Wiktionary:Russian Transliteration
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Wiktionary:Russian Transliteration

These are the rules concerning transliteration in Russian entries. This Wiktionary-specific transliteration system is based on the conventional system of transliteration for linguistics, with modifications, and exceptions to reflect Russian pronunciation instead of Cyrillic spelling.

Wiktionary standard transliteration for Russian
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 archaic (pre-1918)
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? I ? ? ?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
A a B b V v G g, H h, X x, V v1 D d E e, Je je, ?2, Jó jó, ó4 Jó jó, ó5 ? ? Z z I i J j K k L l M m N n O o P p R r S s T t U u F f X x C c ? ?, ? ?6 ? ?   ?, -7 Y y ? ?, E e3 Ju ju, u8 Ja ja I i F f ? ? I i

Table notes:

  1. The letter "?" is transliterated as h when it is pronounced /?/, as x when it is pronounced /x/, and as v in genitive/accusative masculine/neuter endings (e.g., "-" = -ovo, and "-" = -(j)evo, pronounced /ovo/ like "-" and /(j)evo/ like "-", respectively). E.g., "" is box, "" is ljóxkij, "?" (interjection) is ohó or ogó, "" is kovó and "" is sevódnja.
  2. The letter "?" is transliterated as follows:
    1. e after consonants, e.g. (bez), or after a hyphen at the beginning of a suffix, e.g. - (-ec);
    2. je elsewhere (at the beginning of a word, after a vowel or following "?" or "?");
    3. ? in loanwords where the preceding consonant is not palatalised, e.g. "? (t?st)".
  3. The letter "?" is transliterated as follows:
    1. ? in the places where letter "?" is transliterated as e (after consonants and after a hyphen at the beginning of a suffix);
    2. e elsewhere (i.e. wherever the letter "?" would be transliterated as je).
  4. In running texts (excluding dictionary or textbook material, books designed for young readers), the letter "?" is seldom used by native speakers and it's written as letter "?", without the dots. It's still pronounced and transliterated the same way as "?", e.g. " (ljóxkij)" (such terms are treated as alternative spellings in Wiktionary, which uses a dictionary style, the main terms being those spelled with "?").
  5. The letter "?" is transliterated as ó following the consonants "?", "?", "?", or "?". "?" is transliterated as jó/ó by default as it is usually stressed, monosyllabic words, loanwords where indicating stress is not required or and rare multipart words, loanwords "?" is NOT stressed must be transliterated as jo/o, e.g. monosyllabic words: (ljod), Russian words prefixed with ?- (trjox-), ?- (?etyrjox-), rare loanwords with unstressed "?": (Pjontkóvskij) (also (Pentkóvskij)).
  6. The letter "?" is transliterated as ? in the few words where it is pronounced /?/ like "?": "" is ?to, "" is koné?no.
  7. The letter "?" at the end of a word--which was used in pre-1918 orthography--is not transliterated as it did not represent any sound: ? (mir), ? (mir).
  8. The letter "?" is transliterated as u in the combinations "" and "". For example, "" = ?urí, "" = bro?úra where "?" doesn't produce the usual pronunciation.

Exceptions

There are no more exceptions if the pronunciation is expected and can be learned from the basics of Russian phonology, specifically:

  • The reduction of vowels and voicing/devoicing of consonants are not reflected in the transliteration.
  • Verb endings "-" and "-?" are transliterated as written as -tsja and -t?sja: (odét?sja), (odénetsja).
  • Silent consonants in consonant clusters are transliterated: "" is ?éstnyj, not ?ésnyj, and "?" is sólnce, not sónce.
  • Sibilants changing pronunciation are transliterated letter by letter as per the table: "" is s?ást?je, not ást?je.
  • Combinations "", "", and "" are transliterated as ?i, ?i and ci, not ?y, ?y and cy.
  • The letter "?" at the end of words ending in "?", "?", "?" and "?" has no effect on the pronunciation, but is still transliterated as ?: ? (ro), ? (my), ? (ve), ? (pe), (délaje).

Syllabic stress

Syllabic stress is indicated by an acute accent ´ over the stressed vowel:

  • Cyrillic?, , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , .
  • Roman: Á, á, Jé, jé, Í, í, Ó, ó, Ú, ú, Ý, ý, É, , Jú, jú, Já, já.

E.g., (rýba, "fish").

  • The vowel "?" is normally stressed in native Russian words, but occasionally it may be necessary to show the stress for this letter: "" (not recommended for templates with automatic transliteration).

Automatic and manual transliteration

Russian text is automatically transliterated according to the above conventions. Manual transliteration is only necessary in a few situations, such as where the letter "?" needs to be transliterated ?. Manual transliteration is specified in one of two ways, depending on the template:

  1. Most headword templates ({{ru-noun}}, {{ru-adj}}, {{ru-adv}}, etc.) take a |tr= parameter for the first headword, and |tr2=, |tr3= etc. for further headwords. Non-Russian-specific templates work similarly, e.g. {{l}}, {{m}}, {{ux}} etc. For example: {{m|ru|?|tr=t?st}}.
  2. The headword templates {{ru-noun+}} and {{ru-proper noun+}}, as well as all declension and conjugation templates ({{ru-noun-table}}, {{ru-decl-adj}}, {{ru-conj}}) specify manual transliteration in the same parameter as the Russian, separated by //. For example: {{ru-noun-table|?//t?st}}.

The module that implements automatic transliteration handles a number of situations, e.g.:

  • Adjectival "-", "-" and pre-1918 "-" are correctly transliterated as -ovo, -evo, -avo. This also works if accents are present on the vowels. Exceptions are made for the following words: "", "?", "?a", "", "?", "?", "?".
  • " (sevódnja)" is transliterated sevódnja, and all forms of " (sevódnja?nij)" are similarly transliterated with sevódnja?n-.
  • " (?to)", " (ni?tó)", " (?tóby)", "? (?tob)" (plus forms "?- (?tó-to)", "?- (?tó-nibud?)", etc.) are correctly transliterated with ? rather than ?.
  • Forms of " (ljóxkij)" and " (mjaxkij)", as well as words with "?", "?" and "?" in them, are correctly transliterated with -xk- and -x?-.

See also


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Wiktionary:Russian_transliteration
 



 



 
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