From Middle English rawe, raw, rau, from Old English hr?aw ("raw, uncooked"), from Proto-Germanic *hrawaz, *hr?waz ("raw"), from Proto-Indo-European *krewh?- ("raw meat, fresh blood"). Cognate with Scots raw ("raw"), Dutch rauw ("raw"), German roh ("raw"), Swedish rå ("raw"), Icelandic hrár ("raw"), Latin cr?dus ("raw, bloody, uncooked"), Irish cró ("blood"), Lithuanian kraujas ("blood"), Russian (krov?, "blood"). Related also to Old English hr?ow, hr?oh ("rough, fierce, wild, angry, disturbed, troubled, sad, stormy, tempestuous"). More at ree.
- Rhymes: -?:
raw (comparative rawer, superlative rawest)
- Of food: not cooked. [from 9th c.]
- Not treated or processed (of materials, products etc.); in a natural state, unrefined, unprocessed. [from 10th c.]
1997, A. J. Taylor; D. S. Mothram, editors, Flavour Science: Recent Developments, Elsevier, ->ISBN, page 63:
Volatiles of kecap manis and its raw materials were extracted using Likens-Nickerson apparatus with diethyl ether as the extraction solvent. The extracts were then dried with anhydrous sodium sulfate, concentrated using a rotary evaporator followed by flushing using nitrogen until the volume was about 0.5 ml.
raw cane sugar
- Having had the skin removed or abraded; chafed, tender; exposed, lacerated. [from 14th c.]
1963, Margery Allingham, chapter 7, in The China Governess:
'Children crawled over each other like little grey worms in the gutters,' he said. 'The only red things about them were their buttocks and they were raw. Their faces looked as if snails had slimed on them and their mothers were like great sick beasts whose byres had never been cleared. [...]'
a raw wound
- New or inexperienced. [from 16th c.]
a raw beginner
- Crude in quality; rough, uneven, unsophisticated. [from 16th c.]
a raw voice
- Of data, statistics etc: uncorrected, without analysis. [from 20th c.]
- 2010, "Under the volcano", The Economist, 16 Oct 2010:
- What makes Mexico worrying is not just the raw numbers but the power of the cartels over society.
- Of weather: unpleasantly cold or damp.
a raw wind
- (Can we date this quote by Shakespeare and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
- a raw and gusty day
1847 October 16, Currer Bell [pseudonym; Charlotte Brontë], chapter I, in Jane Eyre. An Autobiography. [...] In Three Volumes, volume I, London: Smith, Elder, and Co., [...], OCLC 3163777, page 1:
[...] I never liked long walks, especially on chilly afternoons: dreadful to me was the coming home in the raw twilight, with nipped fingers and toes, [...]
- (obsolete) Not covered; bare; bald.
- (Can we date this quote by Spenser and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
- with scull all raw
- Ainu: ? (hu)
- Albanian: gjallë (sq)
- Arabic: (nay?)
- Gulf Arabic: (nei)
- Armenian: ? (hy) (hum)
- Aromanian: crud
- Assamese: (k?sa)
- Azerbaijani: xam, çiy (az)
- Baluchi: ? (h?mag)
- Basque: gordin
- Belarusian: (syrý)
- Bengali: (bn) (kãca)
- Bulgarian: (bg) (suróv)
- Burmese: (my) (cim:)
- Catalan: cru
- Chamicuro: s?hoyi
- Mandarin: (zh) (sh?ng de)
- Czech: syrový (cs)
- Dalmatian: croit
- Danish: rå (da)
- Dutch: rauw (nl), rauwe (nl), rauw (nl)
- Esperanto: please add this translation if you can
- Estonian: toores
- Finnish: raaka (fi)
- French: cru (fr)
- Friulian: crût, crûd
- Galician: cru (gl)
- Georgian: (nedli)
- German: roh (de)
- Greek: ? (el) (omós), (el) (ápsitos), (el) (amageíreftos)
- Ancient: ? (?mós)
- Hawaiian: maka
- Hebrew: (he) (na), (he) (khay)
- Hindi: (hi) (kacc?)
- Hungarian: nyers (hu)
- Icelandic: hrár (is), óunninn
- Indonesian: mentah (id)
- Irish: amh
- Old Irish: om
- Italian: crudo (it)
- Japanese: (ja) (, nama no)
- Kannada: please add this translation if you can
- Kazakh: ? (kk) (?ïki)
- Khmer: ? (km) (khc?y), (km) (chaw)
- Korean: (ko) (saeng-ui), (ko) (nalgeosui)
- Kurmanji: xav (ku)
- Sorani: (xaw)
- Kyrgyz: (ky) (çiyki), (ky) (kam)
- Lao: (dip)
- Latgalian: za
- Latin: crudus, incoctus
- Latvian: j?ls
- Lithuanian: ?alias (lt)
- Luxembourgish: réi
- Lü: please add this translation if you can
- Macedonian: (sirov)
- Malay: mentah
- Malayalam: please add this translation if you can
- Maltese: nej
- Manx: aw
- Maori: mata (mi)
- Marathi: please add this translation if you can
- Mongolian: (mn) (tüühij)
- Navajo: t'áá t'éehgo
- Neapolitan: crudo
- Nepali: please add this translation if you can
- Northern Thai: please add this translation if you can
- Bokmål: rå (no)
- Occitan: crus (oc)
- Old Church Slavonic:
- Cyrillic: ? (syr?)
- Oriya: please add this translation if you can
- Pashto: (um)
- Persian: (fa) (xâm)
- Pitjantjatjara: wanka
- Polish: surowy (pl)
- Portuguese: cru (pt), crua (pt) f
- Punjabi: ? (kach?)
- Quechua: chawa, cawa, hanku
- Romanian: crud (ro)
- Romansch: criv, criu, criev, crüj
- Russian: (ru) (syrój)
- Sanskrit: (sa) (?ma)
- Sardinian: cru, crudu, cruo, cruu
- Roman: sìrov (sh)
- Shan: please add this translation if you can
- Slovak: surový
- Slovene: surov (sl)
- Lower Sorbian: syry
- Spanish: crudo (es)
- Swedish: rå (sv)
- Tajik: (xom)
- Tamil: please add this translation if you can
- Tatar: (tt) (çi)
- Telugu: (te) (pacci)
- Thai: (th) (dìp)
- Tibetan: (rjen pa)
- Turkish: ham (tr), çi? (tr)
- Turkmen: çig
- Tuvan: please add this translation if you can
- Ukrainian: (syrýj)
- Urdu: (kacc?)
- Uyghur: (xam)
- Uzbek: xom (uz)
- Vietnamese: s?ng (vi)
- Warlpiri: wanka
- Welsh: amrwd (cy)
- White Hmong: please add this translation if you can
- Yiddish: (roy)
- Zhuang: please add this translation if you can
chafed, exposed of a wound
of data, statistics etc: uncorrected, without analysis
of weather: unpleasantly damp or cold
- The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.
Translations to be checked
- (slang) Without a condom.
We did it raw.
raw (plural raws)
- (sugar refining, sugar trade) An unprocessed sugar; a batch of such.
- 1800, Louisiana Sugar Planters' Association, Lousiana Sugar Chemists' Association, American Cane Growers' Association, The Louisiana Planter and Sugar Manufacturer, Volume 22, page 287,
- With the recent advance in London yellow crystals, however, the disproportion of the relative value of these two kinds has been considerably reduced, and a better demand for crystallized raws should consequently occur.
- 1921, American Chemical Society, The Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Volume 13, Part 1, page 149,
- Early in the year the raws were melted to about 20 Brix in order to facilitate filtration.
- 1939, The Commercial and Financial Chronicle, Volume 148, Part 2, page 2924,
- The world sugar contract closed 1 to 3 points net higher, with sales of only 36 lots. London raws sold at 8s. 4½d., and futures there were unchanged to 3d. higher.
- A galled place; an inveterate sore.
- (by extension, figuratively) A point about which a person is particularly sensitive.
- (anime fandom slang) A recording or rip of a show that has not been fansubbed.
- (manga fandom slang) A scan that has not been cleaned (purged of blemishes arising from the scanning process) and has not been scanlated.
anime fandom: a recording or rip that has not been fansubbed
- Mandarin: (zh) (sh?ngròu)
manga fandom: a scan that has not been cleaned and scanlated
- Mandarin: (zh) (sh?ngròu)
From Old English hr?aw.
- Alternative form of rawe ("raw")
From Old English r?w, r?w.
- Alternative form of rewe ("row")
- Soft mutation of rhaw.