Appendix:Norwegian Pronunciation
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Appendix:Norwegian Pronunciation

This is a guide to pronunciation of Norwegian. There is no centrally mandated pronunciation of Norwegian. In Wiktionary, the pronunciation given for Norwegian Bokmål generally reflects the pronunciation of Central Eastern Norway, in and around Oslo. The pronunciation given for Norwegian Nynorsk generally reflects the pronunciation in the parts of Norway where Nynorsk is mostly used. Other pronunciations may also be possible.

Consonants

Plosives

Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
p par, /p?:r/, "pair; couple"
b bok, /bu:k/, "book"
t tam, /tam:/, "tame"
? vært, /?æ?:/, "been"
d dam, /dam:/, "pond"
? burde, /'b/, "should; ought to"
k katt, /kat:/, "cat"
? god, /?u:/, "good"

/p, t, k/ are all aspirated and pronounced almost identical to the equivalent English sounds. /b, d, ?/ are distinctly voiced, moreso than the English equivalents of most dialects.

Fricatives

Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
f fot, /fu:t/, "foot"
? våt, /?o:t/, "wet"
s sol, /su:l/, "sun"
? torsdag, /to:?da?/, Thursday
? sju, /:/, "seven"
ç kjapp, /çap:/, "fast"
j jord, /ju:r/, "soil"
h han, /h?n:/, "he"

/r/

Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
r rød, /rø:/, "red"

The pronunciation of /r/ varies in the various dialects. In eastern dialects the pronunciation is more forward, [r] or [?] while the pronunciation in western dialects is further back, [?] [?].

In most dialects /s, t, d, n, l/ merge with /r/ into retroflex assimilations [?, ?, ?, ?, ?].

Laterals

Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
l "land", /l?n:/, "country"

Nasals

Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
m "mann", /m?n:/, "man"
n "nese", /'ne:s?/, "nose"
? "lang", /l:/, "long"

Vowels

Long vowels
Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
i:
y:
?:
e:
æ:
?:
ø:
u:
o:
Short vowels
Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
?
?
?
?
?
oe
?
?
?
Diphthongs
Phoneme Transcription, example and translation
æ?
æ?
oe?

Stress and tonemes

Most dialects of Norwegian separate between two distinct tonemes. The way they are realised differs considerably between different dialects. The table gives only a few examples.

Stress and tone
IPA Examples Examples of realisation
['] bønder
['bøn:?r]
['bøn:]
Tone 1 / acute accent:
  • low-rising tone in Oslo and Trondheim: ['bø?n:r]
  • falling-low tone in Bergen: ['bø?n:]
  • rising-falling tone in Stavanger: ['bø?n:]
  • simple primary stress in certain accents: ['bøn:?r][1]
[²] bønner
[²bøn:?r]
[²bøn:]
Tone 2 / grave accent:
  • falling-rising tone in Oslo and Trondheim: ['bø?n:r]
  • rising-falling tone in Bergen: ['bø?n:]
  • falling-falling tone in Stavanger: ['bø?n:]
  • simple primary stress in certain accents: ['bøn:?r][1]
  1. ? 1.01.1 A few dialects have a simple primary stress rather than a contrastive pitch accent. In those accents, bønder (meaning 'farmers') and bønner (meaning 'beans') are pronounced exactly the same.

  This article uses material from the Wikipedia page available here. It is released under the Creative Commons Attribution-Share-Alike License 3.0.

Appendix:Norwegian_pronunciation
 



 



 
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