Before
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Before

English

Alternative forms

  • befo (pronunciation spelling)
  • befo' (pronunciation spelling)

Etymology

From Middle English before, bifore (adverb and preposition), from Old English beforan, from be- + foran ("before"), from fore, from Proto-Germanic *furai, from Proto-Indo-European *per- ("front"). Cognate with Saterland Frisian befoar ("before"), German Low German bevör ("before"), German bevor ("before").

Pronunciation

Preposition

before

  1. Earlier than (in time).
    I want this done before Monday.
    • 1898, Winston Churchill, chapter 5, in The Celebrity:
      We made an odd party before the arrival of the Ten, particularly when the Celebrity dropped in for lunch or dinner.
  2. In front of in space.
    He stood before me.
    We sat before the fire to warm ourselves.
    • 1667, John Milton, "Book 12", in Paradise Lost. A Poem Written in Ten Books, London: [...] [Samuel Simmons], [...], OCLC 228722708; republished as Paradise Lost in Ten Books: [...], London: Basil Montagu Pickering [...], 1873, OCLC 230729554:
      His angel, who shall go / Before them in a cloud and pillar of fire.
    • 1909, Archibald Marshall [pseudonym; Arthur Hammond Marshall], chapter I, in The Squire's Daughter, New York, N.Y.: Dodd, Mead and Company, published 1919, OCLC 491297620:
      He tried to persuade Cicely to stay away from the ball-room for a fourth dance. [...] But she said she must go back, and when they joined the crowd again [...] she found her mother standing up before the seat on which she had sat all the evening searching anxiously for her with her eyes, and her father by her side.
    • 2013 September-October, Henry Petroski, "The Evolution of Eyeglasses", in American Scientist:
      The ability of a segment of a glass sphere to magnify whatever is placed before it was known around the year 1000, when the spherical segment was called a reading stone, essentially what today we might term a frameless magnifying glass or plain glass paperweight.
  3. In the presence of.
    He performed before the troops in North Africa.
    He spoke before a joint session of Congress.
  4. Under consideration, judgment, authority of (someone).
    The case laid before the panel aroused nothing but ridicule.
    • 1726, John Ayliffe, Parergon Juris Canonici Anglicani
      If a suit be begun before an archdeacon [...]
  5. In store for, in the future of (someone).
  6. In front of, according to a formal system of ordering items.
    In alphabetical order, "cat" comes before "dog", "canine" before feline".
  7. At a higher or greater position than, in a ranking.
    An entrepreneur puts market share and profit before quality, an amateur intrinsic qualities before economical considerations.

Synonyms

Antonyms

  • (earlier than in time): after, later than
  • (in front of in space): behind
  • (in front of according to an ordering system): after

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Adverb

before (not comparable)

  1. At an earlier time.
    • 1918, W. B. Maxwell, chapter 12, in The Mirror and the Lamp:
      All this was extraordinarily distasteful to Churchill. It was ugly, gross. Never before had he felt such repulsion when the vicar displayed his characteristic bluntness or coarseness of speech. In the present connexion—or rather as a transition from the subject that started their conversation—such talk had been distressingly out of place.
    I've never done this before.
  2. In advance.
  3. At the front end.
    • 1896, Hilaire Belloc, The Bad Child's Book of Beasts, "The Elephant":
      When people call this beast to mind,
      They marvel more and more
      At such a little tail behind,
      So LARGE a trunk before.

Synonyms

Antonyms

Derived terms

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

Conjunction

before

  1. In advance of the time when.
    • 1731, Jonathan Swift, Polite Conversation
      before this elaborate treatise can become of universal use and ornament to my native country, two points [...] are absolutely necessary.
    • 2011 November 11, Rory Houston, "Estonia 0-4 Republic of Ireland", in RTE Sport:
      Stephen Ward then had to time his tackle excellently to deny Tarmo Kink as the Wolves winger slid the ball out of play before the Estonian could attempt to beat Given.
  2. (informal) Rather or sooner than.
    I'll die before I'll tell you anything about it.

Synonyms

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout § Translations.

References

  • before at OneLook Dictionary Search
  • Andrea Tyler and Vyvyan Evans, "Spatial particles of orientation", in The Semantics of English Prepositions: Spatial Scenes, Embodied Meaning and Cognition, Cambridge University Press, 2003, 0-521-81430 8

Anagrams


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

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