Er
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Er

English

Etymology

Mimetic (sound of hesitation)

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /?:/
  • Used in non-rhotic dialects. Compare uh.
  • (file)

Interjection

er

  1. Said when hesitating in speech.

Verb

er (third-person singular simple present ers, present participle erring, simple past and past participle erred)

  1. (informal) To utter the word "er" when hesitating in speech, found in the phrase um and er.
    He ummed and erred his way through the presentation.

See also

Anagrams


Afrikaans

Noun

er (plural erre or ers, diminutive erretjie)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter R.

Alemannic German

Etymology

From Old High German er, from Proto-Germanic *iz. Cognate with German er.

Pronoun

er m

  1. (personal) he; it

Declension


Breton

Contraction

er

  1. e (preposition "in") + ur (indefinite article "a(n)")
  2. e (preposition "in") + ar (definite article "the")

Cornish

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Proto-Celtic *eriros ("eagle") (compare Breton erer, Welsh eryr, Old Irish irar), from Proto-Indo-European *h?ér? ("large bird").

er (an eagle)

Noun

er m (plural eryon or eres)

  1. eagle

Etymology 2

(This etymology is missing. Please add to it, or discuss it at the Etymology scriptorium.)

Noun

er m (plural erys)

  1. heir

Etymology 3

See the etymology of the main entry.

Noun

er

  1. Soft mutation of ger.

Crimean Tatar

Adjective

er

  1. every

Czech

Pronunciation

Noun

er n

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter R.

Further reading


Danish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /?r/, [æ], but often elided in spontaneous speech.

Verb

er

  1. present of være

Dutch

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

Weak form of der, the unstressed form of daar ("there")

Adverb

er

  1. there (unspecific to distance)
  2. (with a preposition) him, her, it, them.
    Ik heb ermee gewerkt.
    I have worked with it/them.
    Je kunt er de bergen boven zien.
    You can see the mountains above it/them.
Usage notes

Etymology 2

From Old Dutch iro, genitive of the personal pronoun (3rd person plural).

Adverb

er

  1. (partitive pronoun) of them, of those (often not translated in English)
    Mijn broer heeft drie kinderen en ik heb er twee.
    My brother has three children and I have two. (literally: two of those)
    Ik zie er geen meer.
    I don't see any more (of them).
Synonyms
Derived terms

See Category:Dutch pronominal adverbs

Related terms
See also

Anagrams


East Damar

Noun

er

  1. water

References


Faroese

Pronunciation

Verb

er

  1. third-person singular indicative present of at vera

Conjugation


German

Etymology

From Middle High German er, from Old High German er, from Proto-Germanic *iz. In northern Old High German there also existed forms with initial h-, namely h?, her, from Proto-Germanic *hiz, whence Central Franconian and (from the accusative) Luxembourgish hien. Compare English he. The unusual spelling ih- in the forms ihm, ihn is not related to this. It was introduced in early modern German to distinguish these forms from im, in (when *iem, *ien would not have been exceptable because they would have been read as *jem, *jen).

Pronunciation

  • (standard) IPA(key): /?e:/, //
  • (colloquially in unstressed position) IPA(key): /?/

Pronoun

er

  1. (personal) he.
    Wo ist Klaus? Wo ist er?
    Where is Klaus? Where is he?
    • Clemens Brentano, Geschichte vom braven Kasperl und dem schönen Annerl (edited). In: 1835, F. W. Gubitz (editor), Jahrbuch des Nützlichen und Unterhaltenden für 1835, p. 171:
      Da fuhr die Alte überrascht auf und sprach: Lieber Herr, gehe er doch nach Haus und bete er fein und lege er sich schlafen.
  2. (personal) it (when the grammatical gender of the object/article/thing/animal etc., being referred to, is masculine (der)).
    Dies ist mein Hund. Er heißt Waldi.
    This is my dog. His name is Waldi.
    Dort steht ein Baum. Er ist über hundert Jahre alt.
    There stands a tree. It is more than 100 years old.
  3. (personal, obsolete) Alternative spelling of Er (you (polite))
    • 1837, Brothers Grimm, "Der junge Riese", in Kinder- und Haus-Märchen, Band 2[1], page 27:
      Da sprach er ,,Vater, ich sehe wohl, bei ihm werd ich nicht satt, will er mir einen Stab von Eisen verschaffen, der stark ist, und den ich vor meinen Knien nicht zerbrechen kann, so will ich wieder fort gehen." Da war der Bauer froh, und spannte seine zwei Pferde vor den Wagen, fuhr zum Schmied, und holte einen Stab so groß und dick, als ihn die zwei Pferde nur fahren konnten.
      (please add an English translation of this quote)

Inflection

1Often capitalized, especially in letters

In contemporary German, the genitive forms of personal pronouns are restricted to formal style and are infrequent even then. They may be used

  • for the genitive object still found in a handful of verbs: Ich erbarmte mich seiner. - "I had mercy on him". (Colloquially one would either use the dative case, or a prepositional object, or replace the verb with another.)
  • after the preposition statt ("instead of, in place of"): Ich kam statt seiner in die Mannschaft. - I joined the team in his place. (This sounds antiquated, for which reason an seiner Statt or an seiner Stelle is preferable.)

Further reading


Hunsrik

Alternative forms

  • ëyer (Wiesemann spelling system)

Etymology

From Old High German er, from Proto-Germanic *iz. Displaced the northern Old High German forms with h-, e.g. h?, her (see he).

Pronunciation

Pronoun

er

  1. he

Inflection

Further reading


Icelandic

Verb

er

  1. first-person singular indicative present of vera
    Ég er skemmtilegur.
    I am fun (masculine)
    Hver er ég?
    Who am I?
  2. third-person singular indicative present of vera
    Veit einhver hvar pabbi minn er?
    Does anybody know where my dad is?
    Hver er hann?
    Who is he?

Pronoun

er

  1. (relative) which
    Maður er , er Jón heitir.
    There is a man who is named John.
    Konan, er hann vartala við.
    The woman to whom he was talking.
    Þetta er borgin, er hann kom frá.
    This is the city from which he originated.
    Bærinn, er hún ætlar til.
    The town to which she's heading.
  2. (archaic) in relations with a demonstrative pronoun (this, that, these) or personal pronoun (I, we, they), which represents the genitive of a relative pronoun.
    Það er bók, er menn þekkja eigi höfund hennar.
    There is a book whose author people don't know.

Conjunction

er

  1. (with an "indexical"; ábendingarorð) of a place, of a time
    • Judges 2:19
      En er dómarinn andaðist, breyttu þeir að nýju verr en feður þeirra, með því að elta aðra guði til þess að þjóna þeim og falla fram fyrir þeim. Þeir létu eigi af gjörðum sínum né þrjóskubreytni sinni.
      But when the judge died, the people returned to ways even more corrupt than those of their ancestors, following other gods and serving and worshiping them. They refused to give up their evil practices and stubborn ways.
    Þar er ég kom.
    There whence I came.
    Þá er myndin var búin.
    When the movie was finished.

Derived terms

References

  • er in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Latin

Etymology 1

From Proto-Italic *h?r, from Proto-Indo-European *r ("hedgehog") (whence also Ancient Greek (kh?r, "hedgehog")), a root noun from *er- ("to be excited, be bristly"), whence also Ancient Greek (khoîros, "young pig") and Albanian derr ("pig") from *ór-yos.[1]

Pronunciation

Noun

?r m (genitive ?ris); third declension

  1. hedgehog
Usage notes

There is some uncertainty as to the exact forms of this word, especially regarding whether the lemma form of this was ?r or ?ris, as the forms attested in literature could point to either option. Another form, irim (acc. sing.; found in Plautus, Capt. 184), seems to be a spelling variant.

Declension

Third-declension noun.

Related terms

Etymology 2

Pronunciation

Noun

er f (indeclinable)

  1. The name of the letter R.
Usage notes
  • Multiple Latin names for the letter R, r have been suggested. The most common is er or a syllabic r, although there is some evidence which also supports, as names for the letter, r?, rrr, ?r, r?, and even (in the fourth- or fifth-century first Antinoë papyrus, which gives Greek transliterations of the Latin names of the Roman alphabet's letters) ? (irrhe).
Coordinate terms

References

  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008), "?r", in Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill, page 193

Latvian

Pronunciation

Noun

er m (invariable)

  1. The Latvian name of the Latin script letter R/r.

See also


Low German

Pronoun

er

  1. Alternative spelling of ehr

Mambae

Noun

er

  1. water

References

  • Mambai Language Manual: Ainaro Dialect (2001)

Mandarin

Romanization

er

  1. Nonstandard spelling of ér.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of ?r.
  3. Nonstandard spelling of èr.

Usage notes

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Manx

Etymology

From Old Irish for.

Preposition

er

  1. on
  2. onto
  3. during
  4. for

Inflection

Singular Plural
Person 1st 2nd 3rd m. 3rd f. 1st 2nd 3rd
Normal orrym ort er urree orrin erriu orroo
Emphatic orryms orts ersyn urreeish orrinyn erriuish orroosyn

Pronoun

er

  1. third-person singular of er
    on him/it

Derived terms


Middle Dutch

Adverb

er

  1. unstressed form of d?er

Middle English

Etymology 1

Determiner

er

  1. Alternative form of hire

Pronoun

er

  1. Alternative form of hire

References

Etymology 2

Pronoun

er

  1. Alternative form of hire

References

Etymology 3

From Old English ?ar.

Noun

er

  1. Alternative form of eere ("ear of grain")

Etymology 4

Determiner

er

  1. Alternative form of here ("their")
References

Norwegian Bokmål

Pronunciation

Verb

er

  1. present of være (=to be)

Norwegian Nynorsk

Pronunciation

Verb

er

  1. present tense of vera and vere
  2. is, are, am (present of to be)
    Boka er skriven. - The book is written
    Bøkene er skrivne. - The books are written.
    Eg er framand. - I am a stranger.

References

  • "vera" in The Nynorsk Dictionary.
  • "er på engelsk", in DinOrdbok, Nynorsk-engelsk oversettelse[2], accessed 2018-10-15

Old Dutch

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *airiz.

Adverb

?r

  1. previously, in an earlier period, in a bygone time
  2. earlier, before a certain time or period

Descendants

  • Middle Dutch: êer

Further reading

  • "?r (I)", in Oudnederlands Woordenboek, 2012

Preposition

?r

  1. before, earlier than

Descendants

Further reading

  • "?r (II)", in Oudnederlands Woordenboek, 2012

Conjunction

?r

  1. ere, afore

Descendants

Further reading

  • "?r (III)", in Oudnederlands Woordenboek, 2012

Old Frisian

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *iz.

Pronoun

er

  1. he

Inflection

Descendants

  • West Frisian: er

Old High German

Etymology 1

From Proto-Germanic *airiz, whence also Old English ær.

Pronunciation

Adjective

?r

  1. early

Adverb

?r

  1. ere, before
  2. formerly

Conjunction

?r

  1. before, until

Preposition

?r (+ dative)

  1. before

Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *aiz, akin to Old English ?r, Old Norse eir.

Pronunciation

Noun

?r n

  1. ore
  2. brass
Descendants
  • Middle High German: er
    • Alemannic German: Eer
      • => Alemannic German: eerig
  • => Old High German: ?r?n

Etymology 3

From Proto-Germanic *iz ("he"), akin to Gothic (is, "he"), Latin is ("he").

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Pronoun

er

  1. he
Inflection
Old High German personal pronouns
Number Person Gender Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative
Singular First ih
(ihha, ihcha)
m?n mir mih
Second d? d?n dir dih
Third Masculine er (her) (s?n) imu, imo inan, in
Feminine siu; s?, si ira (iru, iro) iru, iro sia
Neuter iz es, is imu, imo iz
Plural First wir uns?r uns unsih
Second ir iuw?r iu iuwih
Third Masculine sie iro im, in sie
Feminine sio iro im, in sio
Neuter siu iro im, in siu
Polite form Second   ir iuw?r iu iuwih
Descendants
  • Middle High German: ër
    • Alemannic German:
      • High Alemannic: er, är
        • Bernese: är
        • Lucerne: aer
        • Northeastern: ar
      • Highest Alemannic:
      • Low Alemannic:
      • Swabian: er, ear
        • Swabian Jura: ear
    • Bavarian: er
    • Central Franconian:
    • East Central German:
      • High Prussian: er
        • Lusatian: ar
        • South Marchian:
          • Berlinerisch: ea
      • Silesian German:
        • Lower Silesian German: a
        • North Moravian: ar
        • Upper Silesian German: a
      • Thuringian: er
        • Central Thuringian: er
        • West Thuringian: aa
      • Upper Saxon: är
        • Erzgebirgisch: aorr
        • Meißnisch: är
        • Osterländisch: är
    • German: er
    • East Franconian: er, ea
      • Main Franconian: ar
      • South Franconian: er
    • Rhine Franconian:
      • Hessian:
        • Upper Hessian: er
      • Lorraine Franconian: ér, éa
      • Palatine German: er
      • Pennsylvania German: er
    • Yiddish: (er)

References

  • Joseph Wright, An Old High German Primer

Old Norse

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Old Norse es. The final -s was replaced by -r due to analogy to the plural forms of vera.

Pronoun

er

  1. who, which, that
    • Hávamál verse 76.
      en orðstírr / deyr aldregi / hveim er sér góðan getr

Conjunction

er

  1. where
  2. when

Verb

er

  1. third-person singular indicative present of vera

Descendants

  • Faroese: er
  • Icelandic: er
  • Westrobothnian: -es

References

  • er in Geir T. Zoëga (1910) A Concise Dictionary of Old Icelandic, Oxford: Clarendon Press

Old Saxon

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Proto-Germanic *airiz, whence also Old English ær.

Adjective

?r

  1. early
Declension


Adverb

?r

  1. before, ere
  2. formerly

Conjunction

?r

  1. before

Preposition

?r (+ dative)

  1. before

Etymology 2

From Proto-Germanic *aiz, whence also Old English ?r.

Noun

?r ?

  1. copper, bronze
  2. ore
Descendants
  • Middle Low German: ?r

Polish

Pronunciation

Noun

er

  1. genitive plural of era

Scots

Verb

er

  1. (South Scots) Second-person simple present form of ti be
  2. (South Scots) Plural simple present form of ti be
  3. (South Scots) First-person singular simple present form of an obscure form of ti be
    A'm er so!

Usage notes

Used emphatically. See ir.


Swedish

Etymology

Contraction of earlier eder, from Old Norse yðr, from Proto-Germanic *izwiz, dative/accusative of *j?z, from Proto-Indo-European *y.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

er c (neuter possessive only ert, plural era)

  1. you (plural, object)
  2. (possessive) your, yours; (speaking to more than one person, about one object)
    Synonym: eran (informal)
  3. (reflexive) reflexive of ni; compare yourselves
    Skulle ni vilja lära er jonglera?
    Would you guys like to learn how to juggle?

Usage notes

  • See ni for a note on its use as a courteous 2nd person singular.
  • Even though er (2) and its archaic form eder is the possessive pronoun, it does have a genitive form ers and eders, which is only used in expressions like ers majestät (your majesty) and ers höghet (your highness).

Declension

Anagrams


Turkish

Etymology 1

From Old Turkic er(er), from Proto-Turkic *r ("early").

Adjective

er

  1. (regionalism) early

Etymology 2

From Old Turkic er(er), from Proto-Turkic *?r ("man"). Related to noun-forming suffix -er.

Noun

er (definite accusative eri, plural erler)

  1. brave
  2. man, male
  3. noble
  4. conscript, private (soldier of the lowest rank of the army)
  5. tribesman
  6. warrior
Declension
Inflection
Nominative er
Definite accusative eri
Singular Plural
Nominative er erler
Definite accusative eri erleri
Dative ere erlere
Locative erde erlerde
Ablative erden erlerden
Genitive erin erlerin
Possessive forms
Singular Plural
1st singular erim erlerim
2nd singular erin erlerin
3rd singular eri erleri
1st plural erimiz erlerimiz
2nd plural eriniz erleriniz
3rd plural erleri erleri
Predicative forms
Singular Plural
1st singular erim erlerim
2nd singular ersin erlersin
3rd singular er
erdir
erler
erlerdir
1st plural eriz erleriz
2nd plural ersiniz erlersiniz
3rd plural erler erlerdir

Etymology 3

Verb

er

  1. second-person singular imperative of ermek

West Frisian

Pronoun

er

  1. clitic form of hy used before the object or after the verb.

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