Ir
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Ir

Alemannic German

Etymology

From Old High German ir, from Proto-Germanic *j?z, a variant of *j?z.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

ir

  1. you (plural)

Declension


Chuukese

Pronoun

ir

  1. them

Related terms


Danish

Danish Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia da

Etymology

From Old Norse eir.

Pronunciation

Noun

ir c (singular definite irren, not used in plural form)

  1. verdigris

Elfdalian

Verb

ir

  1. singular present of wårå

Galician

Etymology

From Old Portuguese ir, from Latin ?re, present active infinitive of e?; the forms beginning with V from corresponding forms of v?d?; the forms beginning with F from the corresponding forms of sum.

Verb

ir (first-person singular present vou, first-person singular preterite fun, past participle ido)

  1. to go
  2. to work, to function
    --Vai ou non vai? --Non vai.
    Does that work or does it not work? No, it doesn't work.
  3. first-person singular personal infinitive of ir
  4. third-person singular personal infinitive of ir

Conjugation

See also


Interlingua

Verb

ir

  1. to go

Conjugation

  • Present: va
  • Future: ira
  • Past: iva
  • Present participle: iente (?)
  • Past participle: ite

Antonyms


Kaera

Etymology

From Proto-Alor-Pantar *jira.

Noun

ir

  1. water

References

  • Gary Holton and Laura Robinson, The Internal History of the Alor-Pantar language family, in The Alor-Pantar languages: History and Typology, edited by Marian Klamer
  • Marian Klamer, One item, many faces: 'come' in Teiwa (2010, in wing & Klamer) and Kaera (2014, in Schapper)
  • Gary Holton, Marian Klamer, Franti?ek Kratochvíl, Laura C. Robinson, Antoinette Schapper, The Historical Relations of the Papuan Languages of Alor and Pantar, Oceanic Linguistics 2012:1

Latgalian

Etymology

Shortened from ir?, related to Latvian ir and Lithuanian yra (with the same meaning). In Latgalian, the shortened form ir is mostly used in unstressed positions, while ir? is mostly common for stressed positions in the sentence.

Verb

ir

  1. is, are (present simple 3rd-person form, singular and plural)

Latin

Alternative forms

Etymology

Cognate with Ancient Greek ? (kheír).

Pronunciation

Noun

ir n sg (indeclinable, no genitive)

  1. (rare, anatomy) hand

Declension

Not declined; used only in the nominative and accusative singular., singular only.

Case Singular
Nominative ir
Genitive --
Dative --
Accusative ir
Ablative --
Vocative --

Synonyms

References


Latvian

Etymology 1

From Proto-Baltic *ir? (cf. dialectal, archaic forms ir?d, iraid, ir?g, and also Lithuanian yrà, which existed alongside *esti (cf. Old Church Slavonic ? (est?), Russian ? (jest?), Lithuanian dialectal ?sti, Old Prussian ast), initially with basically existential ("there is") meaning, but later on extending to all copular meanings, thus replacing *esti. In Sudovian, also the first person form irm ("I am") is derived from this stem. The origin of Proto-Baltic *ir? is, however, unclear. Various sources have been proposed: an older interjection (cf. Lithuanian aurè ("look!")), the particle and conjunction ir ("both... and..."), a noun with the meaning "existence," "reality," "thing," or even (more recently) the Proto-Indo-European secondary third-person verbal ending *-r with a later -?-extension.[1]

Pronunciation

Verb

ir

  1. (he, she, it) is; 3rd person singular present indicative form of b?t
  2. (they) are; 3rd person plural present indicative form of b?t
  3. (with the particle lai) let (him, her, it) be; 3rd person singular imperative form of b?t
  4. (with the particle lai) let them be; 3rd person plural imperative form of b?t

Etymology 2

From Proto-Baltic *ir, from the reduced grade *r? of Proto-Indo-European *ar ("so, then; question particle") (whence also Latvian ar ("with"), q.v.). The original meaning "and" (cf. Lithuanian cognate) is found in 16th- and 17th-century texts, but from the 18th century on ir was no longer used in this sense. Cognates include Lithuanian ir? ("and"), Old Prussian ir ("also"), er ("(along) with"), Ancient Greek , ', (ára, ár', rhá, "so, then, therefore").[1]

Conjunction

ir

  1. additive conjunction used to join several similar sentence elements, indicating their similar nature: both ... and ..., ... and also ..., ... as well as ...
    grib?jas ir smieties, ir raud?t - one wanted both to laugh and to cry
    n?ca ir jaunie, ir vecie - both the young and the old came
    tolaik ir t?vs, ir m?te bija miru?i - at that time, both the father and the mother had died
    t? bija dro?a, interesanta un gl?ta meitene, kas prata b?t ir jautra, ir nopietna - that was a brave, fun (lit. interesting) and pretty girl, who knew how to be both cheerful and serious
    nakts k? jau nakts: ir m?ness sp?d, ir t?l? r?sa plaiksn? - the night is like the night (= as usual): the moon shines and also in the distance silent lightning flashes
Synonyms

Particle

ir

  1. used to mark connection and emphasis, reinforcement; syn. ar?
    Ludis nol?ca liel? dub?u pan?k? un tur ir palika, ratiem paka? skat?damies - Ludis jumped into a big mud puddle and there also he stayed, looking ahead at the cart
    D?dums pateica: "man v?l laika diezgan", un p?rliecin?t vi?u par pieg?des normu nodo?anu pirms termi?a t? ir neizdev?s -- D?dums said: "I still have enough time," and also, so it was impossible to convince him about the rules for delivery before the deadline
  2. used to mark emphasis, to reinforce; syn. pat: really, even
    tas vi?am ir pr?t? nen?k - that doesn't even come to his mind
    kr?mos ir pa nakt?m gu?ot, pils?t? vi par?doties reti - really sleeping at night in the bushes, he appeared rarely in the city
Synonyms

References

  1. ? 1.01.1 Karulis, Konstant?ns (1992), "ir", in Latvie?u Etimolo?ijas V?rdn?ca (in Latvian), R?ga: AVOTS, ->ISBN

Lithuanian

Etymology

From Proto-Balto-Slavic *ir ("and, also"), compare Latvian ir, Old Prussian ir ("and, even"), from Proto-Indo-European *h?r?- ("thus, so"); compare Ancient Greek (ára, "so, then, consequently"). If the original meaning was "fittingly, accordingly", the root may be identical to *h?er- ("fit together"), see artì ("near") for more.

Proto-Slavic *i ("and, even") is probably not related.

Conjunction

ir?

  1. (coordinating, cumulative) and, too
  2. (coordinating, illative) and, so
    Bùvo gra?ùs óras, ir? m?s nùtar?me keliáuti. - the weather was nice, and (=so) we decided to travel.
  3. (coordinating, correlative) both ... and ...

Particle

ir?

  1. (emphatic) even, and
    Mán ir? nepav?ko padarýt! - I didn't even manage that!
  2. (emphatic) exactly, just, precisely
    Jìs ir? yrà tàs ?mogùs, api? kùr? kal?bame. - It's him that we're talking about
  3. (interrogative) and, so
    , ir? kàs! - So what!

Related terms


Middle English

Etymology 1

Determiner

ir

  1. Alternative form of hire

Pronoun

ir

  1. Alternative form of hire

References

Etymology 2

Pronoun

ir

  1. Alternative form of hire

References


Old High German

Etymology

From Proto-West Germanic *ji?, variant of Proto-Germanic *j?z, from Proto-Indo-European *y.

Pronoun

ir

  1. you (second-person plural pronoun)
  2. (polite) you (second-person singular pronoun)
    • late 9th century, Otfrid of Weissenburg, Letter to Bishop Salomo of Constance v. 5-7:
      Lékza ih therara búachi / iu sentu in suábo richi,
      thaz ir irkíaset ubar ál, / oba siu frúma wesan scal;
      Oba ir hiar fíndet iawiht thés / thaz wírdig ist thes lésannes:
      I send to you in Swabia the selection of books,
      so that you can decide above all if it will be useful;
      [and] if you find here something that is worthy of being read.
      (quoted in and tr. by Horst J. Simon in Taavitsainen & Jucker 2003:88)

Usage notes

Some speakers of Old High German appear to have contrasted the "polite" singular (plural forms) with the regular, informal singular (singular forms), as in Modern German Sie versus du. This distinction is however not well-attested, and may have been regional, genre-dependent, or only in late Old High German.

Inflection

Old High German personal pronouns
Number Person Gender Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative
Singular First ih
(ihha, ihcha)
m?n mir mih
Second d? d?n dir dih
Third Masculine er (her) (s?n) imu, imo inan, in
Feminine siu; s?, si ira (iru, iro) iru, iro sia
Neuter iz es, is imu, imo iz
Plural First wir uns?r uns unsih
Second ir iuw?r iu iuwih
Third Masculine sie iro im, in sie
Feminine sio iro im, in sio
Neuter siu iro im, in siu
Polite form Second   ir iuw?r iu iuwih

Descendants

  • Middle High German: ir
    • Alemannic German: ir
    • Central Franconian:
    • Cimbrian: iart
    • German: ihr
    • => Luxembourgish: dir
    • Rhine Franconian:
      • => Pennsylvania German: dihr
    • Yiddish: (ir), ?(ihr)

Old Swedish

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Old Norse ír, variant of ér, from Proto-Germanic *j?z, variant of *j?z.

Pronoun

?r

  1. you (plural)

Declension

Descendants


Portuguese

Alternative forms

  • hir (obsolete)
  • yr (obsolete)

Etymology

From Old Portuguese ir, from Latin ?re, present active infinitive of e? (from Proto-Italic *e?, from Proto-Indo-European *h?ey-); the forms beginning with V from corresponding forms of v?d?; the forms beginning with F from the corresponding forms of sum.

Pronunciation

Verb

ir (first-person singular present indicative vou, past participle ido)

  1. (intransitive, or transitive with para or a or até) to go (to move to a destination)
    Vamos a pé?
    Do we go on foot?
    Eles foram ao shopping.
    They went to the mall.
    Queríamos ir para casa.
    We wanted to go home.
  2. (auxiliary, with an infinitive) will; to be going to; forms the future tense
    Vou comprar um sapato.
    I will buy a shoe.
    Nós não íamos fazer nada.
    We weren't going to do anything.
  3. (auxiliary, with a gerund) to keep on; to go on; ~ on; forms the continuative aspect
    A água vai escorrendo até acabar.
    The water keeps on leaking until it is all gone.
  4. (takes a reflexive pronoun) to go; to leave; to depart
    Os homens já se foram todos.
    All the men have left already.
  5. (intransitive, or transitive with para or em or a) to attend; to go to (to be present in an event)
    Sinto muito, não poderei ir à sua festa.
    I'm sorry, I won't be able to go to your party.
  6. (transitive with até) to go on until; to last to
    A batalha foi até as duas da manhã.
    The battle went on until two AM.
  7. (intransitive, or transitive with em) to do; to fare (to have a good or bad result)
    Fui muito mal em quase todas as provas.
    I did very bad in nearly all the tests.
  8. (intransitive) to be doing (formula used in greetings)
    "Como vai?" "Vou bem, obrigado."
    "How are you doing?" "I am doing fine, thanks."
  9. (takes a reflexive pronoun) to be gone (depleted, destroyed; no longer usable)
    Porcaria! Minha TV se foi.
    Damn it! My TV is gone.
  10. (euphemistic, takes a reflexive pronoun) to leave us; to depart (to die)
    Uma oração para os que já se foram.
    A prayer for those who have already left us.
  11. (intransitive) to go (to begin an action or process)
    Um, dois, três, vai!
    One, two, three, go!
    O sinal verde ainda não foi!
    The green light still didn't light up.
    Vamos!
    Get on with it!
  12. (transitive with com) to match; to go with (to form a good combination with)
    Este casaco não vai bem com os sapatos.
    This jacket doesn't go well with the shoes.
  13. (transitive with com) to like or tolerate someone or something
    Parece que ninguém vai comigo.
    It seems nobody likes me.
  14. (transitive with por) to follow (to take into account when making choices)
    Vai pela razão, não pelos sentimentos.
    Follow reason, not feelings.
    Se a luz não acender, pode encontrar o livro indo pelo tato.
    If the light doesn't turn on, you can find the book by following your sense of touch.
    Vai por mim.
    Trust me.
  15. (transitive with de) to range from (to encompass values between two given extremes)
    As perguntas iam do fácil ao difícil.
    The questions ranged from easy to difficult.
  16. (poker, intransitive) to call (to match the amount of chips in the pot)
    • 2012, Luís Fernando Veríssimo, "Os pêssegos", in Diálogos Impossíveis, Editora Objetiva, ->ISBN, page 29:
      Não se ouvia mais nada, além dos ruídos naturais do pôquer. O clicar das fichas. Frases curtas: "Dou cartas." "Vou." "Não vou." "Pago pra ver." "Não é possível!"

Usage notes

The use of auxiliary ir with lexical ir (e.g. Eu vou ir para casa "I will go home") is nonstandard in both Portugal and Brazil. A single ir (Eu vou para casa, even though this also means "I am going home") or the future tense form (Eu irei para casa, which is rather formal) is used instead.

Conjugation

Quotations

For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:ir.

Synonyms


Romansch

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Latin e?, ?re, from Proto-Indo-European *h?ey-. The forms beginning with V derive from corresponding forms of Latin v?d?. The forms beginning with M presumably derive from corresponding forms of Latin me?.

Verb

ir

  1. (Rumantsch Grischun, Sursilvan, Sutsilvan, Puter, Vallader) to go

Conjugation


Scots

Verb

ir

  1. (South Scots) Second-person simple present form of ti be
  2. (South Scots) Plural simple present form of ti be

See also


Spanish

Etymology

The infinitive and forms beginning with i or y are from Latin ?re, present active infinitive of e? (from Proto-Italic *e?, from Proto-Indo-European *h?ey-); the forms beginning with v from corresponding forms of v?d?; the forms beginning with f from forms of sum[1].

Pronunciation

Verb

ir (first-person singular present voy, first-person singular preterite fui, past participle ido)

  1. to go
  2. (reflexive) to go away, to leave (see irse)
  3. (with a followed by the infinitive), to be going to (near future)
    Hoy vamos a ver una película.
    Today we are going to see a movie.

Usage notes

  • The basic meaning "go" applies to any kind of animate or inanimate motion: walk, ride, sail, fly, etc.
  • The voseo imperative of ir is typically replaced by the imperative of andar, which has the form andá.[2], though the form i is sometimes used as well.

Conjugation

Derived terms

See also

References

  1. ^ Corominas, J. & Pascual, José A. Diccionario crítico etimológico castellano e hispánico. Volumen III: G-MA. Madrid: Gredos, 1980. ->ISBN, page 462
  2. ^ "Spanish from Argentina: That Voseo Thing", in (Please provide the title of the work)[1], accessed 9 October 2015

Welsh

Etymology

From Proto-Brythonic *ir, from Proto-Celtic *ros, from Proto-Indo-European *puHrós, from Proto-Indo-European *pewH- ("to be clean, pure"). Compare Irish úr.

Pronunciation

Adjective

ir (feminine singular ir, plural irion, equative ired, comparative irach, superlative iraf)

  1. raw, unprocessed
  2. fresh, succulent

Mutation

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal h-prothesis
ir unchanged unchanged hir
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Yapese

Pronoun

ir

  1. Third-person singular pronoun; he, she, it

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ir
 



 



 
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