Appendix:Niger-Congo Swadesh Lists
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Appendix:Niger-Congo Swadesh Lists

This is a Swadesh list of Niger-Congo languages, specifically Yoruba, Igbo, Mandinka, Wolof, Fula, Mom Jango and Vai, compared with that of English.

  • Yoruba (Southwestern Nigeria) — Benue-Congo branch
  • Igbo (Southeastern Nigeria) — Benue-Congo branch
  • Mandinka (Guinea, Gambia, Mali) — Mande branch
  • Wolof (Senegal) — Atlantic branch
  • Fula (Senegal, Mali, Mauritania, Gambia, Guinea-Bissau, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Burkina Faso, Benin, Niger, Nigeria, Cameroon, Chad, Sudan e.a.) — also called Fulah, Fulani; in Fula, Pular, Pulaar, Fulfulde; and in French, Peul, Peuhl, Peulh — Atlantic branch
  • Vai (Liberia, Sierra Leone) — Mande branch
No English Yoruba Igbo Mandinka Wolof Fula Jango Vai Lang8
1 I émi, mo m? m, n ma mi mi ?
2 you
(singular)
ìw?, ? (informal);
yín (formal)
g? ali, i nga a é í
3 he ó, òun a mu o (mo) o a
4 we àwa, a ányìnwà (incl.),
ányì-nílé (excl.),
nu en (incl.), min/men (excl.) an
5 you
(plural)
yin únù-nílé ngeen on un
6 they àw?n ñu ?e wèn anú
7 this eléyí, èyí ñing lii ?un di k? m
8 that èyí, èyítí, ohun tí woo lele, lale ?un da k?nú
9 here ibí, níhàyín jang fi ?oo níny?
10 there l?hun, nib? jee fa ton nú?
11 who tani, ?nití kan homo, hommbo (plural: hom?e) kòn j?
12 what kíni, kínlá, èwo lan ko?un, honn?un sìn m?e
13 where ibo, níbo, níbití ana, fan hoto, toye mínyá
14 when ìgbàtí kañ mannde, honnde, ndeye mínyá banda
15 how , báwo naka ñaadii naka honno, noye káma
16 not , déedéet du, bu, déedéet alaa na'a máã
17 all gbogbo, olúkúlùkú bee lëpp, yëpp fow, fop, fuu pèpè kín
18 many púp, p, pl?p buy, ?u?aal kúlu? ?a
19 some dí?, kan, àw?n kan ay yoga ?
20 few dí? tuuti see?a kp f?lá
21 other òmíràn, míràn beneen go'o mandé
22 one mení, kan otu kiling benna, benn go'o, gooto (human) oko l?nd
23 two méjì abua fula ñaar ?i?i, ?i?o (humans) f?lá
24 three m?ta at? saba ñetta, ñett tati, tato (humans) sakpá
25 four m?rin an? naani ñenent, ñeent nayi, nayo (humans) náãni
26 five màrún ise luulu juróom jowi, joyi; joyo, jowo (humans) sóólú
27 big nlá, tóbi, gbórin ukwu mag maw?o, maw- ?a
28 long jìnnà, gùn, p juutugol (=to be long/tall/big) t? ja?
29 wide gbòrò, jìnnà mbara njaju já kolo
30 thick níp?n gouma,tekki kptú
31 heavy wúwo ike teddugol (=to be heavy) fahanyá
32 small kéré, di? ntakiri ndaw famar le?
33 short kúrú gatt rai?ugol (=to be short),dammu?o kúndú
34 narrow tóró, híhá, kpachiri ?ii l? kpátiya
35 thin tínrín, tr (?) sew shau?o kpányá
36 woman obìnrin nwany? musoo jigéen debbo (plural: rew?e) musú
37 man
(adult male)
?kùnrin nwokè góor gorko (plural: wor?e) kpakoo
38 man
(human being)
ènìyàn ndì mmad? nit neo (plural: yim?e) m? knd
39 child
(a youth)
èwe, ?m?, ?m?dé xale ?io (plural: ?ie) ?lé?
40 wife ìyàwó, aya musoo jabar ?eyngu,kore musú
41 husband ?k? kee, kewo jëkkër moodi.gorko kaí
42 mother ìyá, abiyam? nne naa yaay, ndey neene.yaaye ?a
43 father bàbá nna baabaa baay baaba fa
44 animal ?ran rab kullun,mardi marle(plural) knd fe?
45 fish ?ja azu ñewo jën linngii (plural: lii) nyíny
46 bird ?iy?, ?y? abìy (?) nn?n?, okuko
(chicken)
kunoo picca, picc sondu ( plural: sholli) kondé
47 dog ajá nk?ta xaj rawaandu, bareeru,kutiru wulú
48 louse iná igwu duñoo, karankoo teen tenga (plural: ten?i) nyaá
49 snake ej agwo capatoo, saa jaan, saa mboddi kalá
50 worm ekòló, kòkòròìdinaràn idide kaliyaa saan ngilnga (plural: gil?i) tn?
51 tree igi osisi kapalipaloo,
yiroo
garab lekki k
52 forest igbó, ?gàn ohia ladde fílá
53 stick
(of wood)
kùm?, ?g? (?) sawru k
54 fruit éso, ?m? bie-lee k kp
55 seed irúgbìn, irúm? aawdi kp
56 leaf ewé ?erol, haako jam?á
57 root gbòngbò, ìpils ?a?ol súú
58 bark
(of tree)
èpo igi shee fóo
59 flower òdòdó piindi jam?á fu
60 grass koríko nax, ñax fu?o pii
61 rope okùn boggol julú
62 skin
(of a person)
ara der gurii,laral kpoló
63 meat
(as in flesh)
?ran jíj? suboo yaapa, yapp teewu,kusel suy
64 blood j? obara ?ii?am woí
65 bone egungun ?kp?kp? k'i'al kúú
66 fat
(noun)
?ellere bhuut
67 egg ?yin nen boofo,?occo?e kéí
68 horn ìwo luwal ?úú
69 tail ìrú wissho fny
70 feather
(rather not down)
ìy ?y? tiyo wiyengo,le?ol kundíi
71 hair irun abubara kawar cukulol (plural: sukuundu), gasa kundíi
72 head orí isi kungo boopa, bopp hoore ku?
73 ear etí nti tuloo noppa, nopp nowru (plural: noppi) tólo
74 eye ojú anya ñaa bet, bot, bët yitere (plural: gite) já kp
75 nose imú imi nungo baken, bakkan hinere, kinal sú?
76 mouth ?nu onu daa gemmiñ hunnduko
77 tooth
(rather not molar)
ehín eze ñingo boñ nyiire (plural: nyii?e) nyí?
78 tongue ahn ire nengo laameñ, lammiñ demngal n
79 fingernail èékánná ìka ?w (?) fe?e ngo ?óló loi k?nji
80 foot ?s ukwu singo koyngal, kosngal ke?
81 leg ?s singo tanka, tank kos ngal ke?
82 knee orúkún, ekún ikpere kumbalingo óom howru (plural: koppi),hos?u ndu kúm?éé
83 hand ?w? olu buloo loxo junngo (plural: juu?e) ?óló
84 wing ìy apá ngelaw biyeli, bippo?i kafa
85 belly inú, ikùn afo konoo biir reedu
86 guts ìfun cew?i (singular: sewngol),ketetti nuú
87 neck ?rùn, olu kango baat houdu.daande ká?
88 back hìn azu kooma ganaw ?aawo, caggal k t?
89 breast ?mú, ?yn ara sunjoo enndu (plural: en?i); kunndulal = nipple susu
90 heart ?kàn obi jusoo, kijoo ?ernde kpuu
91 liver d? imeji jusoo, buñoo ke nye falá
92 to drink mu ming naan yarugol mi
93 to eat j?, j?un domo lekka, lekk nyamugol l
94 to bite gé j?, bù j? maata, matt soppugol, nngattaka ki?
95 to suck mu ?mú, fi ?nu fà mu murugol saha
96 to spit tut kartugol t? ka
97 to vomit , p jade woccu tutugol f?n?
98 to blow
(as wind)
mí kíkanf (?) lu?ugol tuu
99 to breathe foofugol fiyá
100 to laugh r?rin jalugol j k?
101 to see , fojú rí, ríran je gis yi'ugol f
102 to hear gb?, t?tí sí anu dégg he?agol,nangol la?
103 to know
(a fact)
m xam anndugol s?
104 to think , ronú, wòye xalaat sikkugol,nyumol ku?nd? kíi ma
105 to smell
(sense odor)
gbórùn urgol kuny?
106 to fear , ìfòyà (?) sila hulugol mi?nyáã
107 to sleep sùn, simi nelaw ?aanagol ki k?
108 to live wà láyé wuurugol,jodugol to fiya ? l?
109 to die , ?aláìsí maayugol faha
110 to kill pa, gbmí warugol faha
111 to fight ìjà, jagun (?) ha?ugol tílí? k?
112 to hunt
(transitive)
d?, , d? róbba ngasha f? kpai
113 to hit gbá, , piyugol tuu
114 to cut , , , yún kuntu dog hirsugol tiy?
115 to split , pín, là ww shendugol t? ka
116 to stab
(or stick)
gún lb?,
fi ohun mímún gún (?)
tufgol ?ú fuwa
117 to scratch
(an itch)
h?, ya, yún,
ya ni nkan
nyanyugol w?ny?
118 to dig wal, wà níl, wáàdí gas ngirgol se?
119 to swim lúw, w feey mbuulol jí la
120 to fly , fò-l? peerol pii
121 to walk rìn, fi ?s rìn taamaa dem, dox, doxantu yahadol táháy
122 to come bia naa ñëw arugol,wargol na
123 to lie
(as on one's side)
dùbúlê, nà gbôôrô (?) tedda, taanu waalol sa
124 to sit jókó no odu toog jogol sii
125 to stand dúró, dìde, nàró guzoro taxaw darol s? té?
126 to turn
(change direction)
yípadà wa ailitol mu?
127 to fall
(as in drop)
?ubú, (?) janoigol,tettoygol la
128 to give fi fún, fi bùn, jìn jox gokkol k?
129 to hold
(in one's hand)
dìmú, gbámú jogol ?iya
130 to squeeze fún p, há láyè ? iugol ?oti
131 to rub gbo, pa, fi ra, fi pa moytugol ma má?
132 to wash w, f b kuu raxas yiggol ko
133 to wipe , nùkúrò fompa, fomp moytogol fiya
134 to pull po?ol saha
135 to push , tari tutaki j?nd?
136 to throw s?, , fi skò perugol fili
137 to tie , so, se kókó kaol kili
138 to sew rán-kós? (?) ñaw nyo'otol lom?o
139 to count , , ?írò lim limgol la?
140 to say , s? fo wax wi'igol f?
141 to sing k?rin woy gimgol l
142 to play ?iré fo pijol t?m k?
143 to float lefó, fó lójú omi mbeyol ?ofo?
144 to flow ?àn ilul jii
145 to freeze kpu áísi la
146 to swell ?uutol jiijíi
147 sun òrùn anwu naaj naange télee
148 moon o?ù, ò?ùpá onwa karoo weer lewru káwó
149 star ìràw kpakpandu loolo kodel tóóma
150 water omi mm?r? duuroo, jiyo ndox ndiyam
151 rain òjò ndiyam soná
152 river odò (mm?r?) oruru shaangol jí sálé
153 lake adágún gassol jí sálé (y pisoe)
154 sea
(as in ocean)
òkun omi-iy geej weendu k?í
155 salt iy nnu koo xorom lam?am kp?nd? l? k
156 stone òkúta okwuta beroo xeer hayre se?
157 sand yanrìn suuf njareendi k?ny
158 dust eruku sollare bhúndufú
159 earth
(as in soil)
il, erùp ala bankoo suuf lesdi, leydi luma
160 cloud gùd? (?) ade, ndula lúú
161 fog ìkùúkùù, kùrukùru shammam,shuddi lúú
162 sky run, ojú run igwe asamaan dule, dow ?ándaha
163 wind
(as in breeze)
aff, fúfú ikuku keni, henndu fiyá
164 snow ìrì dídìòjò dídì (?)
yìnyín ti ohun jáb lójú run (?)
kímá ?a mú? ?andaha l?
165 ice yìnyín, omi dídì oyi malemalleje áísi
166 smoke éfí shurka sisí
167 fire iná oku yiite
168 ash eérú sewo doondi bhuwá
169 to burn
(intransitive)
sún, jóná, mú gbóná wulol ?inda
170 road yoon ?atal kíla
171 mountain òkè gíga ugwu 'yolde k nyamá
172 red pn, pupa (?) uhie xonxa, xonq bo?eejum jahalé
173 green aláw ewé akw?kw? nri jambakere werta, weer hakohakoje jam?a kúwa
174 yellow pupa rúsúrúsú bí àw? ìyeyè (?) edo netemunkoy olol wãã
175 white funfun ocha weex danejum kpímá
176 black aláw dúdú, oji fing ñuul ?alejum fiimá
177 night òru abali suutoo guddi jemma lifí
178 day
(daytime)
?j, sán ehihe, ubochi lungo nyelauma télé l?
179 year ?dún afo at, atum hita nde sa?
180 warm
(as in weather)
gbóná di?, líl wr oku guldum t?mu
181 cold
(as in weather)
tutù oyi sedda, sedd jangol kímá
182 full kún hewal lá fálé
183 new titun, àk?tun ?h?r? bees kesum námá
184 old ìdarúgbó, ìdàgbà, gbó, ìhewú ochie magget nayewu k?
185 good rere, suwn, dára nma baax, neex boum ?
186 bad burú, burúkú, búburú njo wo?a jáwo
187 rotten
(as, a log)
dìbàj, nyoldum toilé
188 dirty léèrí, l?gbin, àìm, lbùn ?j tilim, salte tuhundi n?wã
189 straight tàrà, t?, láìw? forti tá?ndé
190 round òbìrìkìtì (?) lelal glíí
191 sharp
(as a knife)
mímú, yára se kan shattal lá sáha
192 dull
(as a knife)
kúnú, àìmú, lra, kújú, yòpe welay já púu
193 smooth tjú, tr?r?, br ?oti?i?um má? kp?elé
194 wet rin, tutu tooy shoftugol d?gb?lé
195 dry
(adjective)
gbígb?, gb?, gb?r?fu, láìlómi wow jo'oral kpaha
196 right
(correct)
tít, tó y?, dára esi okwu tooñaa footi ?na
197 near nítòsí, súnmra nso sinna jege ha'ade má?
198 far jìnà, jijina anya sori, sore ?adaki ka? kp
199 right
(side)
tún (aka) nri bulubaa ndeyjoor 'yamo fé? l ?olo ma
200 left
(side)
òsì (aka) ekpe maraa cammooñ nano maã ?ólo ma
201 at , níbí, ci, si i la
202 in nínú, ci biir nder l?
203 with
(accompanying)
plú, àti, ld, , fi, dání fee ak i f?
204 and àti, na andung ak, te ee amu
205 if , bí ó bá bu fekkee to a h?
206 because nítorí, nítorítí ndaxte gam ímáã
207 name orúk? too tur, tudd innde t?

Sources

External links

English Wikipedia has an article on:
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Diacritics:


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Appendix:Niger-Congo_Swadesh_lists
 



 



 
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