In-
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In-

English

Etymology 1

From Middle English in-, from Old English in- ("in, into", prefix), from Proto-Germanic *in, from Proto-Indo-European *en. More at in.

Alternative forms

Prefix

in-

  1. in, into, towards, within.
    inhold, inmove, intake, inthrill
    inborn, inbound
    infield, infighting, insight, intalk, inwork
Antonyms
Derived terms
terms derived from in-: toward
Translations

Etymology 2

From Middle English in-, borrowed (in words of Latinate origin) from Latin in-, from Latin in, from Proto-Indo-European *en (cognate to Germanic in-, above). Often borrowed from French in- (e.g. incise, incite, incline, indication), or as French en-, originally from Latin in.

Prefix

in-

  1. in, into
    Note: Before certain letters, in- becomes:
Usage notes

In direction sense, used in Latinate terms, and opposed by ex-, e-, rather than Germanic out-; senses not always strict antonyms. Examples include infiltrate/exfiltrate, ingress/egress, invade/evade.

Antonyms
Derived terms
terms derived from in-: direction
terms derived from in-: tendency

Etymology 3

From Middle English in-, borrowed (in words of latinate origin) from Latin in- ("not"). Sometimes the Latin word has passed through French before reaching English (e.g. incapable, incertainty, inclement, incompatible). Compare un-.

Prefix

in-

  1. (non-productive) Used with certain words to reverse their meaning
    Note: Before certain letters, in- becomes:
    1. (non-productive) Added to adjectives to mean not
      inedible
      inaccurate
    2. (non-productive) Added to nouns to mean lacking or without
      incredulity
      ineptitude
Derived terms
terms derived from in-: reversing meaning
Translations

Related terms

See also

Anagrams


Catalan

Etymology

Borrowed from Latin in- ("un-, not").

Prefix

in- (before l il-, before b, m, or p im-, before r ir-)

  1. in- ; un- (reversal of meaning or lack of an attribute)

Derived terms


Dutch

Pronunciation

  • (file)

Prefix

in-

  1. from the adverb in
  2. prepended to a noun or adjective, it reinforces the quality signified thereby
  3. prepended to an adjective to negate its meaning; occurs mostly in borrowed terms from French: in-, un-

French

Etymology

Borrowed from Latin in- ("un-, not").

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): (before a consonant) //, (before a vowel) /in/

Prefix

in-

  1. in-; un- (indicates negation)

Derived terms


German

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Borrowed from Latin in-.

Prefix

in-

  1. in-; un- (indicates negation)
    in- + ‎homogen ("homogenous") -> ‎inhomogen ("inhomogeneous")

Etymology 2

Ultimately from Proto-Germanic *in, from Proto-Indo-European *en. More at in.

Prefix

in-

  1. (rare, not productive) in; into (nominal equivalent to ein-)
    in- + ‎Schrift ("writing") -> ‎Inschrift ("inscription")
    in- + ‎Sasse ("someone who sits") -> ‎Insasse ("passenger, inhabitant")
    in- + ‎Begriff ("concept") -> ‎Inbegriff ("embodiment")

Etymology 3

Borrowed from Latin in-.

Prefix

in-

  1. (not productive) in-, into
    in- + ‎filtrieren ("to filter") -> ‎infiltrieren ("to infiltrate")

Derived terms

Further reading

  • in- in Duden online
  • "in-" in Digitales Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache

Gothic

Romanization

in-

  1. Romanization of -

Irish

Etymology 1

(This etymology is missing or incomplete. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Prefix

in-

  1. capable of, fit for, fit to be
    Antonym: do-

Etymology 2

From i, in ("in").

Prefix

in-

  1. en-, in-, il-, im-, ir-
  2. endo-
  3. intra-
Alternative forms

Derived terms

Mutation

Irish mutation
Radical Eclipsis with h-prothesis with t-prothesis
in- n-in- hin- t-in-
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Further reading

  • "in-" in Foclóir Gaeilge-Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
  • Entries containing "in-" in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

Italian

Alternative forms

  • im- (assimilated form before b-/m-/p-)
  • il- (assimilated form before l-)
  • ir- (assimilated form before r-)

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Latin in-, a prefixation of in ("in, into"), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h?én.

Prefix

in-

  1. (forms verbs) Used to denote derivation.
  2. (obsolete, rare) Used as an intensifier.
Usage notes
  • The prefix is used together with a verbal ending suffix to derive causative verbs from adjectives or nouns:
Examples:
in- + ‎arido ("dry", "arid") -> ‎inaridire ("to parch", "to dry up")
in- + ‎fiamma ("flame") -> ‎infiammare ("to enflame", "to kindle")
  • When used with verbs, it's usually a reflection of derivation in Latin, and retains the original meaning of "into", "inside":
Example:
in- + ‎fondere -> ‎infondere ("to infuse", "to instill") (cfr. Latin ?nfundere)
  • In some cases, the meaning of "into" can also be found in verbs of modern derivation:
Example:
in- + ‎carcere ("jail", "prison") -> ‎incarcerare ("to imprison", "to incarcerate")

Etymology 2

From Latin in- ("un-, not"), from Proto-Indo-European *n?-, zero grade form of the sentence negative *ne.

Prefix

in-

  1. Used to denote negation or opposition or privation; un-; in-; a-
Usage notes
  • The suffix is usually found in adjectives (and nouns therefrom derived):
Examples:
in- + ‎coerente ("coherent", "consistent") -> ‎incoerente ("incoherent", "inconsistent")
in- + ‎abile ("able", "capable") -> ‎inabile ("unable", "incapable")
in- + ‎felice ("happy") -> ‎infelice ("unhappy")
in- + ‎desiderabile ("desirable; advisable") -> ‎indesiderabile ("undesirable, unwelcome")
  • More rarely, it is found in adjectives derived from nouns:
Example:
in- + ‎colore ("colour") -> ‎incolore ("uncoloured")

Derived terms


Latin

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Proto-Italic *en-, from Proto-Indo-European *n?- ("not"), zero-grade form of the negative particle *ne ("not"). Akin to ne-, n?, n?.

Prefix

in-

  1. un-, non-, not
Usage notes

Affixed primarily to adjectives.

The spelling of the prefix changes in some situations:

  • Before b or p, it becomes im-.
    in- + ‎barba ("beard") -> ‎imberbis ("beardless")
    in- + ‎pati?ns ("patient") -> ‎impati?ns ("impatient")
  • Before l, m, or r, it becomes il-, im-, or ir-, respectively.
    in- + ‎lab?r?tus ("worked, toilsome") -> ‎illab?r?tus ("unworked, uncultivated")
    in- + ‎m?t?rus ("mature") -> ‎imm?t?rus ("immature")
    in- + ‎rever?ns ("reverent") -> ‎irrever?ns ("irreverent")
  • Before gn and sometimes n, it becomes ig- (pronounced [-]).
    in- + ‎gn?rus ("knowlegable") -> ‎ign?rus ("ignorant")
    in- + ‎n?men ("name") -> ‎ign?minia ("dishonor")
  • Before f or s, it becomes ?n- (pronounced [?:-]).
    in- + ‎f?n?tus ("finite") -> ‎?nf?n?tus ("endless, infinite")
    in- + ‎s?nus ("healthy, sane") -> ‎?ns?nus ("mad, insane")
Derived terms
Descendants
  • -> Catalan: in- (sometimes i-, or im- before p, b and m)
  • -> French: in-
  • -> Italian: in-
  • -> Middle English: in-
  • -> Portuguese: in-, im- before p, b and m)
  • -> Spanish: in- (sometimes i-, or im- before p, b and m)

Etymology 2

Prefixation of in.

Alternative forms

Prefix

in-

  1. in, within, inside
Usage notes

Affixed primarily to verbs.

Not to be confused with in- ("not").

Derived terms

Descendants

References

  • in- in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 301

Maltese

Pronunciation

Article

in-

  1. Alternative form of il-

Usage notes

  • Used before the letter n. For details on usage, see the main lemma.

Northern Ndebele

Etymology

From Proto-Nguni *ín-, from Proto-Bantu *j-n-.

Prefix

in-

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notes

The variant form im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (b, f, m, p, v).


Old English

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /'in/ (as a nominal prefix)
  • IPA(key): /in/ (as a verbal prefix)

Etymology 1

From in ("in"). More at in.

Prefix

in-

  1. in, into; on, upon
    in- + ‎bl?wan ("to blow; to breathe") -> ‎inbl?wan ("to inspire, breathe upon")
    in- + ‎?odan -> ‎in?odan ("to enter")
    in- + ‎?þung -> ‎in?þung ("inspiration")
  2. internal, positioned on the inside, inside
    in- + ‎coþu ("disease, sickness") -> ‎incoþu ("internal disease")
    in- + ‎dryhten ("lord") -> ‎indryhten ("distinguished, noble, courtly, excellent")
Descendants
  • Middle English: in-

Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *in- ("strong", adj), from Proto-Indo-European *ind?ro- ("swelling; strong"), from *oyd- ("to swell").

Prefix

in-

  1. (intensifying) very
    in- + ‎fr?d ("wise") -> ‎infr?d ("very old, experienced, wise")
    in- + ‎dryhten ("noble") -> ‎indryhten ("very noble")

Derived terms


Old Irish

Etymology 1

From Proto-Celtic *eni-. Prefix form of i. Conflated with ind- quite early.

Alternative forms

Prefix

in-

  1. in

Usage notes

Very frequently replaced by ad- in pretonic position in verbs where the meaning 'in' is not transparent, e.g.:

Sometimes replaced by as- in pretonic position in verbs where the meaning 'in' is not transparent, e.g.:

Derived terms

References

Etymology 2

Prefix

in- (class C infixed pronoun)

  1. Alternative form of id-

Portuguese

Alternative forms

  • im- (before p or b)
  • ir- (before r)

Etymology

Borrowed from Latin in- ("un-, not").

Prefix

in-

  1. un-; not

Derived terms


Spanish

Etymology

Borrowed from Latin in- ("un-, not").

Prefix

in-

  1. not (negation)

Derived terms


Swazi

Etymology

From Proto-Nguni *ín-, from Proto-Bantu *j-n-.

Prefix

in-

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notes

The variant form im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (b, f, m, p, v).


Xhosa

Etymology

From Proto-Nguni *ín-, from Proto-Bantu *j-n-.

Prefix

in-

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notes

The variant form im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (b, f, m, p, v).


Zulu

Etymology

From Proto-Nguni *ín-, from Proto-Bantu *j-n-.

Prefix

in-

  1. Class 9 noun prefix.

Usage notes

The variant form im- is used before stems beginning with a labial consonant (b, f, m, p, v). Before l, m or n, the prefix becomes i-.

References


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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