Appendix:Russian Pronunciation
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Appendix:Russian Pronunciation
This appendix is still in development.

See Russian phonology at popflock.com resource for a thorough look at the sounds of Russian.

Consonants

Basic consonants as in the alphabet:

Transliterations and IPA (not in alphabetical order)
# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
Letter ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
WT:RU TR b p v f g k d t ? ? z s j l m n r x c ?
IPA b p v f g k d t ? ? z s j l m n r x t?s t ?:

Palatalisation

Palatalised ("soft") consonants: b?, p?, v?, f?, g?, k? d?, t?, z?, s?, l?, m?, n?, r?, x?, (t?s?). [j], [t] and [?:] are always palatalised ("soft"), [?] and [?] are almost always unpalatalised ("hard").

Palatalisation for other consonants typically occurs:

  1. In front of vowels: "?", "?", "?", "?", "?" and in front of "?" ("soft sign"), see also note on "?" as a "separation sign".
    E.g.? ['vr?em], ? [r'bn?k], ?? [p'tanj?], [k?'ltk?], ['pr?ænk], ? [d?en?]
  2. "?" is only palatalised (t?s?) in some loanwords, only in front of "?", "?", "?" and "?" to imitate some foreign sound. It's not palatalised in front of "?" and "?" - =, =.
  3. Many loanwords are NOT palatalised in front of "?" (=?), e.g. "?" (=?) is pronounced [t?st]. ("?" is then pronounced [?] in stressed positions, [?] in unstressed positions)

TO DO

Vowels

Basic vowels as in the alphabet:

Transliterations and IPA (not in alphabetical order)
# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Non-palatal letter Palatal letter
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?
WT:RU TR a ? y o u ja e i jo ju
IPA (when stressed) a ? ? o u ?a, ?æ ?e ?i ?u,
IPA (directly before the stress) ? ? ? ? ? , ,
IPA (other unstressed positions) ? ?

NOTES:

  • The difference between "palatal" and "non-palatal" vowels is actually their effect on a preceding consonant. Palatal vowels palatalize a preceding consonant, while non-palatal vowels don't. If no consonant directly precedes (i.e. either at the beginning of a word, following a vowel or following a soft or hard sign), a /j/ is pronounced before the palatal vowels, e.g. (vojénnyj, "military, martial") is pronounced [v?'jen:?j]. This /j/, however, is omitted in some situations: (1) with palatal ? (stressed or unstressed), except when following the soft sign ? (hence (igrá, "game") is pronounced [?'?ra], and (vóin, "soldier") is pronounced ['vo?n]); (2) optionally with other palatal vowels when unstressed and following a vowel (hence (pójas, "belt") is pronounced ['po(j)?s]).
  • The two pronunciations of ? and ? are related to what follows: If a palatalized consonant follows, the second-listed, more-fronted pronunciations [?æ, ] are used; otherwise, the first-listed, less-fronted pronunciations [?a, ?u] are used. When ? is unstressed, no such difference exists but it still does with unstressed ?.
  • Unstressed ? and ? are always pronounced [?] when word-initial and when directly following another unstressed ? or ?, regardless of the position of the stress.
  • Unstressed ? when word-initial and when following a vowel is pronounced [?], exactly as for ? in the same position.

See also


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Appendix:Russian_pronunciation
 



 



 
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