Bed
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Bed
See also: B.Ed., BED, b?d, and beð

English

Etymology

A bed (furniture)

From Middle English bed, bedde, from Old English bedd ("bed, couch, resting-place; garden-bed, plot"), from Proto-Germanic *badj? ("plot, grave, resting-place, bed"), perhaps (if originally "dug sleeping-place") from Proto-Indo-European *b?ed?- ("to dig"). Cognate with Scots bed, bede ("bed"), North Frisian baad, beed ("bed"), West Frisian bêd ("bed"), Low German Bedd, Dutch bed ("bed"), German Bett ("bed"), Danish bed, Swedish bädd ("bed"), Icelandic beður ("bed"), and (through Proto-Indo-European, if the above etymology is correct) with Ancient Greek ? (bothuros, "pit"), Latin fossa ("ditch"), Latvian bedre ("hole"), Welsh bedd ("grave"), Breton bez ("grave"); and probably also Russian (bodat?).

The traditional etymology as a derivation from the Proto-Indo-European verb for 'to dig' has been doubted, arguing that there are (allegedly) few, if any, cultures known to dig out beds, rather than to build "pads". However, what the Germanic word originally referred to is not known with precision, and it notably has the additional meaning "flower-bed, plot", which is preserved in English and several other modern Germanic languages, but present in older stages as well. Additionally, the term may have originally been used in the sense of a "burial plot" for laying those who were asleep in death, and from there extended also to symbolise a place where one slept in general (In Modern German, two separate words exist, Bett being the normal term, the rare variant Beet having been adopted for "flower-bed"). Perhaps the word originally referred to dug sleeping-places of animals, compare (with the inverse semantic development) lair from Old English le?er ("couch, bed").

Pronunciation

Noun

bed (plural beds)

  1. A piece of furniture, usually flat and soft, on which to rest or sleep.
    My cat often sleeps on my bed.
    I keep a glass of water next to my bed when I sleep.
    • 1762, Charles Johnstone, The Reverie; or, A Flight to the Paradise of Fools, volume 2, Dublin: Printed by Dillon Chamberlaine, OCLC 519072825, page 202:
      At length, one night, when the company by some accident broke up much sooner than ordinary, so that the candles were not half burnt out, she was not able to resist the temptation, but resolved to have them some way or other. Accordingly, as soon as the hurry was over, and the servants, as she thought, all gone to sleep, she stole out of her bed, and went down stairs, naked to her shift as she was, with a design to steal them [...].
    1. A prepared spot in which to spend the night.
      When camping, he usually makes a bed for the night from hay and a blanket.
    2. (usually after a preposition) One's place of sleep or rest.
      Go to bed!  I had breakfast in bed this morning.
    3. (uncountable, usually after a preposition) Sleep; rest; getting to sleep.
      He's been afraid of bed since he saw the scary film.
    4. (uncountable, usually after a preposition) The time for going to sleep or resting in bed; bedtime.
      I read until bed.
    5. (uncountable) Time spent in a bed.
      • 1903, Thomas Stretch Dowse, Lectures on Massage and Electricity in the Treatment of Disease, page 276:
        I am quite sure that too much bed, if not too much sleep, is prejudicial, though a certain amount is absolutely necessary.
      • 1907, Jabez Spencer Balfour, My Prison Life, page 181:
        Some prisoners, indeed, are always up before the bell rings -- such was my practice -- they prefer to grope about in the dark to tossing about in the utter weariness of too much bed.
      • 1972, James Verney Cable, Principles of Medicine: An Integrated Textbook for Nurses:
        This condition is one of the dangers of "too much bed". The nurse should inspect the legs of each patient daily
    6. (figuratively) Marriage.
      • (Can we date this quote by Earl of Clarendon and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
        George, the eldest son of his second bed.
    7. (figuratively, uncountable) Sexual activity.
      Too much bed, not enough rest.
  2. A place, or flat surface or layer, on which something else rests or is laid.
    The meats and cheeses lay on a bed of lettuce.
    1. The bottom of a body of water, such as an ocean, sea, lake, or river. [from later 16thc.]
      sea bed;  river bed;  lake bed;  There's a lot of trash on the bed of the river.
    2. An area where a large number of oysters, mussels, other sessile shellfish, or a large amount of seaweed is found.
      Oysters are farmed from their beds.
      • 1941, Emily Carr, Klee Wyck, Chapter 18, [1]
        I knew that there were kelp beds and reefs which could rip the bottoms from boats down in Skedans Bay.
    3. A garden plot.
      We added a new bush to our rose bed.
      • 1907, Robert William Chambers, chapter V, in The Younger Set, New York, N.Y.: D. Appleton & Company, OCLC 24962326:
        Breezes blowing from beds of iris quickened her breath with their perfume; she saw the tufted lilacs sway in the wind, and the streamers of mauve-tinted wistaria swinging, all a-glisten with golden bees; she saw a crimson cardinal winging through the foliage, and amorous tanagers flashing like scarlet flames athwart the pines.
    4. A foundation or supporting surface formed of a fluid.
      A bed of concrete makes a strong subsurface for an asphalt parking lot.
    5. The superficial earthwork, or ballast, of a railroad.
    6. The platform of a truck, trailer, railcar, or other vehicle that supports the load to be hauled.
      The parcels were loaded onto the truck bed before transportation.
    7. A shaped piece of timber to hold a cask clear of a ship's floor; a pallet.
    8. (printing, dated) The flat part of the press, on which the form is laid.
    9. (computing) The flat surface of a scanner on which a document is placed to be scanned.
    10. A piece of music, normally instrumental, over which a radio DJ talks.
    11. (darts) Any of the sections of a dartboard with a point value, delimited by a wire.
  3. (heading) A layer or surface.
    1. A deposit of ore, coal, etc.
    2. (geology) The smallest division of a geologic formation or stratigraphic rock series marked by well-defined divisional planes (bedding planes) separating it from layers above and below.
    3. (masonry) The horizontal surface of a building stone.
      the upper and lower beds
    4. (masonry) The lower surface of a brick, slate, or tile.
      (Can we find and add a quotation of Knight to this entry?)
    5. (masonry) A course of stone or brick in a wall.

Usage notes

Sense 1. To prepare a bed is usually to "make" the bed, or (US, Southern) to "spread" the bed, the verb spread probably having been developed from bedspread. Like many nouns denoting places where people spend time, bed requires no article after certain prepositions: hence in bed ("lying in a bed"), go to bed ("get into a bed"), and so on. The forms in a bed, etc. do exist, but tend to imply mere presence in the bed, without it being for the purpose of sleep.

See also Appendix:MakeDoTakeHave

Synonyms

  • (division of a geologic formation): layer, stratum
  • (platform on a vehicle): tray

Derived terms

Descendants

  • Chichewa: bedi
  • Chuukese: pet
  • Japanese: (beddo)

Translations

The translations below need to be checked and inserted above into the appropriate translation tables, removing any numbers. Numbers do not necessarily match those in definitions. See instructions at Wiktionary:Entry layout#Translations.

Verb

bed (third-person singular simple present beds, present participle bedding, simple past and past participle bedded)

  1. Senses relating to a bed as a place for resting or sleeping.
    1. (intransitive) To go to bed. (Can we add an example for this sense?)
    2. (transitive) To place in a bed.
      (Can we find and add a quotation of Francis Bacon to this entry?)
    3. To put oneself to sleep. (Can we add an example for this sense?)
    4. (transitive) To furnish with a bed or bedding.
    5. (transitive, intransitive) To have sexual intercourse with. [from early 14th c.]
      • 1730, William Forbes, The Institutes of the Law of Scotland (page 121)
        And he who lies with another Man's Wife after she is married, even before her Husband had bedded with her, is guilty of Adultery, [...]
  2. Senses relating to a bed as a place or layer on which something else rests or is laid.
    1. (transitive) To lay or put in any hollow place, or place of rest and security, surrounded or enclosed; to embed.
      • (Can we date this quote by Wordsworth and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
        Among all chains or clusters of mountains where large bodies of still water are bedded.
      • 2014 August 17, Jeff Howell, "Home improvements: Repairing and replacing floorboards [print version: Never buy anything from a salesman, 16 August 2014, p. P7]", in The Daily Telegraph (Property)[2]:
        But I must warn you that chipboard floors are always likely to squeak. The material is still being used in new-builds, but developers now use adhesive to bed and joint it, rather than screws or nails. I suspect the adhesive will eventually embrittle and crack, resulting in the same squeaking problems as before.
    2. (transitive) To set in a soft matrix, as paving stones in sand, or tiles in cement.
    3. (transitive) To set out (plants) in a garden bed.
    4. (transitive) To dress or prepare the surface of (stone) so it can serve as a bed.
    5. (transitive) To lay flat; to lay in order; to place in a horizontal or recumbent position.
      • (Can we date this quote by Shakespeare and provide title, author's full name, and other details?)
        bedded hair
    6. To settle, as machinery.

Synonyms

Derived terms

Translations

Further reading

Anagrams


Afrikaans

Etymology

From Dutch bed, from Middle Dutch bedde, from Old Dutch bedde, from Proto-Germanic *badj?.

Pronunciation

Noun

bed (plural beddens, diminutive bedjie)

  1. bed

Breton

Etymology

From Proto-Brythonic *b?d, from Proto-Celtic *bitus.

Noun

bed m (plural bedoù)

  1. world

Inflection


Danish

Etymology 1

From German Beet ("bed").

Pronunciation

Noun

bed n (singular definite bedet, plural indefinite bede)

  1. bed (a garden plot)
Inflection

Etymology 2

See bide.

Pronunciation

Verb

bed

  1. past tense of bide

Etymology 3

See bede.

Pronunciation

Verb

bed

  1. imperative of bede

Dutch

Etymology

From Middle Dutch bedde, from Old Dutch bedde, from Proto-Germanic *badj?.

Pronunciation

Noun

bed n (plural bedden, diminutive bedje n)

  1. bed (furniture for sleeping)
  2. (garden, agriculture) patch, bed
  3. layer, often a substratum
  4. bed of a body of water
    • 1950, Willy van der Heide, Drie jongens op een onbewoond eiland, Stenvert.
      Op een gegeven ogenblik stieten ze op een uitgedroogde beekbedding; het bed van de beek was naakte lava.

Derived terms

Descendants


Kriol

Etymology 1

From English bird.

Noun

bed

  1. bird

Etymology 2

From English bed.

Noun

bed

  1. bed

Kurdish

Pronunciation

Adjective

bed

  1. bad (not good)


This Kurdish entry was created from the translations listed at bad. It may be less reliable than other entries, and may be missing parts of speech or additional senses. Please also see bed in the Kurdish Wiktionary. This notice will be removed when the entry is checked. (more information) April 2008


Norwegian Bokmål

Etymology 1

From German Beet

Noun

bed n (definite singular bedet, indefinite plural bed, definite plural beda or bedene)

  1. (horticulture) a bed (for plants)
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Verb

bed

  1. imperative of bede

References

  • "bed" in The Bokmål Dictionary.

Norwegian Nynorsk

Etymology 1

From German Beet

Noun

bed n (definite singular bedet, indefinite plural bed, definite plural beda)

  1. (horticulture) a bed (for plants)
Derived terms

Etymology 2

Verb

bed

  1. present of bede
  2. imperative of bede

References

  • "bed" in The Nynorsk Dictionary.

Old English

Pronunciation

Noun

bed n

  1. Alternative form of bedd

Old Irish

Pronunciation

Etymology 1

See the etymology of the main entry.

Verb

·bed

  1. third-person singular past subjunctive of at·tá
Alternative forms

Etymology 2

See the etymology of the main entry.

Verb

bed

  1. inflection of is:
    1. third-person singular past subjunctive
    2. third-person singular/second-person plural imperative
    3. third-person singular conditional relative
Alternative forms
  • bad (3 sg. past subj.; 3 sg. and 2 pl. imperative)

Old Saxon

Alternative forms

Etymology

From Proto-Germanic *badj? ("dug sleeping-place"), from Proto-Indo-European *b?ed?- ("to dig"). Cognate with Old Frisian bed, Old English bedd, Dutch bed, Old High German betti, Old Norse beðr, Gothic ? (badi). The Indo-European root is also the source of Ancient Greek ? (bothuros, "pit"), Latin fossa ("ditch"), Latvian bedre ("hole"), Welsh bedd, Breton bez ("grave").

Noun

bed n

  1. bed
    • thena lefna lamon b?run mid is beddiu
      They were bearing the living lame man with his bed
      (Heliand, verse 2309)

Declension


Descendants


Swedish

Verb

bed (contracted be)

  1. imperative of bedja.

Volapük

Noun

bed (nominative plural beds)

  1. bed

Declension


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bed
 



 



 
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