Appendix:Portuguese Pronunciation
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Appendix:Portuguese Pronunciation

This page is a guide for reading and adding Portuguese IPA pronunciations. Unless noted otherwise, the information here refers only to Standard European Portuguese and Standard Brazilian Portuguese. See Portuguese phonology.

Phonemes

The transcriptions in the second column are non-canonical and should be replaced by those in the first one.

canonical
transcription
other broad
transcriptions
orthographical
representation
narrow
transcriptions
notes
/a/ a, á, à [a], [ä]
/?/ /?/, /?/, /?/ a, â [?], [?], [?]
// //, // ã, â, am, an, âm, ân [], [], []
[], [], []
[?], [?], [?]
[], [], []
/?/ e, é [?]
/e/ e, ê [e]
/?/ em, en, ên, êm, ém [?], [], [e], [e?] the /j?/ that follows /?/ in some cases needs to be transcribed separately Some speakers of European Portuguese use //
/?/ /?/, /?/ e, i [] European Portuguese
/i/ /?/ i, e [i], [?]
/?/ i, in, im [?]
/?/ o, ó [?]
/o/ o, ô [o]
/õ/ õ, om, on, ôm, ôn [õ], [õ?], [o]
[o?], [õ], [õw?]
/u/ /?/ o, u, ú [u], [?] should not be used for /w/ [y] Only in the Azores and some dialects of European Portuguese. [ø] in the Azores and some European Dialects.
/?/ um, un, úm, úm [?], [], [uw?]
/m/ m [m]
/n/ n [n?]
/?/ /j?/ nh [?], [j?], []
/p/ p [p]
/b/ b [b], [?] [?] allophone appears only in European Portuguese
/t/ t [t?]
/d/ d [d?], [ð] [ð] allophone appears only in European Portuguese
/k/ c, qu, k [k]
/?/ /?/ g, gu [?], [?] [?] allophone appears only in European Portuguese
/t/ /t?/ t, tch [t], [t] Brazilian Portuguese; usually considered an allophone of /t/
/d/ /d?/ d, dj [d], [d] Brazilian Portuguese; usually considered an allophone of /d/
/f/ f [f]
/v/ v [v]
/s/ s, ss, ç, z, x [s]
/z/ s, z, x [z]
/?/ x, ch, s [], []
/?/ j, g, s [], []
/?/ /r/, /h/, /x/, /?/, /?/ r, rr [?], [?], [r], [h]
[?], [?], [?], [?]
/?/ /r/ r [?]
/l/ l [l], [?]
/?/ lh [?], []
/w/ /u/, /?/, /u?/, //, /?/ u, l, o, ü [w], [u?], []
/w?/ /w/, /u/, /?/, /u?/, //
/?/, //, //, //
o [w?], [], [] usually considered an allophone of /w/ following a nasal vowel
/j/ /i/, /i?/, //, /?/, /?/ i [j], [i?], []
/j?/ /j/, /i/, /i?/, //, /?/
/?/, //, //, //
e, i, ? [j?], [], [] usually considered an allophone of /j/ following a nasal vowel

Issues

Alternative pronunciations

context standard treatment example
in European Portuguese, /?j/ alternates with /ej/ each case is listed individually queijo -> /'k?j.?u/, /'kej.?u/
in most variations of Brazilian Portuguese, there are two ways to pronounce the prefix "des-" each case is listed individually desligar -> IPA(key): /dez.li.'?a(?)/, /dis.li'?a(?)/
unstressed /i/, /u/ sometimes become /j/, /w/ when followed by another vowel, especially in relaxed, less formal pronunciation each case is listed individually águia -> /'a.?i.?/, /'a.?j?/
in extra-careful Brazilian pronunciation, word-final vowel reduction is sometimes undone; usually /?/ becomes /a/, more rarely /u/ becomes /o/ and /i/ becomes /e/ not indicated casa -> /'ka.z?/, not /'ka.za/
/lj/, /nj/ become /?/, /?/ in careless pronunciation only indicated when it is relatively common família -> /fa.'mi.li.?/, /fa.'mi.lj?/, /fa.'mi./
mid-word /o/ and /e/ sometimes become /u/ and /i/ in Brazilian Portuguese, often due to vowel harmony each case is listed individually dormir -> /do?.'mi(?)/, /du?.'mi(?)/
for some Brazilian speakers, a vowel becomes slightly nasalised preceding a nasal consonant not indicated dono -> /'do.nu/, not /'dõ.nu/
semivowels between vowels are geminated not indicated caia -> /'kaj.?/, not /'kaj.j?/
/k/ and /?/ followed by /w/ may be pronounced as a rounded consonant not indicated quando -> /'kw.du/, not /'k.du/
/e/, /i/ is sometimes dropped from words with the sequence esc- not indicated escudo -> /i?.'ku.du/, not */'?ku.du/

Dropped and intrusive phonemes

context standard treatment example
in more careful Brazilian pronunciations, /n/ is added between a nasal vowel and a consonant during gerunds not indicated deixando -> /de(j)'du/, not /de(j)'ndu/
in less formal Brazilian pronunciations, /j/ is dropped from /ej/ before certain consonants parentheses manteiga -> /m.'te(j)./
in less formal Brazilian pronunciations, /d/ is sometimes replaced with /n/ at the end of gerunds not indicated andando -> /'ddu/, not /'dnu/
in less formal pronunciations, /j/ is dropped before /?/ and /?/ parentheses caixa -> /'ka(j)./
in European Portuguese, /j/ is added before /?/ and /?/ parentheses seja -> /'s?(j)./
in less formal Brazilian pronunciations, final /?/ is dropped from certain verb forms parentheses fazer -> /fa.'ze(?)/
in Brazilian Portuguese, /j/ is usually added before stressed, word-final /s/ that is not a desinence parentheses francês -> /f.'se(j)s/
in Brazilian Portuguese, /j?/ is added after /?/ sometimes not indicated entrar -> /?.'t?a(?)/, not /?j?.'t?a(?)/
in Brazilian Portuguese, /w?/ is added after /õ/ sometimes not indicated bomba -> /'bõ.b?/, not /'bõw?.b?/
in careless pronunciation, /j/ after a palatal is dropped not indicated régio -> /'.?i.u/, /'.?ju/
/w/ may or may not be maintained in the diphthong /ow/ parentheses sou -> /'so(w)/

Stress

  • Monosyllabic words should include a stress mark if they are stressed in sentences (si -> /'si/ but se -> /si/).
  • Secondary stress marks are optional, but recommended.

Sandhi

Sandhi should not be noted in pronunciations of individual words, as it is entirely predictable.

Notes

  • Due to the recentness of this page's creation, not every entry conforms to its guidelines. Users are encouraged to correct nonstandard IPA transcriptions, tag them with {{attention|pt|nonstandard pronunciation}}, or inform another user about them.
  • Some symbols are used in broad transcriptions even though they are usually considered allophones of another phoneme. The reasons for this are: they are traditionally used in broad transcriptions by other resources; preventing users from sounding foreign when not using that allophone sounds incorrect; in exceptional instances they are a distinct phoneme.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Appendix:Portuguese_pronunciation
 



 



 
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