    Die Leute sind so nett. - People are so nice.
    Dieser Hammer ist nicht so gut. - This hammer is not that good.
  2. as (followed by an adjective or adverb plus wie in a statement of equality)
    Er rennt so schnell wie der Blitz. - He runs as fast as lightning.
  3. thus, like this/that, in this/that way, in this/that manner
    Wenn du den Ball so wirfst, triffst du die Zielscheibe.
    If you throw the ball like this, you'll hit the target.
  4. then (in that case)
    Wirst du wieder gesund, so freue ich mich.
    If you get healthy again, then I'll be happy.
  5. (colloquial) expletive; sometimes intensifying, sometimes with no noticeable meaning
    Wir sind runtergegangen und haben uns hier so hingesetzt.
    We went downstairs and, like, sat down here.

Derived terms

Conjunction

so

  1. (archaic) an, if
    So es Euch beliebt. - If it pleases you.

Synonyms

Pronoun

so

  1. (obsolete, relative) that, which, who
    Derhalben sind die Christen schuldig, der Obrigkeit unterthan [...] zu seyn in Allem, so ohne Sünde geschehen mag.
    That do the Christians owe: to be obedient to the authority [...] in all that may be done without sin.
    (Augsburger Bekenntnis)

Synonyms


Gothic

Romanization

s?

  1. Romanization of

Indonesian

Adverb

so

  1. Alternative form of sok

Irish

Pronunciation

Determiner

so

  1. Munster form of seo (used after a word ending in a velarized ("broad") consonant)
    • 1938, Peig Sayers, "Inghean an Cheannaidhe"[2]:
      Ní raibh aoinne cloinne age n-a muinntir ach í agus do mhéaduigh sin uirrim agus grádh na ndaoine don inghean óg so.
      Her parents had no children but her, and that increased the esteem and love of the people for this young girl.

References

Further reading


Italian

Alternative forms

  • (misspelling)

Pronunciation

Verb

so

  1. first-person singular present indicative of sapere - (I) know
    Non lo so. - I don't know (it).
    Lo so io! - (But) I do (know it)!

Usage notes

Unlike English, Italian verb forms for first/second/third-person are different, rendering io ("I") redundant, unless emphasis is required as shown in last example above.


Japanese

Romanization

so

  1. R?maji transcription of ?
  2. R?maji transcription of ?

Luxembourgish

Verb

so

  1. second-person singular imperative of soen

Mauritian Creole

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From French son

Pronoun

so

  1. (possessive) his, her, its, one's

Etymology 2

From French chaud

Adjective

so

  1. hot, warm.

Antonyms


Middle Dutch

Etymology 1

From Old Dutch s?, from Proto-Germanic *swa.

Pronunciation

Adverb

  1. so, like that, in that manner
  2. so, to such a degree
  3. (so ... alse) as
  4. then, in that case
  5. so, therefore

Conjunction

  1. if, in the case that
  2. like, as
  3. (so ... so) both ... and

Descendants

  • Dutch: zo
  • Limburgish: zoe, zoea

Etymology 2

Weakened form of soe.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

  1. (chiefly Flemish) Alternative form of si ("she")

Further reading

  • "so (I)", in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000
  • "so (II)", in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000

Verwijs, E.; Verdam, J. (1885-1929), "so", in Middelniederlandsch Woordenboek, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, ->ISBN


Middle English

Pronoun

so

  1. (chiefly Northern dialectal) Alternative form of sche

References


Northern Sami

Etymology

Borrowed from Norwegian .

Pronunciation

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Adverb

so

  1. so, then, in that case
  2. so, to this or that extent

Further reading

  • Koponen, Eino; Ruppel, Klaas; Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002-2008) Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[4], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Norwegian Nynorsk

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Old Norse svá, from Proto-Indo-European *swa. Akin to English so.

Pronunciation

Adverb

so

  1. so
    Dei seier so.
    So they say.
  2. that
    Eg visste ikkje at dei skulle vera so mange.
    I didn't know that they were going to be that many.
  3. as
    So vidt eg veit.
    As far as I know.
  4. then
    Eg gjekk på kino. So gjekk eg heim.
    I went to the movies. Then I went home.

Conjunction

so

  1. so
    Eg barberte meg, so ho skulle synast eg var fin.
    I shaved so that she would think I looked nice.

References

  • "so" in The Nynorsk Dictionary.

Old Dutch

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *swa.

Adverb

s?

  1. so, like that, in that manner

Descendants

Further reading

  • "s? (I)", in Oudnederlands Woordenboek, 2012

Old Irish

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Proto-Celtic *so ("this"), from Proto-Indo-European *só.

Pronunciation

Determiner

so

  1. this (used after the noun, which is preceded by the definite article)
    ind epistil so - this epistle

Derived terms

Descendants


Old Saxon

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *swa.

Adverb

s?

  1. so, like that, in that manner

Pali

Alternative forms

Pronoun

so

  1. he, it

Adjective

so

  1. masculine nominative singular of ta ("that")

Rawa

Noun

so

  1. grass

References


Romani

Adverb

so

  1. what

Rwanda-Rundi

Noun

so

  1. father

Serbo-Croatian

Alternative forms

  • (Croatian): s?l

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *sol?, from Proto-Indo-European *seh?ls.

Pronunciation

Noun

s? f (Cyrillic spelling )

  1. (Bosnia, Serbia) salt

Declension


Slavomolisano

Etymology

From Serbo-Croatian so.

Pronunciation

Noun

so m

  1. salt

Declension

References

  • Walter Breu and Giovanni Piccoli (2000), Dizionario croato molisano di Acquaviva Collecroce: Dizionario plurilingue della lingua slava della minoranza di provenienza dalmata di Acquaviva Collecroce in Provincia di Campobasso (Parte grammaticale).

Slovak

Pronunciation

Preposition

so (+ instrumental)

  1. with

Synonyms

Further reading

  • so in Slovak dictionaries at korpus.sk

Slovene

Pronunciation

Verb

s?

  1. third-person plural present of bíti

Spanish

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Latin sub, from Proto-Italic *supo, from Proto-Indo-European *upo.

Preposition

so

  1. (archaic) under
Usage notes

So is very rare in modern Spanish, surviving only in certain expressions, including so pena de ("on pain of, under penalty of"), so pretexto de or so color de ("under pretext of"), a so capa ("secretly, with bribery").

Pronoun

so

  1. you (emphatic, derogatory)
    • ¡So tonto! - You blithering idiot!
    • ¡So borrachos! - You bloody drunks!

Etymology 2

Borrowed from English so.

Interjection

so

  1. (US, Puerto Rico, El Salvador) so

Etymology 3

Interjection

so

  1. whoa!

Swedish

Etymology

From Old Norse sýr, from Proto-Germanic *s?z, from Proto-Indo-European *s?-.

Noun

so c

  1. (rare) sow, female pig

Usage notes

  • The more common synonym is sugga, especially for the plural form.

Declension

Declension of so 
Singular Plural
Indefinite Definite Indefinite Definite
Nominative so son sor sorna
Genitive sos sons sors sornas

Synonyms

Anagrams


Tok Pisin

Etymology 1

From English saw.

Noun

so

  1. saw

Etymology 2

From English show.

Noun

so

  1. show

Veps

Etymology

From Proto-Finnic *soo.

Noun

so

  1. swamp, marsh, bog

Inflection

Inflection of so
nominative sing. so
genitive sing. son
partitive sing. sod
partitive plur. soid
singular plural
nominative so sod
accusative son sod
genitive son soiden
partitive sod soid
essive-instructive son soin
translative soks soik?
inessive sos soi?
elative sospäi soi?päi
illative ? soihe
adessive sol soil
ablative solpäi soilpäi
allative sole soile
abessive sota soita
comitative sonke soidenke
prolative sodme soidme
approximative I sonno soidenno
approximative II sonnoks soidennoks
egressive sonnopäi soidennopäi
terminative I ? soihesai
terminative II solesai soilesai
terminative III sossai
additive I ? soihepäi
additive II solepäi soilepäi

Derived terms

References

  • Zajceva, N. G.; Mullonen, M. I. (2007), "", in Uz' venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovar? [New Russian-Veps Dictionary], Petrozavodsk: Periodika

Vietnamese

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Verb

so

  1. (transitive) to compare
    So v?i b?n thì nó cao h?n. - Compared to his friend, he is taller.
  2. (transitive) to pair up
    so a - to pair up chopsticks
  3. (intransitive) to straighten one's shoulders, as if to compare one's height to another's
Synonyms

Etymology 2

Compare s? (?, "first").

Adjective

so

  1. firstborn
    con so - firstborn child
    ch?a con so - to be pregnant for the first time
    tr?ng gà so - a chicken's first egg (usually a small egg)
Derived terms

Etymology 3

Noun

(classifier con) so

  1. Carcinoscorpius rotundicauda, mangrove horseshoe crab

Volapük

Adverb

so

  1. so

Welsh

Verb

so

  1. (colloquial, South Wales) second-person singular present negative of bod
  2. (colloquial, South Wales) third-person singular present negative of bod
    So e'n credu. - He doesn't think so.
  3. (colloquial, South Wales) first-person plural present negative of bod
  4. (colloquial, South Wales) second-person plural present negative of bod
  5. (colloquial, South Wales) third-person plural present negative of bod

Usage notes

Unlike other negative verb forms, this form--and sa, which is used for the first-person singular--is not complemented by ddim after the subject.


Xhosa

Pronoun

-so

  1. Combining stem of sona.

Zulu

Pronoun

-so

  1. Combining stem of sona.

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