Appendix:Proto-Austronesian Swadesh List
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Appendix:Proto-Austronesian Swadesh List

This is a Swadesh list of words in Proto-Austronesian, compared with that of English.

Presentation

For further information, including the full final version of the list, read the popflock.com resource article: Swadesh list.

American linguist Morris Swadesh believed that languages changed at measurable rates and that these could be determined even for languages without written precursors. Using vocabulary lists, he sought to understand not only change over time but also the relationships of extant languages. To be able to compare languages from different cultures, he based his lists on meanings he presumed would be available in as many cultures as possible. He then used the fraction of agreeing cognates between any two related languages to compute their divergence time by some (still debated) algorithms. Starting in 1950 with 165 meanings, his list grew to 215 in 1952, which was so expansive that many languages lacked native vocabulary for some terms. Subsequently, it was reduced to 207, and reduced much further to 100 meanings in 1955. A reformulated list was published posthumously in 1971.

List

No. English Proto-Austronesian
1 I *(i-)aku
2 you (singular) *(i-)kaSu
*iSu, *Suqu (possessive)
3 he *(si-)ia, *ni(-a) (possessive)
4 we *(i-)kita (inclusive), *ata (inclusive, possessive), *it?n (inclusive, possessive)
*kami (exclusive)
5 you (plural) *(i-)kam(i)u
*Simu
6 they *(si-)ida
7 this *(i-)ni
*(ia-)ni
*(i-)ti
*qani
*qazi
8 that *(i-)Cu
9 here *(di-)ni
10 there
11 who *(si-)ima
12 what *(na-)nu
13 where *(i-)nu
14 when *ija(-n)
15 how *kuja
*numa
16 not *adi
*ini
17 all *q?min / *amin
18 many
19 some
20 few
21 other *duma
22 one *?sa / *isa / *asa
23 two *duSa
24 three *t?lu
25 four *S?pat
26 five *lima
27 big *(ma-)?aya
28 long *inaduq
29 wide *(ma-)lawas
30 thick *(ma-)kaSepal
31 heavy
32 small *k?di
33 short
34 narrow
35 thin *(ma-)NiSepis
36 woman *bahi
37 man (adult male) *(ma-)?uqaNay
38 man (human being) *Cau
39 child *aNak
40 wife
41 husband
42 mother *(t-)ina
43 father *(t-)ama
44 animal
45 fish *Sikan
46 bird *qayam
47 dog *(w)asu
48 louse *kuCu
49 snake *Sula?
50 worm *kulay
51 tree
52 forest *kaSiw-kaSiw-an
53 stick *kaSiw
54 fruit *buaq
55 seed
56 leaf *bi?aq
57 root *?am?C / *?amiS
58 bark (of a tree)
59 flower
60 grass *C?m?l
61 rope *CaliS
62 skin *qaNiC
63 meat *isi / *S?si
64 blood *da?aq
65 bone *Cuq?laN
66 fat (noun) *Sima?
67 egg *qiC?lu?
68 horn
69 tail *iku?
70 feather
71 hair *buk?S
72 head *qulu
73 ear *Cali?a
74 eye *maCa
75 nose *muji?
76 mouth *?usu
77 tooth *nip?n
78 tongue (organ) *S?ma
79 fingernail
80 foot *qaqay
81 leg *qaqay
82 knee
83 hand *(qa)lima
84 wing *paNid
85 belly *tiaN
86 guts *Cinaqi
87 neck *liq
88 back *likud
89 breast *susu
90 heart
91 liver *qaCay
92 to drink *mimah
93 to eat *ka?n
94 to bite *ka?at
95 to suck *s?ps?p
96 to spit
97 to vomit *utaq
98 to blow *Siup
99 to breathe
100 to laugh *Cawa
101 to see *kita
102 to hear *tumaNa
103 to know *bajaq
104 to think *n?mn?m
105 to smell *Saj?k
106 to fear *(ma-)takut
107 to sleep *tudu?
108 to live *(ma-)qudip
109 to die *(m-)aCay
110 to kill *(p-)aCay
111 to fight
112 to hunt *qaNup
113 to hit *palu
114 to cut *ta?aq
*t?kt?k
115 to split
116 to stab
117 to scratch *ka?aw
118 to dig *kalih
119 to swim *Na?uy
120 to fly *layap
121 to walk *Nakaw
122 to come
123 to lie (as in a bed)
124 to sit
125 to stand *di?i
126 to turn (intransitive) *Niku
127 to fall
128 to give
129 to hold *g?mg?m
130 to squeeze *pq
131 to rub
132 to wash
133 to wipe
134 to pull
135 to push
136 to throw
137 to tie
138 to sew *taSiq
139 to count *Sipu?
140 to say
141 to sing
142 to play
143 to float
144 to flow *qalu?
145 to freeze
146 to swell *baq
*?ibawa
147 sun
148 moon *bulaN
*qiNas
149 star *bituq?n
150 water *daNum
151 rain *quzaN
152 river
153 lake *danaw
154 sea *t?n?m
155 salt *qasi?a
*timus
156 stone *batu
157 sand *bunaj
*q?nay
158 dust *lik?S
159 earth *daq
160 cloud *l?ml?m
161 fog
162 sky *la?iC
163 wind *bali
164 snow
165 ice
166 smoke *C?buN
*q?b?l
167 fire *Sapuy
168 ash *qabu
169 to burn *cuNuh
170 road *zalan
171 mountain
172 red *(ma-)taNah
173 green *mataq
174 yellow
175 white *(ma-)puNi
176 black *CN
177 night *bi
178 day *qal?jaw
179 year *kawaS
180 warm
181 cold
182 full
183 new *(ma-)baquh
184 old *(ma-)tuqaS
185 good
186 bad *kuya
187 rotten *(ma-)bu?aq
188 dirty
189 straight
190 round
191 sharp (as a knife) *Caz?m
192 dull (as a knife)
193 smooth
194 wet
195 dry *(ma-)qa?iw
196 correct
197 near *(ma-)azaNih
198 far *(ma-)dawiN
199 right *ka-wanaN
200 left *ka-wi?i
201 at *(d)i
202 in *(d)i-dal?m
203 with
204 and *ka
*mah
205 if *ka
*nu
206 because
207 name *?ajan

See also

External links


  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Appendix:Proto-Austronesian_Swadesh_list
 



 



 
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