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This Proto-Indo-European entry contains reconstructed words and roots. As such, the term(s) in this entry are not directly attested, but are hypothesized to have existed based on comparative evidence.


Alternative reconstructions



  1. to, at


  • Celtic: *ad-
  • Germanic: *at
  • Italic: *ad
  • Phrygian: (ad)

Derived terms

  • *(a)d-s?-[4]
    • (perhaps) Armenian:
      • Old Armenian: ?- (c?-)


  1. ^ Ringe, Donald (2006) From Proto-Indo-European to Proto-Germanic (A Linguistic History of English; 1), Oxford: Oxford University Press, ->ISBN
  2. ^ Kroonen, Guus (2013) Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 11), Leiden, Boston: Brill, ->ISBN
  3. ^ De Vaan, Michiel (2008) Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages (Leiden Indo-European Etymological Dictionary Series; 7), Leiden, Boston: Brill
  4. ^ A?a?ean, Hraeay (1979), "?", in Hayer?n armatakan ba?aran [Dictionary of Armenian Root Words] (in Armenian), volume IV, 2nd edition, reprint of the original 1926-1935 seven-volume edition, Yerevan: University Press, page 446a

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