Appendix:Spanish Swadesh List
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Appendix:Spanish Swadesh List

This is a Swadesh list of words in Spanish, compared with that of English.

Presentation

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the popflock.com resource article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List

Symbols used: In order for the pronunciation to remain readable, some generally laminal alveolar consonants are not specified as such, being represented simply as alveolar consonants without any diacritic: /d/ in place of [d?], /t/ in place of [t?], /n/ in place of [n?], /l/ in place of [l?]. Also, some approximant realizations of phonemic voiced plosives are transcribed using the symbols of the corresponding voiced fricatives: /?/ in place of [], /ð/ in place of [ð?], /?/ in place of [] (or [?]).

No. English Spanish
español (castellano)
IPA
pronunciation
1 I yo /?o/
2 you (singular) , vos, usted (formal) /tu/, /bos/, /us'teð/
3 he él /el/
4 we nosotros, nosotras /no'sot?os/, /no'sot?as/
5 you (plural) vosotros, vosotras, ustedes (formal) /bo'sot?os/, /bo'sot?as/, /us'teðes/
6 they ellos, ellas /'e?os/, /'e?as/
7 this este /'este/
8 that ese, aquel /'ese/, /a'kel/
9 here aquí, acá /a'ki/, /a'ka/
10 there ahí /a'i/
11 who quien /kjen/
12 what que /ke/
13 where donde /'donde/
14 when cuando /'kwando/
15 how como /'komo/
16 not no /no/
17 all todo /'toðo/
18 many muchos /'mutos/
19 some algunos /al'?unos/
20 few poco /'poko/
21 other otro /'ot?o/
22 one uno /'uno/
23 two dos /dos/
24 three tres /t?es/
25 four cuatro /'kwat?o/
26 five cinco /'?i?ko/
27 big grande /'ande/
28 long largo /'lao/
29 wide ancho /'anto/
30 thick grueso /'weso/
31 heavy pesado /pe'saðo/
32 small pequeño /pe'ke?o/
33 short corto /'ko?to/
34 narrow estrecho /es't?eto/
35 thin delgado, flaco /del'?aðo/, /'flako/
36 woman mujer /mu'xe?/
37 man (male) hombre /'omb?e/
38 man (human) hombre /'omb?e/
39 child niño /'ni?o/
40 wife esposa, mujer /es'posa/, /mu'xe?/
41 husband esposo, marido /es'poso/, /ma'?iðo/
42 mother madre /'mað?e/
43 father padre /'pað?e/
44 animal animal /ani'mal/
45 fish pez, pescado /pe?/, /pes'kaðo/
46 bird pájaro /'paxa?o/
47 dog perro /'pero/
48 louse piojo /'pjoxo/
49 snake serpiente /se?'pjente/
50 worm gusano /?u'sano/
51 tree árbol /'aol/
52 forest bosque /'boske/
53 stick palo /'palo/
54 fruit fruta /'f?uta/
55 seed semilla /se'mi?a/
56 leaf hoja /'oxa/
57 root raíz /ra'i?/
58 bark (of a tree) corteza /ko?'te?a/
59 flower flor /flo?/
60 grass hierba /'?ea/
61 rope cuerda /'kwe?ða/
62 skin piel /pjel/
63 meat carne /'ka?ne/
64 blood sangre /'sae/
65 bone hueso /'weso/
66 fat (noun) grasa /'asa/
67 egg huevo /'we?o/
68 horn cuerno /'kwe?no/
69 tail cola /'kola/
70 feather pluma /'pluma/
71 hair cabello /ka'?e?o/
72 head cabeza /ka'?e?a/
73 ear oreja /o'?exa/
74 eye ojo /'oxo/
75 nose nariz /na'?i?/
76 mouth boca /'boka/
77 tooth diente /'djente/
78 tongue lengua /'lewa/
79 fingernail uña /'u?a/
80 foot pie /pje/
81 leg pierna /'pje?na/
82 knee rodilla /ro'ði?a/
83 hand mano /'mano/
84 wing ala /'ala/
85 belly barriga /ba'ri?a/
86 guts tripas /'t?ipas/
87 neck cuello /'kwe?o/
88 back espalda /es'palda/
89 breast pecho /'peto/
90 heart corazón /ko?a'?on/
91 liver hígado /'i?aðo/
92 to drink beber /be'?e?/
93 to eat comer /ko'me?/
94 to bite morder /mo?'ðe?/
95 to suck chupar /tu'pa?/
96 to spit escupir /esku'pi?/
97 to vomit vomitar /bomi'ta?/
98 to blow soplar /so'pla?/
99 to breathe respirar /respi'?a?/
100 to laugh reír /re'i?/
101 to see ver /be?/
102 to hear oír /o'i?/
103 to know saber /sa'?e?/
104 to think pensar /pen'sa?/
105 to smell oler /o'le?/
106 to fear temer /te'me?/
107 to sleep dormir /do?'mi?/
108 to live vivir /bi'?i?/
109 to die morir /mo'?i?/
110 to kill matar /ma'ta?/
111 to fight pelear /pele'a?/
112 to hunt cazar /ka'?a?/
113 to hit golpear /?olpe'a?/
114 to cut cortar /ko?'ta?/
115 to split partir /pa?'ti?/
116 to stab apuñalar /apu?a'la?/
117 to scratch arañar, rascar /a?a'?a?/, /ras'ka?/
118 to dig cavar /ka'?a?/
119 to swim nadar /na'ða?/
120 to fly volar /bo'la?/
121 to walk caminar /kami'na?/
122 to come venir /be'ni?/
123 to lie (as in a bed) echarse (action) /e'ta?se/
124 to sit sentarse (action) /sen'ta?se/
125 to stand levantarse (action), estar de pie (state) /le?an'ta?se/, /es'ta?/ /de/ /pje/
126 to turn (intransitive) girar /xi'?a?/
127 to fall caer /ka'e?/
128 to give dar /da?/
129 to hold tener /te'ne?/
130 to squeeze apretar /ap?e'ta?/
131 to rub frotar /f?o'ta?/
132 to wash lavar /la'?a?/
133 to wipe limpiar /lim'pja?/
134 to pull tirar de, jalar /ti'?a?/ /de/, /xa'la?/
135 to push empujar /empu'xa?/
136 to throw tirar /ti'?a?/
137 to tie atar /a'ta?/
138 to sew coser /ko'se?/
139 to count contar /kon'ta?/
140 to say decir /de'?i?/
141 to sing cantar /kan'ta?/
142 to play jugar /xu'?a?/
143 to float flotar /flo'ta?/
144 to flow fluir /flu'i?/
145 to freeze helar /e'la?/
146 to swell hincharse /in'ta?se/
147 sun sol /sol/
148 moon luna /'luna/
149 star estrella /es't?e?a/
150 water agua /'a?wa/
151 rain lluvia /'?u?ja/
152 river río /'rio/
153 lake lago /'la?o/
154 sea mar /ma?/
155 salt sal /sal/
156 stone piedra /'pjeð?a/
157 sand arena /a'?ena/
158 dust polvo /'pol?o/
159 earth tierra /'tjera/
160 cloud nube /'nu?e/
161 fog niebla /'nje?la/
162 sky cielo /'?jelo/
163 wind viento /'bjento/
164 snow nieve /'nje?e/
165 ice hielo /'jelo/
166 smoke humo /'umo/
167 fire fuego /'fwe?o/
168 ash cenizas /?e'ni?as/
169 to burn quemar /ke'ma?/
170 road camino /ka'mino/
171 mountain montaña /mon'ta?a/
172 red rojo /'roxo/
173 green verde /'be?ðe/
174 yellow amarillo /ama'?i?o/
175 white blanco /'bla?ko/
176 black negro /'neo/
177 night noche /'note/
178 day día /'dia/
179 year año /'a?o/
180 warm cálido /'kaliðo/
181 cold frío /'f?io/
182 full lleno /'?eno/
183 new nuevo /'nwe?o/
184 old viejo /'bjexo/
185 good bueno /'bweno/
186 bad malo /'malo/
187 rotten podrido /poð'?iðo/
188 dirty sucio /'su?jo/
189 straight recto /'rekto/
190 round redondo /re'ðondo/
191 sharp (as a knife) agudo, afilado /a'?uðo/, /afi'laðo/
192 dull (as a knife) sin filo, embotado, romo /sin'filo/, /embo'taðo/, /'romo/
193 smooth liso /'liso/
194 wet mojado /mo'xaðo/
195 dry seco /'seko/
196 correct correcto /ko'rekto/
197 near cerca /'?e?ka/
198 far lejos /'lexos/
199 right derecha /de'?eta/
200 left izquierda /i?'kje?ða/
201 at a, en /a/, /en/
202 in en /en/
203 with con /kon/
204 and y, e /i/, /e/
205 if si /si/
206 because porque /'po?ke/
207 name nombre /'nomb?e/
  • Orthography :

When the words have various forms (verbs conjugation, gender and number agreement, declensions), the orthography is the following :

  • verbs : infinitive
  • other words : masculine, singular, nominative (subject)

For specific cases (no infinitive, feminine name, plural name for instance), the simplest form is used.

  • Pronunciation :

The pronunciation shown is the pronunciation generally used in Spain, the Latin American one being frequently different. Depending on the speakers and the area, the actual pronunciation may differ, more or less significantly, from the pronunciation shown here.

Bibliography

  • Dictionnaire de poche français-espagnol / espagnol-français, Hachette & Vox, Paris 2005 - ->ISBN
  • Les langages de l'humanité (Michel Malherbe), Robert Laffont, Paris 1995 - ->ISBN

Further reading


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Appendix:Spanish_Swadesh_list
 



 



 
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