Du
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Du

Abinomn

Noun

du

  1. name

Aiwoo

Determiner

du

  1. all

References


Alemannic German

Pronunciation

Pronoun

du

  1. thou, you

Declension


Amanab

Noun

du

  1. a kind of bird

Bambara

Pronunciation

Noun

du

  1. household

References


Breton

Etymology

From Proto-Brythonic *du?, from Proto-Celtic *dubus, from Proto-Indo-European *d?ewb?-.

Pronunciation

Adjective

du

  1. black
  2. swollen
  3. starved

Mutation

Noun

du m

  1. black

Mutation

Verb

du

third-person singular present indicative of duañ

Mutation


Burushaski

Pronunciation

Noun

du (plural duwants)

  1. yew

See also

References

Sadaf Munshi (2015), "Word Lists", in Burushaski Language Documentation Project[1]


Cimbrian

Etymology

From Middle High German du, from Old High German d? ("thou"). Cognate with German du, archaic English thou (dialectal tha).

Pronoun

du

  1. (Sette Comuni) you (thou, singular familiar)

Inflection

References

  • "du" in Martalar, Umberto Martello; Bellotto, Alfonso (1974) Dizionario della lingua Cimbra dei Sette Communi vicentini, 1st edition, Roana, Italy: Instituto di Cultura Cimbra A. Dal Pozzo

Cornish

Etymology

From Proto-Brythonic *du?, from Proto-Celtic *dubus, from Proto-Indo-European *d?ewb?-.

Pronunciation

  • (Revived Middle Cornish) IPA(key): [dy:]
  • (Revived Late Cornish) IPA(key): [di]

Adjective

du

  1. black

Mutation


Danish

Etymology 1

From Old Danish thu, from Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þ?, from Proto-Indo-European *túh? ("you").

Pronunciation

Pronoun

du (objective dig)

  1. thou, you (2nd person singular subject pronoun, informal)
See also

Etymology 2

From Old Danish dughæ, from Old Norse duga.

Pronunciation

Verb

du (imperative du, present dur or duer, past duede, past participle duet)

  1. be good
  2. be fit

Dena'ina

Particle

du

  1. interrogative particle (placed at the end of the sentence to make a question)

Dutch

Etymology

From Middle Dutch du, from Old Dutch th?, from Proto-Germanic *þ?, from Proto-Indo-European *túh?.

Pronoun

du

  1. (obsolete or dialectal) Second-person singular, subjective; thou.

Elfdalian

Etymology

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þ?, from Proto-Indo-European *túh?. Cognate with Swedish du.

Pronoun

du

  1. you (singular), thou

Esperanto

Esperanto cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : du
    Ordinal : dua
    Adverbial : due
    Multiplier : duobla
    Fractional : duona

Etymology

From Latin duo, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh?.

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /du/
  • (file)

Numeral

du

  1. two (2)

Derived terms


French

Etymology

From Old French del.

Pronunciation

Contraction

du

  1. Contraction of de + le (of the)
  2. Contraction of de + le; forms the partitive article

Usage notes

  • The partitive article signifies "some", but it often is not translated in English, Dutch, or German.

Gaikundi

Noun

du

  1. man

Further reading


German

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Middle High German du, duo, d?, from Old High German d? (akin to Old Saxon th? and English thou), itself from Proto-Germanic *þ?, from Proto-Indo-European *túh?.

Pronunciation

  • (standard, generally) IPA(key): /du:/
  • (colloquially in unstressed position) IPA(key): /d?/
  • In colloquial speech in Germany, the /d/ can be lost after a preceding coronal when du is unstressed. This can happen after the second person singular verb ending, even in purposefully enunciated speech.

Pronoun

du

  1. you (thou, singular familiar)

Usage notes

  • Du is the informal second person pronoun. In formal speech, the third person plural Sie (always capitalised) is used instead.
  • A general rule of thumb is that du is used to address one's friends, relatives, and those under about 16 years of age. Du is always used to address children and non-human beings.
  • Usage also depends on the setting: two unacquainted, middle-aged persons are likely to use du when they meet at social gatherings, but much less so when they happen on each other in the street. People under 30 often use du among each other, but they still use Sie when one of them is at work, e.g. in a shop (some cafés and most pubs are an exception).
  • There is also a great deal of (often subtle) regional variation throughout the German-speaking world.

Inflection

1Often capitalized, especially in letters

Derived terms

Further reading

  • du in Duden online

Gothic

Romanization

du

  1. Romanization of

Hunsrik

Etymology

From Old High German du (akin to Old Saxon thu and English thou), itself from Proto-Germanic *þ?, from Proto-Indo-European *túh?.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

du

  1. thou, you
    Du bist aarich scheen.
    You are so beautiful.

Inflection

Further reading


Ido

Ido cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : du
    Ordinal : duesma
    Adverbial : dufoye
    Multiplier : duopla
    Fractional : duima
Ido Wikipedia article on du

Etymology

From Esperanto du, from French deux, Spanish dos, Italian due, ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh?.

Numeral

du

  1. two (2)

Interlingue

Numeral

du

  1. two

Kalasha

Etymology

From Sanskrit (dva), from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh?. Compare Hindi (do), Bhojpuri (d?), Konkani (don).

Numeral

du

  1. two; 2

Kurdish

Etymology

From Proto-Iranian *dwáH (compare Persian (do), Pashto (dwa), Avestan ?(duua)), from Proto-Indo-Iranian *dwáH (compare Sanskrit (dvá), Marathi (don), Hindi (do)/Urdu (do), Punjabi (do)), from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh? (compare Russian (dva), Lithuanian du, Greek (dýo), Spanish dos, English two).

Numeral

du

  1. two (2)

Descendants

  • Central Kurdish: ()

Lithuanian

Etymology

From Proto-Baltic *duw?, from Proto-Indo-European *dwóh?. Compare Latvian divi. Cognate to Latin duo.

Numeral

Lithuanian cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : du
    Ordinal : antras

du m (feminine dvi)

  1. two (2)

Declension


Lower Sorbian

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *j?d? (first-person singular) and *j?d?t? (third-person plural), inflected forms of *j?ti.

Pronunciation

Verb

du

  1. inflection of hy?:
    1. first-person singular present
    2. third-person plural present

Synonyms

  • (first-person singular): ?om

Luxembourgish

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *þ?.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

du

  1. second-person singular, informal, nominative: you, thou
    Wéi al bass du? - How old are you?

Declension


Mandarin

Romanization

du

  1. Nonstandard spelling of d?.
  2. Nonstandard spelling of .
  3. Nonstandard spelling of d?.
  4. Nonstandard spelling of .

Usage notes

  • English transcriptions of Mandarin speech often fail to distinguish between the critical tonal differences employed in the Mandarin language, using words such as this one without the appropriate indication of tone.

Middle Dutch

Etymology

From Old Dutch th?, from Proto-Germanic *þ?.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

du

  1. thou, you (singular, informal)
    Synonym: gi

Usage notes

This pronoun began to be replaced by gi in formal address during the Middle Dutch period, and eventually fell out of use altogether.

Inflection

Descendants

  • Dutch: (obsolete) du
  • Limburgish: doe

Further reading

  • "du", in Vroegmiddelnederlands Woordenboek, 2000

Verwijs, E.; Verdam, J. (1885-1929), "du", in Middelniederlandsch Woordenboek, The Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, ->ISBN


Middle English

Adjective

du

  1. Alternative form of dewe ("due")

Middle Low German

Etymology

From Old Saxon th?, from Proto-Germanic *þ?.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

  1. thou, you (second person singular nominative)

Declension

Descendants


Norman

Etymology

From Latin dux, ducem.

Noun

du m

  1. duke

Related terms


North Frisian

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Old Frisian dw?, from Proto-Germanic *d?n?. Cognates include West Frisian dwaan, English do.

Verb

du

  1. (Föhr-Amrum) to do
  2. (Föhr-Amrum) to give

Conjugation



Northern Sami

Pronunciation

Pronoun

d?

  1. accusative/genitive of don

Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þ?, from Proto-Indo-European *túh?.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

du (objective case deg)

  1. thou, you (second person, singular)

References

  • "du" in The Bokmål Dictionary.

See also



Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology

From Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þ?, from Proto-Indo-European *túh?. Akin to English thou.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

du (objective case deg)

  1. you, thou (second person, singular)

References

  • "du" in The Nynorsk Dictionary.

See also


Novial

Novial cardinal numbers
 <  1 2 3  > 
    Cardinal : du
    Ordinal : duesmi

Numeral

du

  1. two

Obokuitai

Noun

du

  1. bird

Further reading

Bill Palmer, The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area (->ISBN, 2017), page 531, table 95, Comparative basic vocabulary in Lakes Plain Languages


Old French

Alternative forms

Contraction

du

  1. contraction of de + le (of the)

Old High German

one drawing of the inscription on the Bülach fibula

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *þ?, whence also Old English þu, Old Norse þú, and ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *túh?. Perhaps the earliest attestation of the pronoun is the inscription on the Bülach fibula, which may show (du) already differentiated from other Germanic languages' þu.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

du

  1. thou, you (second-person singular pronoun)
    • 3rd-6th century, inscription on the Bülach fibula:
      / / ...
      frifridil / du / [...]
      Frifridil, you / [...]

Usage notes

Some speakers of Old High German appear to have contrasted the "polite" singular (plural forms) with the regular, informal singular (singular forms), as in Modern German Sie versus du. This distinction is however not well-attested, and may have been regional, genre-dependent, or only in late Old High German.

Inflection

Old High German personal pronouns
Number Person Gender Nominative Genitive Dative Accusative
Singular First ih
(ihha, ihcha)
m?n mir mih
Second d? d?n dir dih
Third Masculine er (her) (s?n) imu, imo inan, in
Feminine siu; s?, si ira (iru, iro) iru, iro sia
Neuter iz es, is imu, imo iz
Plural First wir uns?r uns unsih
Second ir iuw?r iu iuwih
Third Masculine sie iro im, in sie
Feminine sio iro im, in sio
Neuter siu iro im, in siu
Polite form Second   ir iuw?r iu iuwih

Descendants

  • Middle High German: du
    • Alemannic German: du
      Swabian: dau, d
    • Central Franconian: du, dou
      Hunsrik: du
      Kölsch: do
    • Cimbrian: du
    • German: du
    • Luxembourgish: du
    • Rhine Franconian:
      Palatine German: du
      Pennsylvania German: du
    • Yiddish: (du)

See also

  • fridil ("a pet name for a male lover")

References

  • Heinz Klingenberg, Runenfibel von Bülach, Kanton Zürich. Liebesinschrift aus alemannischer Frühzeit, in the Alemannisches Jahrbuch (1973/75), page 308
  • Heinz Klingenberg, Die Runeninschrift aus Bülach, in Helvetia archaeologica, volume 7 (1976), pages 116-121
  • Stephan Opitz, Südgermanische Runeninschriften im älteren Futhark aus der Merowingerzeit (Freiburg im Breisgau, 1977)

Old Irish

Preposition

du

  1. Alternative form of do

Pennsylvania German

Etymology

Compare German du, English thou, Swedish du.

Pronoun

du

  1. you

Romanian

Pronunciation

Verb

du

  1. second-person singular imperative of duce
    Du-te acas?.
    Go home.

Scots

Pronoun

du (objective case dee, vocative dee, possessive determiner dines)

  1. Shetland form of thou ("thou")

Swedish

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Old Swedish þ?, from Old Norse þú, from Proto-Germanic *þ?, from Proto-Indo-European *túh?.

Pronunciation

Pronoun

du

  1. you (familiar sg.)
  2. thou

Usage notes

While du is the traditionally familiar mode of address, it is since the early '70s the standard in almost all circumstances, possibly capitalized in formal communications. This was the result of the so-called du-reformen.

Recently, use of the second-person plural pronoun ni as a less familiar (and thus more formal) pronoun has appeared to some extent, but mainly amongst shopkeepers towards the customers.

The same pronoun ni has also been used historically as a formal way of address, but its use has (in particular in Sweden, not so much in Swedish-speaking parts of Finland) been restricted to addressing people of lower social status, whereby a plethora of different constructions were employed as to avoid the issue of pronouns whatsoever. See also the article about T-V distinction in Wikipedia.

Declension

Anagrams


Venetian

Etymology

Compare Italian due

Numeral

du m

  1. two

Synonyms


Vietnamese

Pronunciation

Etymology

Sino-Vietnamese word from ?/?.

Verb

du

  1. (only in compounds) to walk

Derived terms

Derived terms

Welsh

Etymology

From Proto-Brythonic *du?, from Proto-Celtic *dubus, from Proto-Indo-European *d?ewb?-.

Pronunciation

Adjective

du (feminine singular du, plural duon, equative dued, comparative duach, superlative duaf)

  1. black
    Mae ganddo fo fwstash du.
    He has a black mustache

Related terms

Mutation

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
du ddu nu unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

See also

Colors in Welsh · lliwiau (layout · text)
     gwyn      llwyd      du
             coch; rhudd              oren, melyngoch; brown              melyn; melynwyn
             gwyrdd leim              gwyrdd             
             gwyrddlas; glaswyrdd              asur, gwynlas              glas
             fioled; indigo              majenta; porffor              pinc

White Hmong

Pronunciation

Adjective

du

  1. smooth

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