Jo
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Jo

English

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology

From Scots jo ("joy").

Pronunciation

Noun

jo (plural jos)

  1. (Scotland) Darling, sweetheart.
    • 1711, traditional, published by James Watson, Old Long Syne:
      On Old long syne my Jo,
      on Old long syne,
      That thou canst never once reflect,
      on Old long syne.
    • My Jo Janet (traditional Scottish song)
      Keek into the draw-well, Janet, Janet;
      There ye'll see your bonnie sel',
      My jo, Janet.

Anagrams


Albanian

Etymology

From Proto-Albanian *nio ("not, no"), from Proto-Indo-European *n?, *n? ("negative particle"). Compare Latin ne, Welsh neu, Old English na, Lithuanian ne ("not").

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /j?/
  • (file)

Determiner

jo

  1. no, not

Related terms


Basque

Verb

jo

  1. to hit, strike, punch
  2. (music) to play
    Gitarra jo nahi dut. - I want to play the guitar.
  3. to knock, rap
    Gizon itsusi batek etxeko atea jo du. - An ugly man knocked on the door.
  4. to crash
  5. to head, go
  6. (wind) to blow

Conjugation

Synonyms


Bavarian

Adverb

jo

  1. yes

Catalan

Etymology

From Old Occitan eu, from Vulgar Latin *eo, attested from the 6th century in Romance, from Latin ego, from Proto-Italic *eg?, from Proto-Indo-European *é?h?; akin to Greek (egó), Sanskrit ? (aham), all from Proto-Indo-European *é?h?.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

jo (strong)

  1. I
  2. (after certain prepositions) me

Declension

Synonyms

  • mi (after most prepositions)

Noun

jo m (uncountable)

  1. ego (the self)
    Synonym: ego

Further reading


Czech

Etymology

Compare Polish jo.

Pronunciation

Particle

jo

  1. (colloquial) yeah, yep

Synonyms

Antonyms


Dalmatian

Etymology

From Latin ubi. Compare Romanian iuo, Italian ove, French , Old Spanish o.

Pronunciation

Adverb

jo

  1. where

Danish

Etymology 1

Borrowed from Middle Low German jo. Used like Swedish ju, German ja (adverb) / je (conjunction).

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): [jo] (unstressed in context)

Adverb

jo

  1. as you know or should know; sometimes vaguely translatable as after all or obviously
    • 2015, Henriette E. Møller, Jelne, Gyldendal A/S ->ISBN
      Jeg ved ikke, hvad de talte om, hendes sind blev så mørkt, jeg kunne jo ikke rigtigt snakke med hende.
      I do not know of what they spoke, her mind became so dark, I could not really talk with her, as you should be able to see.
    • 2009, Sven Arvid Birkeland, I krigens kølvand: danske skæbner efter 2. verdenskrig, Gyldendal A/S ->ISBN, page 479
      Han gik jo ikke i krig i håb om, at det skulle blive den store sejr
      After all, he did not go to war in the hopes of achieving great victory.
    • 2016, Anita Krumbach, Dorte Lilmose, Hanne Kvist, Helle Perrier, Iben Mondrup, Louis Jensen, Ronnie Andersen, Sissel Bergfjord, Svend Åge Madsen, Tomas Lagermand Lundme, Det du ikke ved: Noveller for unge, Gyldendal A/S ->ISBN
      Jeg mener, at selv ens eget navn eller alder KAN man jo ikke være 100 procent sikker på er Dennis/17, vel?
      I mean, one obviously cannot even be 100% sure that one's own name or age are Dennis and 17, can one?

Conjunction

jo

  1. the
    Jo mere jeg løber, desto trættere bliver jeg.
    The more I run, the more tired I become.
Usage notes

jo ... desto ..., jo ... des ... are common constructions.

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

Interjection

jo

  1. yes (used to contradict a negative statement or negatively phrased question) (often followed by I do, he is, etc. in English to indicate contradiction rather than affirmation); identical in usage to the French si. Contrasts with ja which confirms positive statements or positively phrased questions.
    Du elsker mig ikke, gør du vel? -- Jo!
    You don't love me, do you? -- Yes, I do!
    Jeg har ikke gjort noget! -- Jo!
    I didn't do anything! -- Yes, you did!

Usage notes

Negatively phrased questions like Kommer du ikke?, Du kommer ikke, vel?, Du kommer ikke? ("Are you not coming?", "You are not coming, are you?", "You are not coming?") must be answered with jo to indicate that the speaker is, in fact, coming; they cannot be answered with ja ("yes").

References


Dutch

Etymology

From English yo.

Interjection

jo

  1. hi
    Ey! - Jo! - Hey! - Hi!
  2. bye
    Later! - Jo! - Later! - Bye!
  3. you too
    Fijn weekend! - Jo! - Have a nice weekend! - You too!

Esperanto

Pronunciation

Noun

jo (accusative singular jo-on, plural jo-oj, accusative plural jo-ojn)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter J.

See also


Finnish

Etymology

From Proto-Finnic *jo, borrowed from Proto-Germanic *ju, compare Gothic (ju, "already"), Old High German ju ("already"). Cognates include Estonian ju, Votic jo, Veps jo, Ingrian jo, Karelian jo. (EES)

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /'jo/, ['jo?]
  • Rhymes: -o
  • Hyphenation: jo

Adverb

jo

  1. already
    Luin kirjan jo loppuun.
    I already finished the book.
  2. now (emphasizing word)
    (impatiently) Tule jo!
    Come now!

Derived terms


Friulian

Etymology

From Vulgar Latin *eo, attested from the 6th century in Romance, from Latin ego.; akin to Greek (egó), Sanskrit ? (aham), all from Proto-Indo-European *é?h?.

Pronoun

jo

  1. I

See also


German

Alternative forms

Etymology 1

Alteration of ja ("yes") or the respective dialectal cognates.

Pronunciation

Interjection

jo

  1. (colloquial, dialectal) yes, yeah, well; expresses agreement in a hesitant or ponderous manner.

Etymology 2

From the respective dialectal words for yes in about half of Northern and Central Germany and all of Western Germany (compare Low German ja, jo). Possibly from Proto-Germanic *ja ("yes, thus, so"), possibly from an unrecorded root. The form with /o:/ must have existed in the Middle Ages already, since the word often partakes in the same sound shifts as words with /o:/ from other sources, cf. Swedish jo.

Pronunciation

Interjection

jo

  1. (colloquial) yes; expresses firm agreement.

Ingrian

Adverb

jo

  1. already

Italian

Pronoun

jo

  1. Obsolete form of io.

Japanese

Romanization

jo

  1. R?maji transcription of
  2. R?maji transcription of
  3. R?maji transcription of
  4. R?maji transcription of

Karelian

Adverb

jo

  1. already

Kashubian

Interjection

jo

  1. yes

Konabéré

Pronunciation

Noun

jo

  1. water

Alternative forms

Further reading


Lashi

Noun

jo

  1. field
  2. farm

References


Latvian

Pronunciation

Headset icon.svg This entry needs audio files. If you have a microphone, please record some and upload them. (For audio required quickly, visit WT:APR.)

Conjunction

jo

  1. because
  2. for

Particle

jo

  1. the... the...
    jo vair?k naudas, jo lab?k - the more money the better

Lithuanian

Pronunciation

Determiner

jo

  1. his (3rd person singular masculine possessive)

Pronoun

jo m

  1. (third-person singular) genitive form of jis.

Particle

jo

  1. (colloquial) yes

Livonian

Alternative forms

Etymology 1

Perhaps borrowed from Latvian jo ("because, yet (more)"), /juo/.

Pronunciation

Preposition

jo

  1. more; used with adjectives to form comparatives

Etymology 2

Perhaps borrowed from Latvian jau ("yet, already, after all"). However, compare also Finnish jo ("already"), thus ultimately a common Finnic borrowing from Proto-Germanic *ju that has likely been contaminated by the more figurative senses of Latvian jau, with the latter ultimately a distant cognate of the initial Germanic borrowing.

Pronunciation

Preposition

jo

  1. yet, already, after all
    • Tiit-Rein Viitso, Valts Ern?treits (2012-2013), L?võk?el-?stik?el-le?k?el sõn?r?ntõz, Tartu, R?ga: TÜ, LVA
      m?nig?ikizt, ne jo l?bõd m?zõ
      bumblebees, they are already migrating to their burrows (lit. "going inside of earth")
      am?d jo ?tist äb peõt
      not everyone makes the same [amount of money] (lit. "everyone after all doesn't earn the same")

Usage notes

  • L?L only lists jo without listing any instances of juo. Livonian-Latvian-Livonian dictionary, in turn, only lists juo for the comparative forming preposition sense.
  • L?L doesn't explicitly list the second sense that seems to exactly mirror Latvian jau (including the more figurative applications.) Such a function, however, is inferred from the many usage examples available in the dictionary. As a translation of Latvian jau (strictly in its temporal sense) L?L lists jõb? ("already"), cf. Estonian juba.

Lower Sorbian

Pronunciation

Particle

jo

  1. yes (word used to show agreement or acceptance)

Verb

jo

  1. third-person singular present of by?

Pronoun

jo

  1. accusative of wóno

Alternative forms

  • njo (after preposition)

Luxembourgish

Pronunciation

Adverb

jo

  1. yes

See also

Verb

jo

  1. second-person singular imperative of joen

North Frisian

Etymology

Compare with West Frisian hja.

Alternative forms

  • djo (Helgoland)
  • ja (Sylt and Mooring)

Pronoun

jo

  1. they

Northern Sami

Etymology

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Pronunciation

Phonetik.svg This entry needs pronunciation information. If you are familiar with the IPA then please add some!

Adverb

jo

  1. already
  2. now

Further reading

  • Koponen, Eino; Ruppel, Klaas; Aapala, Kirsti, editors (2002-2008) Álgu database: Etymological database of the Saami languages[1], Helsinki: Research Institute for the Languages of Finland

Norwegian Bokmål

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Old Norse jaur.

Adverb

jo

  1. yes; in disagreement with the last speaker's negative statement.
    Du har ikke pusset tennene vel? - Jo, det har jeg.
    You haven't brushed your teeth, have you? - Yes, I have.
  2. yes or no; expressing doubt. (colloquial)
    Vil du være med? - Jo...
    Do you want to join? - I'm not sure...
Usage notes

Ja can be interpreted as an agreement with the person replied to. Jo is used instead of ja if this agreement could cause ambiguity. In example 1, agreement with the person asking the question would be the opposite of a confirmation that one actually did brush the teeth. As such ja would be ambiguous. The answer jo removes the possibility of agreement with the speaker.

Related terms

Etymology 2

Norwegian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia no

From Old Norse gjóðr

Noun

jo m (definite singular joen, indefinite plural joer, definite plural joene)

  1. a skua, seabird of family Stercorariidae.
Derived terms

References

  • "jo" in The Bokmål Dictionary.
  • "jo_1" in Det Norske Akademis ordbok (NAOB).
  • "jo_2" in Det Norske Akademis ordbok (NAOB).

Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology 1

From Old Norse jaur.

Alternative forms

Adverb

jo

  1. yes; in disagreement with the last speaker's negative statement.
  2. yes or no; expressing doubt. (colloquial)
Usage notes

As for Bokmål above.

Related terms

Etymology 2

Norwegian Nynorsk Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia nn

From Old Norse gjóðr

Noun

jo m (definite singular joen, indefinite plural joar, definite plural joane)

  1. a skua, seabird of family Stercorariidae.
Derived terms

References

  • "jo" in The Nynorsk Dictionary.

Occitan

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Old Occitan eu, from Vulgar Latin *eo, attested from the 6th century in Romance, from Latin ego. Compare Catalan jo, Old French jeo.

Pronoun

jo

  1. (Gascony) I

Etymology 2

From Old Occitan (compare Catalan jou), from Latin jugum, iugum (compare French joug, Italian giogo), from Proto-Italic *jugom, from Proto-Indo-European *yugóm.

Noun

jo m

  1. yoke

Old French

Pronoun

jo

  1. Alternative form of je

Old Frisian

Pronoun

j?

  1. Alternative form of j?, accusative/dative of j?

Inflection


Plautdietsch

Adverb

jo

  1. yes

Polish

Etymology

Compare Czech jo.

Pronunciation

Particle

jo

  1. (dialectal) yeah, yep

See also

Antonyms


Spanish

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Interjection

¡jo!

  1. stop, woah (especially when commanding a horse or imitative thereof)

Etymology 2

Euphemistic clipping of joder.

Interjection

¡jo!

  1. Used to express surprise, amazement, or confusion.
    ¡Jo!
    I never heard anything like that before.
    ¡Jo!
    Are you serious?
    ¡Jo!
    Boy!

Further reading


Swahili

Etymology

Possibly from English yo.

Interjection

jo

  1. (Sheng) added for emphasis to the end of a sentence
    Manze jo! - Oh man!

Swedish

Pronunciation

Interjection

jo

  1. yes; used as a disagreement to a negative statement or a negatively phrased question.
    Du har inte borstat tänderna, eller hur? - Jo, det har jag.
    "You haven't brushed your teeth, have you? - Yes, I have."

Usage notes

Ja (yes) can be interpreted as an agreement with the person replied to. Jo is used instead of ja if this agreement could cause ambiguity. In the example above agreement with the person asking the question would be the opposite of a confirmation that one actually did brush the teeth. As such ja would be ambiguous. The answer jo removes the possibility of agreement with the speaker.

In Swedish dialects spoken in northern Sweden and Finland, it is however not uncommon for the word jo to be used in place of ja in all cases, at least in spoken language.

Anagrams


Veps

Etymology

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Related to Finnish jo.

Adverb

jo

  1. already

References

  • Zajceva, N. G.; Mullonen, M. I. (2007), ", ", in Uz' venä-vepsläine vajehnik / Novyj russko-vepsskij slovar? [New Russian-Veps Dictionary], Petrozavodsk: Periodika

West Frisian

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Old Frisian j?, from Proto-Germanic *izwiz, dative/accusative of *j?z, from Proto-Indo-European *y.

Pronoun

jo

  1. you (second person singular nominative formal pronoun)
Usage notes

Though it is a singular pronoun, jo takes the plural conjugation of verbs.

Inflection

Further reading

  • "jo", in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

Etymology 2

EB1911 - Volume 01 - Page 001 - 1.svg This entry lacks etymological information. If you are familiar with the origin of this term, please add it to the page per etymology instructions, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.

Determiner

jo

  1. your (second-person singular formal possessive determiner)
Further reading
  • "jo", in Wurdboek fan de Fryske taal (in Dutch), 2011

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