Do
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Do

English

English Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia

Etymology 1

From Middle English don, from Old English d?n, from Proto-Germanic *d?n?, from Proto-Indo-European *d?eh?- ("to put, place, do, make").

The past tense form is from Middle English didde, dude, from Old English dyde, *diede, from Proto-Germanic *ded?/*ded?, from Proto-Indo-European *d?éd?eh?ti, an athematic e-reduplicated verb of the same root *d?eh?-.

The use of do in interrogative, negative, and, formerly, affirmative sentences, unusual in Germanic languages, is thought to be calqued from Brythonic.[1]

Pronunciation

Verb

do (third-person singular simple present does, present participle doing, simple past did, past participle done)

  1. (auxiliary) A syntactic marker
    1. (auxiliary) A syntactic marker in a question whose main verb is not another auxiliary verb or be.
      Do you go there often?
    2. (auxiliary) A syntactic marker in negations with the indicative and imperative moods.
      • 1898, Winston Churchill, chapter 4, in The Celebrity:
        "Well," I answered, at first with uncertainty, then with inspiration, "he would do splendidly to lead your cotillon, if you think of having one." ¶ "So you do not dance, Mr. Crocker?" ¶ I was somewhat set back by her perspicuity.
      I do not go there often.
      Do not listen to him.
    3. (auxiliary) A syntactic marker for emphasis with the indicative, imperative, and subjunctive moods.
      • 1913, Joseph C. Lincoln, chapter 7, in Mr. Pratt's Patients:
        "I don't know how you and the 'head,' as you call him, will get on, but I do know that if you call my duds a 'livery' again there'll be trouble. It's bad enough to go around togged out like a life saver on a drill day, but I can stand that 'cause I'm paid for it. [...]"
      But I do go sometimes.
      Do tell us.
      It is important that he do come see me.
    4. (pro-verb) A syntactic marker that refers back to an earlier verb and allows the speaker to avoid repeating the verb; in most dialects, not used with auxiliaries such as be.
      I play tennis; she does too.
      1. (African-American Vernacular) Can refer back to be.
        They don't think it be like it is, but it do.
  2. (transitive) To perform; to execute.
    Synonyms: accomplish, carry out, functionate
    • 2013 June 21, Oliver Burkeman, "The tao of tech", in The Guardian Weekly, volume 189, number 2, page 48:
      The dirty secret of the internet is that all this distraction and interruption is immensely profitable. Web companies like to boast about […], or offering services that let you "stay up to date with what your friends are doing", [...] and so on. But the real way to build a successful online business is to be better than your rivals at undermining people's control of their own attention.
    All you ever do is surf the Internet. What will you do this afternoon?
  3. (obsolete, transitive) To cause, make (someone) (do something).
    • 1490, Caxton, William, "Prologue", in Eneydos; republished as Caxton's Eneydos, London: Early English Text Society, 1890, page 2:
      And also my lord abbot of westmynster ded do shewe to me late, certayn euydences wryton in olde englysshe [...]
    • 1590, Spenser, Edmund, The Faerie Queene, book 2, canto 6:
      Sometimes to doe him laugh, she would assay / To laugh at shaking of the leaues light, / Or to behold the water worke [...]
    • (Can we date this quote by Spenser and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      a fatal plague which many did to die
    • 1611, The Holy Bible, [...] (King James Version), imprinted at London: By Robert Barker, [...], OCLC 964384981, 2 Corinthians 8:1:
      Moreover, brethren, we do you to wit [i.e. we make you to know] of the grace of God bestowed on the churches of Macedonia.
  4. (intransitive, transitive) To suffice.
    • 1898, Winston Churchill, chapter 4, in The Celebrity:
      "Well," I answered, at first with uncertainty, then with inspiration, "he would do splendidly to lead your cotillon, if you think of having one." ¶ "So you do not dance, Mr. Crocker?" ¶ I was somewhat set back by her perspicuity.
    • 1922, Williams, Margery, The Velveteen Rabbit:
      "Here," she said, "take your old Bunny! He'll do to sleep with you!" And she dragged the Rabbit out by one ear, and put him into the Boy's arms.
    it's not the best broom, but it will have to do;  this will do me, thanks.
  5. (intransitive) To be reasonable or acceptable.
    It simply will not do to have dozens of children running around such a quiet event.
  6. (ditransitive) To have (as an effect).
    The fresh air did him some good.
  7. (intransitive) To fare, perform (well or poorly).
    • 2013 July 20, "Welcome to the plastisphere", in The Economist, volume 408, number 8845:
      Plastics are energy-rich substances, which is why many of them burn so readily. Any organism that could unlock and use that energy would do well in the Anthropocene. Terrestrial bacteria and fungi which can manage this trick are already familiar to experts in the field.
    Our relationship isn't doing very well;  how do you do?
  8. (transitive, chiefly in questions) To have as one's job.
    What does Bob do? -- He's a plumber.
  9. To perform the tasks or actions associated with (something)
    "Don't forget to do your report" means something quite different depending on whether you're a student or a programmer.
  10. To cook.
    Synonyms: see Thesaurus:cook
    • 1889, Jerome K. Jerome, Three Men In a Boat:
      It seemed, from his account, that he was very good at doing scrambled eggs.
    • 1944, News from the Suburbsbooks?id=VgMIAQAAIAAJ:
      We went down below, and the galley-slave did some ham and eggs, and the first lieutenant, who was aged 19, told me about Sicily, and time went like a flash.
    • 2005, Alan Tansley, The Grease Monkey, page 99:
      Next morning, they woke about ten o'clock, Kev, went for a shower while Alice, did some toast, put the kettle on, and when he came out, she went in.
    I'll just do some eggs.
  11. (transitive) To travel in, to tour, to make a circuit of.
    • 1869, Louisa May Alcott, Little Women, 1957 ed. edition:
      We 'did' London to our heart's content, thanks to Fred and Frank, and were sorry to go away, [...]
    • 1892, James Batchelder, Multum in Parvo: Notes from the Life and Travels of James Batchelder[3], page 97:
      After doing Paris and its suburbs, I started for London [...]
    • 1968, July 22, "Ralph Schoenstein", in Nice Place to Visit[4], page 28:
      No tourist can get credit for seeing America first without doing New York, the Wonderful Town, the Baghdad-on-Hudson, the dream in the eye of the Kansas hooker [...]
    Let's do New York also.
  12. (transitive) To treat in a certain way.
    • 1894, (Please provide the book title or journal name)[5], volume 87, page 59:
      They did me well, I assure you -- uncommon well: Bellinger of '84; green chartreuse fit for a prince; [...]
    • 1928, Sayers, Dorothy L[eigh], "The Abominable History of the Man with Copper Fingers", in Lord Peter Views the Body:
      Upon my word, although he [my host] certainly did me uncommonly well, I began to feel I'd be more at ease among the bushmen.
    • 1994, Jervey Tervalon, Understand This[6], ->ISBN, page 50:
      "Why you gonna do me like that?" I ask. "Do what?" "Dog me."
  13. (transitive) To work for or on, by way of caring for, looking after, preparing, cleaning, keeping in order, etc.
    • (Can we date this quote?) Harper's Magazine
      The sergeants seem to do themselves pretty well.
    • 2018, Kate Atkinson, Transcription, ->ISBN, page 291:
      The woman-who-did did not do very well, Juliet thought.
  14. (intransitive, obsolete) To act or behave in a certain manner; to conduct oneself.
  15. (transitive) To spend (time) in jail. (See also do time)
    Synonym: serve
    I did five years for armed robbery.
  16. (transitive) To impersonate or depict.
    Synonyms: imitate, personate, take off
    They really laughed when he did Clinton, with a perfect accent and a leer.
  17. (transitive, slang) To kill.
    Synonyms: do in, murder, off, rub out; see also Thesaurus:kill
    • 2004, Patrick Stevens, Politics Is the Greatest Game: A Johannesburg Liberal Lampoon[7], ->ISBN, page 314:
      He's gonna do me, Jarvis. I kid you not, this time he's gonna do me proper.
    • 2007, E.J. Churchill, The Lazarus Code, page 153:
      The order came and I did him right there. The bullet went right where it was supposed to go.
  18. (transitive, slang) To deal with for good and all; to finish up; to undo; to ruin; to do for.
    • (Can we date this quote by Charles Reade and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      Sometimes they lie in wait in these dark streets, and fracture his skull, [...] or break his arm, or cut the sinew of his wrist; and that they call doing him.
  19. (informal) To punish for a misdemeanor.
    He got done for speeding.
    Teacher'll do you for that!
  20. (transitive, slang) To have sex with. (See also do it)
    Synonyms: go to bed with, sleep with; see also Thesaurus:copulate with
    • c. 1590, William Shakespeare, Titus Andronicus, Act IV, scene II:
      Demetrius: "Villain, what hast thou done?"
      Aaron: "That which thou canst not undo."
      Chiron: "Thou hast undone our mother."
      Aaron: "Villain, I have done thy mother."
    • 1996, James Russell Kincaid, My Secret Life, page 81:
      [...] one day I did her on the kitchen table, and several times on the dining-room table.
    • 2008, On the Line, Donna Hill[8], page 84:
      The uninhibited woman within wanted to do him right there on the countertop, but I remained composed.
  21. (transitive) To cheat or swindle.
    Synonyms: defraud, diddle, mug off, rip off, scam; see also Thesaurus:deceive
    That guy just did me out of two hundred bucks!
    • (Can we date this quote by De Quincey and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      He was not to be done, at his time of life, by frivolous offers of a compromise that might have secured him seventy-five per cent.
  22. (transitive) To convert into a certain form; especially, to translate.
    the novel has just been done into English;  I'm going to do this play into a movie
  23. (transitive, intransitive) To finish.
    Synonyms: conclude, finalize; see also Thesaurus:end
    Aren't you done yet?
  24. (Britain, dated, intransitive) To work as a domestic servant (with for).
    Synonyms: attend, serve, wait on; see also Thesaurus:serve
    • 1915, Frank Thomas Bullen, Recollections:
      I've left my key in my office in Manchester, my family are at Bournemouth, and the old woman who does for me goes home at nine o'clock.
  25. (archaic, dialectal, transitive, auxiliary) Used to form the present progressive of verbs.
    • 1844, Barnes, William, "Evenén in the Village", in Poems of Rural Life in the Dorset Dialect:
      ...An' the dogs do bark, an' the rooks be a-vled to the elems high and dark, an' the water do roar at mill.
  26. (stock exchange) To cash or to advance money for, as a bill or note.
  27. (informal, transitive, ditransitive) To make or provide.
    Synonyms: furnish, give, supply; see also Thesaurus:give
    Do they do haircuts there?
    Could you do me a burger with mayonnaise instead of ketchup?
  28. (informal, transitive) To injure (one's own body part).
    • 2010 April 24, "Given stretchered off with suspected broken shoulder", in The Irish Times[9], retrieved 2015-07-21:
      "Defender Kolo Toure admitted Given will be a loss, but gave his backing to Nielsen. 'I think he's done his shoulder,' said the Ivorian."
    • 2014 April 14, Matt Cleary, "What do Australia's cricketers do on holiday?", in ESPNcricinfo[10], retrieved 2015-07-21:
      "Watto will spend the entire winter stretching and doing Pilates, and do a hamstring after bending down to pick up his petrol cap after dropping it filling his car at Caltex Cronulla."
    • 2014 August 13, Harry Thring, "I knew straight away I'd done my ACL: Otten", in AFL.com.au[11], retrieved 2015-07-21:
      "'I knew straight away I'd done my ACL, I heard the sound - it was very loud and a few of the boys said they heard it as well,' Otten said."
  29. (transitive) To take drugs.
    I do cocaine.
  30. (transitive, in the form be doing [somewhere]) To exist with a purpose or for a reason.
    What's that car doing in our swimming pool?
Conjugation
Usage notes
  • In older forms of English, when the pronoun thou was in active use, and verbs used -est for distinct second-person singular indicative forms, the verb do had two such forms: dost, in auxiliary uses, and doest, in other uses. The past tense of both forms is didst.
  • Similarly, when the ending -eth was in active use for third-person singular present indicative forms, the form doth was used as an auxiliary, and the form doeth elsewhere.
Antonyms
Derived terms
Translations

See do/translations § Verb.

See also

Noun

do (plural dos)

  1. (colloquial) A party, celebration, social function.
    Synonym: get-together
    We're having a bit of a do on Saturday to celebrate my birthday.
    • 2013, Russell Brand, Russell Brand and the GQ awards: 'It's amazing how absurd it seems' (in The Guardian, 13 September 2013)[12]
      After a load of photos and what-not, we descend the world's longest escalator, which are called that even as they de-escalate, and in we go to the main forum, a high ceilinged hall, full of circular cloth-draped, numbered tables, a stage at the front, the letters GQ, 12-foot high in neon at the back; this aside, though, neon forever the moniker of trash, this is a posh do, in an opera house full of folk in tuxes.
  2. (informal) A hairdo.
    • 2012, Hannah Richell, The Secrets of the Tides, ->ISBN, page 464:
      I like the new do.
    Nice do!
  3. Something that can or should be done (usually in the phrase dos and don'ts).
  4. (obsolete) A deed; an act.
    (Can we find and add a quotation of Sir Walter Scott to this entry?)
  5. (archaic) Ado; bustle; stir; to-do; A period of confusion or argument.
    • (Can we date this quote by Selden and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
      A great deal of do, and a great deal of trouble.
    Synonym: to-do
  6. (obsolete, Britain, slang) A cheat; a swindler.
  7. (obsolete, Britain, slang) An act of swindling; a fraud or deception.
Usage notes
  • For the plural of the noun, the spelling dos would be correct; do's is often used for the sake of legibility, but is sometimes considered incorrect. For the party, the term usually implies a social function of modest size and formality.
Translations

See do/translations § Noun

Etymology 2

From the name of musicologist Giovanni Battista Doni, who suggested replacing the original ut with an open syllable for ease of singing. First found in Italian.

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Noun

do (plural dos)

  1. (music) A syllable used in solfège to represent the first and eighth tonic of a major scale.
    Synonym: ut (archaic)
Translations

See do/translations § Noun.

See also

names for musical notes

Etymology 3

Short for ditto.

Adverb

do (not comparable)

  1. (rare) Abbreviation of ditto.[2]

References

  • do at OneLook Dictionary Search
  1. ^ John McWhorter (2009), chapter 1, in Our Magnificent Bastard Tongue: The Untold History of English[1], reprint edition, United States of America: Penguin, ->ISBN, pages 1-7
  2. ^ "The O'Connell National Statue", in The Freeman's Journal[2], Dublin, 23 October 1862, page 2

Anagrams


Albanian

Alternative forms

Verb

do

  1. second-person singular present indicative of dua
  2. third-person singular present indicative of dua

Bambara

Pronunciation

Noun

do

  1. group

References


Barai

Noun

do

  1. water

References

  • The Papuan Languages of New Guinea (1986, ->ISBN)

Catalan

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Latin d?num ("gift")

Noun

do m (plural dons)

  1. gift
  2. talent

Etymology 2

Borrowed from Italian do.

Noun

do m (plural dos)

  1. (music) do (first note of diatonic scale)

Central Franconian

Etymology 1

From Old High German d?r ("there").

Pronunciation

Adverb

do

  1. here; there; in this or that place

Etymology 2

From Old High German duo ("then"), variant of do, d?. Compare German da, Dutch toen.

Alternative forms

  • du, dunn (southern Moselle Francoinan)

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /do:/ (traditional)
  • IPA(key): /d?:/ (now sometimes by conflation with etymology 1 under standard German influence)

Adverb

do

  1. (Ripuarian, northern Moselle Franconian) then; back then (at a certain time in the past)

Etymology 3

From Old High German du.

Alternative forms

  • du (many dialects)
  • dou (some dialects of Moselle Franconian)
  • de (unstressed form)

Pronunciation

Pronoun

do

  1. (few dialects, including Kölsch) thou; you (singular)

Czech

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *do.

Pronunciation

Preposition

do + genitive

  1. into, in (to the inside of)
    Ve?el do místnosti. --He walked into the room.
    Dostala se jí voda do bot.--Water got in her boots.
  2. to, in (in the direction of, and arriving at; indicating destination)
    Jdeme do obchodu. -- We are walking to the shop.
    P?ilet?li jsme do New Yorku. -- We arrived in New York.
  3. until (up to the time of)
    Z?stal tam a? do ned?le.--He stayed there until Sunday.
  4. by (at some time before the given time)
    A? jsi zpátky do desíti! -- Be back by ten o'clock!

Dutch

Etymology

From Italian do ("the note").

Pronunciation

Noun

do m or f (plural do's)

  1. do, the musical note
  2. (Belgium) C, the musical note

Synonyms

  • ut (archaic)

See also


Esperanto

Etymology 1

Noun

do (accusative singular do-on, plural do-oj, accusative plural do-ojn)

  1. The name of the Latin-script letter D.

See also

Etymology 2

From French donc.

Adverb

do

  1. therefore, then, so, indeed, however

Fala

Etymology

From Old Portuguese do, from de + o.

Preposition

do m (plural dos, feminine da, feminine plural das)

  1. contraction of de ("of") + o ("the")
    • 2000, Domingo Frades Gaspar, Vamus a falal: Notas pâ coñocel y platical en nosa fala, Editora regional da Extremadura, Theme I, Chapter 1: Lengua Española:
      I si "a patria do homi é sua lengua", cumu idía Albert Camus, o que está claru é que a lengua está mui por encima de fronteiras, serras, rius i maris, de situaciós pulíticas i sociu-económicas, de lazus religiosus e inclusu familiaris.
      And if "a man's homeland [i.e. "homeland of the man"] is his language", as Albert Camus said, what is clear is that language is above borders, mountain ranges, rivers and seas, above political and socio-economic situations, of religious and even family ties.

Faroese

Etymology

Borrowed from Italian do.

Pronunciation

Noun

do n (genitive singular dos, plural do)

  1. (music) do

Declension

Declension of do
n3 singular plural
indefinite definite indefinite definite
nominative do doið do doini
accusative do doið do doini
dative doi doinum doum dounum
genitive dos dosins doa doanna

French

Pronunciation

Noun

do m (plural do)

  1. (music) do, the note 'C'.

Synonyms

Further reading


Galician

Etymology

From contraction of preposition de ("of, from") + masculine definite article o ("the")

Pronunciation

Contraction

do m (feminine da, masculine plural dos, feminine plural das)

  1. of the; from the; 's
    cabalo do demo
    "demon's horse" ("dragonfly")

Haitian Creole

Etymology

From French dos ("back")

Pronunciation

Noun

do

  1. do

Hunsrik

Pronunciation

Adverb

do

  1. here
    Die Fraa is nimmi do.
    The woman isn't here anymore.
  2. then; so
    Do sim-mer fortgesprung.
    Then we fled.

Synonyms

Further reading


Ido

Adverb

do

  1. so, therefore

Irish

Etymology 1

Alternative forms

  • d' (used before vowel sounds)

Pronunciation

Particle

do (triggers lenition)

  1. (Munster, literary) marker of the past tense
    do mhol sé - he praised
  2. (Munster, literary) relative marker (nominative, accusative)
    an cailín do mholann sé - the girl that he praises

Etymology 2

From Old Irish do, from Proto-Celtic *do ("to, for").

Alternative forms

  • d' (used before vowel sounds)
  • t' (Munster, used before vowel sounds)

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /d/, /d/
  • (Connacht) IPA(key): // (as if spelled go; do and go ("to, up to, until") have largely become conflated in this dialect)

Preposition

do (plus dative, triggers lenition)

  1. to, for
    do chara - to a friend, for a friend
  2. used with the possessive determiners mo, do, bhur to indicate the direct object of a verbal noun, in place of ag after a form of in the progressive aspect
    Tá sé do mo ghortú. - It's hurting me.
    Bhí sé do d'fhiafraí. - He was inquiring about you sg.
    Bhí sibh do bhur gcloí. - You pl were being overthrown.
Inflection
Alternative forms
  • d' (used before vowel sounds)
  • t' (Munster, used before vowel sounds)
Derived terms

Etymology 3

From Old Irish do, from Proto-Celtic *tu ("your, thy").

Alternative forms

  • d' (used before vowel sounds)

Pronunciation

Determiner

do (triggers lenition)

  1. your sg
    Cá bhfuil do ghluaisteán?
    Where is your car?

See also

Further reading

  • "do" in Foclóir Gaeilge-Béarla, An Gúm, 1977, by Niall Ó Dónaill.
  • Entries containing "do" in English-Irish Dictionary, An Gúm, 1959, by Tomás de Bhaldraithe.
  • Entries containing "do" in New English-Irish Dictionary by Foras na Gaeilge.

Italian

Pronunciation

  • Rhymes: -?

Etymology 1

Alternative forms

Verb

do

  1. first-person singular indicative present of dare

Etymology 2

Noun

Italian Wikipedia has an article on:
Wikipedia it

do m

  1. do, the musical note
  2. C (the musical note or key)

Anagrams


Japanese

Romanization

do

  1. R?maji transcription of ?
  2. R?maji transcription of ?

Ladin

Preposition

do

  1. behind
  2. before (time)

Antonyms


Latin

Etymology

From Proto-Italic *did?, from Proto-Indo-European *dédeh?ti, from the root *deh?- ("give"). The reduplication was lost in Latin in the present tense, but is preserved in the other Italic languages. A root aorist (from Proto-Indo-European *déh?t) is preserved in Venetic [script needed] (doto); the other Italic perfect forms reflect a reduplicated stative, *dedai. However, the root aorist possibly served as the source of the Latin present forms.[1]

Cognates include Ancient Greek (díd?mi), Sanskrit (dád?ti), Old Persian (d?-).

Pronunciation

Verb

d? (present infinitive dare, perfect active ded?, supine datum); first conjugation, irregular

  1. I give
    Tertium non datur.law of excluded middle
    A third [possibility] is not given: .
    • 405 CE, Jerome, Vulgate Exodus.20.12:
      Honora patrem tuum et matrem tuam, ut sis longaevus super terram, quam Dominus Deus tuus dabit tibi.
      Honour thy father and thy mother: that thy days may be long upon the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.
    Synonym: d?n?
  2. I offer, render
    • (Can we date this quote?), Plautus Captivi ("the captives") (English and Latin text)
      Do tibi operam, Aristophontes, si quid est quod me velis.
      I'm at your service, Aristophontes, if there's anything you want of me.
      Literally: I offer labour to you, Aristophontes...
    Synonym: d?n?
  3. I yield, surrender, concede

Conjugation

   Conjugation of d? (first conjugation, irregular short a in most forms except d?s and d?)
indicative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present d? d?s dat damus datis dant
imperfect dabam dab?s dabat dab?mus dab?tis dabant
future dab? dabis dabit dabimus dabitis dabunt
perfect ded? dedist? dedit dedimus dedistis ded?runt, ded?re
pluperfect dederam deder?s dederat deder?mus deder?tis dederant
future perfect deder? dederis dederit dederimus dederitis dederint
passive present dor daris, dare datur damur damin? dantur
imperfect dabar dab?ris, dab?re dab?tur dab?mur dab?min? dabantur
future dabor daberis, dabere dabitur dabimur dabimin? dabuntur
perfect datus + present active indicative of sum
pluperfect datus + imperfect active indicative of sum
future perfect datus + future active indicative of sum
subjunctive singular plural
first second third first second third
active present dem d?s det d?mus d?tis dent
imperfect darem dar?s daret dar?mus dar?tis darent
perfect dederim deder?s dederit deder?mus deder?tis dederint
pluperfect dedissem dediss?s dedisset dediss?mus dediss?tis dedissent
passive present der d?ris, d?re d?tur d?mur d?min? dentur
imperfect darer dar?ris, dar?re dar?tur dar?mur dar?min? darentur
perfect datus + present active subjunctive of sum
pluperfect datus + imperfect active subjunctive of sum
imperative singular plural
first second third first second third
active present d? date
future dat? dat? dat?te dant?
passive present dare damin?
future dator dator dantor
non-finite forms active passive
present perfect future present perfect future
infinitives dare dedisse dat?rum esse dar? datum esse datum ?r?
participles d?ns dat?rus datus dandus
verbal nouns gerund supine
genitive dative accusative ablative accusative ablative
dand? dand? dandum dand? datum dat?

Derived terms

Descendants

References

  • do in Charlton T. Lewis and Charles Short (1879) A Latin Dictionary, Oxford: Clarendon Press
  • do in Charlton T. Lewis (1891) An Elementary Latin Dictionary, New York: Harper & Brothers
  • do in Gaffiot, Félix (1934) Dictionnaire Illustré Latin-Français, Hachette
  • Carl Meissner; Henry William Auden (1894) Latin Phrase-Book[13], London: Macmillan and Co.
    • to set out on a journey: in viam se dare
    • to give a horse the reins: frenos dare equo
    • to require, give, take time for deliberation: tempus (spatium) deliberandi or ad deliberandum postulare, dare, sibi sumere
    • to give some one a few days for reflection: paucorum dierum spatium ad deliberandum dare
    • to own oneself conquered, surrender: manus dare
    • to show oneself to some one: se in conspectum dare alicui
    • to take care of one's health: valetudini consulere, operam dare
    • to give a person poison in bread: dare venenum in pane
    • to give funeral games in honour of a person: ludos funebres alicui dare
    • this is the inscription on his tomb..: sepulcro (Dat.) or in sepulcro hoc inscriptum est
    • a favourable[1] opportunity presents itself: occasio datur, offertur
    • to give a man the opportunity of doing a thing: occasionem alicui dare, praebere alicuius rei or ad aliquid faciendum
    • to give a man the opportunity of doing a thing: facultatem alicui dare alicuius rei or ut possit...
    • to give a man the opportunity of doing a thing: potestatem, copiam alicui dare, facere with Gen. gerund.
    • to give ground for suspicion: locum dare suspicioni
    • to give occasion for blame; to challenge criticism: ansas dare ad reprehendum, reprehensionis
    • to bring a man to ruin; to destroy: aliquem affligere, perdere, pessumdare, in praeceps dare
    • to do any one a service or kindness: beneficium alicui dare, tribuere
    • to award the prize to..: palmam deferre, dare alicui
    • to entrust a matter to a person; to commission: mandatum, negotium alicui dare
    • to consider a thing creditable to a man: aliquid laudi alicui ducere, dare
    • to reproach a person with..: aliquid alicui crimini dare, vertere
    • to take great pains in order to..: studiose (diligenter, enixe, sedulo, maxime) dare operam, ut...
    • to expend great labour on a thing: egregiam operam (multum, plus etc. operae) dare alicui rei
    • to abandon oneself to inactivity and apathy: ignaviae et socordiae se dare
    • to give a person his choice: optionem alicui dare (Acad. 2. 7. 19)
    • to offer a person the alternative of... or..: optionem alicui dare, utrum...an
    • to give a person advice: consilium dare alicui
    • to be forgotten, pass into oblivion: oblivioni esse, dari
    • to become a pupil, disciple of some one: operam dare or simply se dare alicui, se tradere in disciplinam alicuius, se conferre, se applicare ad aliquem
    • to give advice, directions, about a matter: praecepta dare, tradere de aliqua re
    • to grant, admit a thing: dare, concedere aliquid
    • to produce a play (of the writer): fabulam dare
    • to applaud, clap a person: plausum dare (alicui)
    • to give a gladiatorial show: munus gladiatorium edere, dare (or simply munus edere, dare)
    • to give a gladiatorial show: gladiatores dare
    • to let oneself be jovial: se dare iucunditati
    • to write a letter to some one: epistulam (litteras) dare, scribere, mittere ad aliquem
    • to charge some one with a letter for some one else: epistulam dare alicui ad aliquem
    • to be in correspondence with..: litteras inter se dare et accipere
    • Rome, January 1st: Kalendis Ianuariis Rom? (dabam)
    • to give time for recovery: respirandi spatium dare
    • to pardon some one: alicui veniam dare (alicuius rei)
    • to guarantee the protection of the state; to promise a safe-conduct: fidem publicam dare, interponere (Sall. Iug. 32. 1)
    • to give one's word that..: fidem dare alicui (opp. accipere) (c. Acc. c. Inf.)
    • to rouse a person's suspicions: suspicionem movere, excitare, inicere, dare alicui
    • to deceive a person, throw dust in his eyes: verba dare alicui (Att. 15. 16)
    • to swear an oath to a person: iusiurandum dare alicui
    • to give an oracular response: oraculum dare, edere
    • to give an oracular response: responsum dare (vid. sect. VIII. 5, note Note to answer...), respondere
    • to give some one to drink: alicui bibere dare
    • to devote oneself to a person's society: se dare in consuetudinem alicuius
    • to enter into conversation with some one: se dare in sermonem cum aliquo
    • to give audience to some one: colloquendi copiam facere, dare
    • to give audience to some one: conveniendi aditum dare alicui
    • to give one's right hand to some one: dextram alicui porrigere, dare
    • to give a dowry to one's daughter: dotem filiae dare
    • to give one's daughter in marriage to some-one: filiam alicui in matrimonium dare
    • to give one's daughter in marriage to some-one: filiam alicui nuptum dare
    • to lend, borrow money at interest: pecuniam fenori (fenore) alicui dare, accipere ab aliquo
    • to lend money to some one: pecuniam alicui mutuam dare
    • to present a person with the freedom of the city: civitatem alicui dare, tribuere, impertire
    • to make laws (of a legislator): leges scribere, facere, condere, constituere (not dare)
    • let the consuls take measures for the protection of the state: videant or dent operam consules, ne quid res publica detrimenti capiat (Catil. 1. 2. 4)
    • to give a man audience before the senate: senatum alicui dare (Q. Fr. 2. 11. 2)
    • to produce as a witness: aliquem testem dare, edere, proferre
    • to reproach, blame a person for..: aliquid alicui crimini dare, vitio vertere (Verr. 5. 50)
    • to pardon a person: veniam dare alicui
    • to be (heavily) punished by some one: poenas (graves) dare alicui
    • to put some one in irons, chains: in vincula (custodiam) dare aliquem
    • to enlist oneself: nomen (nomina) dare, profiteri
    • to give furlough, leave of absence to soldiers: commeatum militibus dare (opp. petere)
    • to pay the troops: stipendium dare, numerare, persolvere militibus
    • to give the watchword, countersign: tesseram dare (Liv. 28. 14)
    • to give the signal to engage: signum proelii dare
    • the cavalry covers the retreat: equitatus tutum receptum dat
    • to put the enemy to flight: in fugam dare, conicere hostem
    • to flee, run away: terga vertere or dare
    • to run away from the enemy: terga dare hosti
    • to take to flight: se dare in fugam, fugae
    • to dictate the terms of peace to some one: pacis condiciones dare, dicere alicui (Liv. 29. 12)
    • to give hostages: obsides dare
    • to reduce a people to their former obedience: aliquem ad officium (cf. sect. X. 7, note officium...) reducere (Nep. Dat. 2. 3)
    • to put to sea: vela in altum dare (Liv. 25. 27)
    • to set the sails: vela dare
    • to run before the wind: vento se dare
  1. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill

Ligurian

Pronunciation

Contraction

do

  1. Contraction of de o.; of the (masculine singular)

Lower Sorbian

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *do.

Pronunciation

Preposition

do (with genitive)

  1. to, into
    • 1998, Erwin Hannusch, Niedersorbisch praktisch und verständlich, Bauzten: Domowina, ->ISBN, p. 30:
      Jana chój?i hyi do ?ule, wóna jo wuknica.
      Jana still goes to school; she is a schoolgirl.
    do Chó?ebuza - to Cottbus
    do jsy - to the village, into the village
    do wognja - into the fire
    do njebja - to heaven

Luxembourgish

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

From Proto-Germanic *þar.

Adverb

do

  1. there, in that place

Etymology 2

Verb

do

  1. second-person singular imperative of doen

Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology 1

Possibly an abbreviation of "do-h?s" ("do house") from Middle Low German d?n.

Noun

do m or n (definite singular doen or doet, indefinite plural doer or do, definite plural doene or doa)

  1. a toilet, or loo (UK)
Synonyms
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Noun

do m

  1. do (the musical note)

References

  • "do" in The Bokmål Dictionary.

Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology 1

From Old Norse þó.

Adverb

do

  1. anyhow, still, nevertheless

Etymology 2

Possibly an abbreviation of "do-h?s" ("do house") from Middle Low German d?n.

Pronunciation

Noun

do m (definite singular doen, indefinite plural doar, definite plural doane)
do n (definite singular doet, indefinite plural do, definite plural doa)

  1. a toilet, or loo (UK)
Synonyms
Derived terms

For other terms please refer to do (Bokmål) for the time being.

Etymology 3

Pronunciation

Noun

do m

  1. do (the musical note)

References

  • "do" in The Nynorsk Dictionary.

Old Irish

Etymology

From Proto-Celtic *tu ("to").

Pronunciation

Preposition

do (with dative; triggers lenition of a following consonant-initial noun.)

  1. to, for

Inflection

Combinations with a definite article:

Combinations with a possessive determiner:

  • dom ("to/for my")
  • dot ("to/for your sg")
  • dia ("to/for his/her/their")

Combinations with a relative pronoun:

  • dia· ("to/for whom/which")

Related terms

Alternative forms

Pronoun

do

  1. Alternative spelling of

Adverb

do

  1. Alternative spelling of

Further reading


Pennsylvania German

Etymology

Compare German da.

Adverb

do

  1. here
    Heit iss en Feierdaag do in Amerikaa.
    Today is a holiday here in America.

Polish

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *do, from Proto-Indo-European *de, *do, whence English to.

Pronunciation

Preposition

do (+ genitive)

  1. to, towards, into
  2. until
  3. (with deadline) by

Further reading

  • do in Polish dictionaries at PWN

Portuguese

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Old Portuguese do, from de ("of") + o ("the"). Akin to Spanish del and French du.

Pronunciation

Contraction

do (plural dos, feminine da, feminine plural das)

  1. Contraction of de o ("pertaining or relating to the"); of the; from the (masculine singular)

Quotations

For quotations of use of this term, see Citations:do.

See also

  • da (feminine form)
  • dos (plural form)
  • das (feminine plural form)

Saterland Frisian

Pronunciation

IPA(key): /d?/

Article

do pl

  1. the

Scottish Gaelic

Etymology 1

From Old Irish do, from Proto-Celtic *tu ("your, thy").

Pronoun

do

  1. your (informal singular)
    Bha iongantach do ghràdh dhomh. - Wonderful was thy love for me.
Usage notes
  • Lenites the following word.
  • Before a word beginning with a vowel or fh followed by a vowel it takes the form d'.
    Bidh cuimhn' agam ort, air d' anam ghrinn. - I will remember thee, thy dear soul.

Etymology 2

From Old Irish do, from Proto-Celtic *tu ("to").

Preposition

do

  1. to
    Bha e a' siubhal do Shasainn an-uiridh. - He travelled to England last year.
  2. for
    Do dh'ar beatha, dhut, dhèanainn e. - For our life, for thee, I would do it.
Usage notes
  • Lenites the following word.
  • Before a word beginning with a vowel or fh followed by a vowel it takes the form do dh'.
    Tha sinn a' dol do dh'Ile. - We are going to Islay.
  • If the definite article in the singular follows, it combines with do into don:
    Fàilte don dùthaich. - Welcome to the country.
Synonyms
Derived terms
Person Number Prepositional pronoun Prepositional pronoun (emphatic)
Singular 1st dhomh dhomhsa
2nd dhut dhutsa
3rd m dha dhasan
3rd f dhi dhise
Plural 1st dhuinn dhuinne
2nd dhuibh dhuibhse
3rd dhaibh dhaibhsan

Serbo-Croatian

Etymology 1

From Proto-Slavic *do, from Proto-Indo-European *de, *do.

Pronunciation

Adverb

d? (Cyrillic spelling )

  1. only, except
    ni(t)ko do ja - nobody but me, only me
    ne jede ni?ta do komad hljeba/hleba - he eats nothing except a piece of bread
  2. around, approximately
    do dva metra - around two meters
    do 5 kila - around five kilograms
  3. due to, because of
    to je do hrane - that's due to the food

Preposition

d? (Cyrillic spelling ) (+ genitive case)

  1. up to, to, until, as far as, by
    od Zagreba do Beograda - from Zagreb to Belgrade
    od jutra do mraka - from morning to night
    od 5 do 10 sati - from 5 to 10 o'clock
    od vrha do dna - from top to bottom
    do r(ij)eke - as far as the river
    sad je pet do sedam - now it's five minutes to seven
    do poned(j)eljka - by Monday
    do sada - so far, thus far, till now
    do nedavna - until recently
    do dana dana?njega - to this very day
    sve do - as far as up to, all the way to
    do kuda - how far
    do tuda - thus far, up to here
  2. before (= pr?je/pr?)
    do rata - before the war
  3. beside, next (to)
    s(j)edi do mene - sit next to me
    jedan do drugoga - side by side
  4. (by extension, idiomatic and figurative meanings) up to one; interested in; feel like
    nije mi do toga - I don't feel like doing that
    nije mi do sm(ij)eha - I don't feel like laughing
    njemu je samo do seksa - he is only interested in sex
    nije mi puno stalo do toga - I'm not very much interested in that
    nije do mene - it's not up to me, it's no me to lame

Etymology 2

From Proto-Slavic *dol?.

Alternative forms

Pronunciation

Noun

d? m (Cyrillic spelling )

  1. (regional, Bosnia, Serbia) dale, small valley
Declension
Derived terms

Etymology 3

Borrowed from Italian do.

Pronunciation

Noun

d? m (Cyrillic spelling ) (indeclinable)

  1. (music) do

References

  • "do" in Hrvatski jezi?ni portal
  • "do" in Hrvatski jezi?ni portal
  • "do" in Hrvatski jezi?ni portal

Slovak

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *do.

Pronunciation

Preposition

do (+ genitive)

  1. into, in, to, until

Further reading

  • do in Slovak dictionaries at korpus.sk

Slovene

Etymology

From Proto-Slavic *do.

Pronunciation

Preposition

do

  1. (with genitive) by (some time before the given time)
  2. (with genitive) till

Spanish

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /do/, [d?o]
  • Hyphenation: do

Etymology 1

Borrowed from Italian do.

Noun

do m (plural dos)

  1. do (musical note)
  2. C (the musical note or key)

See also

Etymology 2

From contraction of preposition de ("of, from") + adverb o ("in where")

Adverb

do

  1. (archaic) where

Pronoun

do

  1. (archaic) where
Derived terms

Synonyms


Taworta

Noun

do

  1. fire

Further reading

Bill Palmer, The Languages and Linguistics of the New Guinea Area (->ISBN, 2017), page 531, table 95, Comparative basic vocabulary in Lakes Plain Languages


Turkish

Noun

do

  1. C, the musical note

Venetian

Verb

do

  1. first-person singular present indicative of dar - I give

Vietnamese

Etymology

Sino-Vietnamese word from ?.

Pronunciation

Preposition

do

  1. (neutral passive voice marker) by
    H?u h?t các mô hình dng lão u do nhà nc b?o tr?, [...]
    Most of the aged care models are sponsored by the state, [...]
  2. because of; due to

Related terms

  • (passive voice marker) b? (negative), c (positive)

Volapük

Conjunction

do

  1. though, although, even though

Welsh

Pronunciation

IPA(key): /do:/

Etymology 1

Adverb

do

  1. yes
  2. indeed

Etymology 2

Alternative forms

Verb

do

  1. (colloquial) first-person singular future of dod

Mutation

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
do ddo no unchanged
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

Etymology 3

Noun

do

  1. Soft mutation of to.

Mutation

Welsh mutation
radical soft nasal aspirate
to do nho tho
Note: Some of these forms may be hypothetical. Not every
possible mutated form of every word actually occurs.

West Frisian

Etymology 1

From Old Frisian th?, from Lua error: not enough memory, from Lua error: not enough memory.

Pronunciation

  • Lua error: not enough memory
  • Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory

Pronoun

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. Lua error: not enough memory you; Lua error: not enough memory
    Lua error: not enough memory
Inflection
Alternative forms
  • Lua error: not enough memory Lua error: not enough memory
Further reading
  • Lua error: not enough memory", in Lua error: not enough memory (in Lua error: not enough memory), 2011

Etymology 2

From Lua error: not enough memory, from Lua error: not enough memory.

Pronunciation

  • Lua error: not enough memory

Noun

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. pigeon, dove
Further reading
  • Lua error: not enough memory", in Lua error: not enough memory (in Lua error: not enough memory), 2011

Etymology 3

Borrowed from Lua error: not enough memory.

Pronunciation

  • Lua error: not enough memory

Noun

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. do Lua error: not enough memory
Further reading
  • Lua error: not enough memory", in Lua error: not enough memory (in Lua error: not enough memory), 2011

Zazaki

Etymology

Related to Lua error: not enough memory and Lua error: not enough memory.

Noun

Lua error: not enough memory

  1. airan

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